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Article
Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the saliva of patients having pulmonary tuberculosis

Author: Gassan Y. Hamed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 290-295
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of saliva as a sample for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis(T.B.) by looking for acid fast bacilli in a direct smear and comparing it with sputum and to determine whether the isolation of M. tuberculosis is from the lung or disseminated through blood. Material and Methods : The study sample consisted of 25 patients of both sexes. Age range was (17 - 65) years . Approximately 2 ml of unstimulated mixed saliva from each subject and parotid saliva were collected for direct smear for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Nelson acid fast stain. Five samples were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and storenbrink media .Results: About 60% of unstimulated mixed saliva revealed positive acid fast bacilli, while all samples of parotid saliva showed negative acid fast bacilli. The five samples of saliva which were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and stonebrink media showed positive culture. To our knowledge, we did not find any study performed on saliva as a sample for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis to compare our finding with these studies, so the comparison was made between the sensitivity of saliva and the sensitivity of sputum . In this study, the sensitivity of direct smear of saliva for A.F.B was equal to 60% of the sensitivity of sputum. The sensitivity of direct smear of sputum for A.F.B. ranged from (2280%). There were no clinical manifestations like gummas; granulomas; ulcer; alveolar abscess and osteitis. CONCLUSION: This clinical and laboratory study revealed that M Tuberculosis which was present in the mixed saliva resulted from contact of oral tissue with infected sputum; Mixed saliva was less efficient than sputum in diagnosis of T.B. disease . Saliva can be inoculated on different media and that newly diagnosed patients with T.B disease don't have any clinical manifestations in the oral cavity


Article
The Effect of Age on Clinical and Radiological Presentation in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Baghdad

Authors: Hashim M.Al-Kadhimi --- Haider Noori Dawood
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 125-129
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the most common type of human tuberculosis worldwide .The most common mode of transmission is by inhalation of droplet nuclei from expectorated respiratory secretions.Active infection is diagnosed by documenting the presence of M tuberculosis in respiratory secretions or other body fluids or tissues.Age is an important determinant of the risk for the disease .The risk may increase in the elderlyOBJECTIVE:To compare the effect of age between elderly and younger on clinical and radiological presentation in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Iraq.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A prospective study was done for 251 patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in outpatient's clinic in the Chest and Respiratory Disease Specialized Center in Baghdad.Collected from January to May 2009.The following parameters were assessed:Age, gender, symptoms, risk factors, radiological findings, and incidence of recurrent .The relation of these parameters between elderly and younger was evaluatedRESULTS:There were 174 young adult patients and 77 elderly patients .The elderly group age was between 60-80years ,and younger adult age was between 17-59 years. There was no significant difference in the symptoms between the two groups .Family history of pulmonary tuberculosis (p=0.009) was more common in young adult, while DM (p=0.001) was more common in elderly .Comparison of radiological findings in young adults vs. elderly patients shown a typical findings (p=0.036) which is more in elderly .There was no significant difference in the incidence of recurrence between the two groups.CONCLUSION:There was no significant difference in the symptoms between elderly and younger age groups .Family history of PTB was more common in young adults, while DM was more common in elderly.A typical radiological findings were more in elderly.There was no significant difference in the incidence of recurrence between the two groups

Keywords

tuberculosis --- age --- radiology


Article
Role of Surgery and Laparoscopy in Management of Abdominal Tuberculosis

Authors: Bashar A. Abdul Hassan --- Anees K.Nile --- Enas Adnan Abdulrasul Al-Kazaaly --- Ahmed H. Ismael
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 261-268
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT :BACKGROUD:Tuberculosis (TB) considered as the most communicable disease world wid. Among extra pulmonary TB the prevalence of abdominal TB shows rising tendency. Abdominal TB is defined as an infection of one or more common of two or more of the following sites; peritoneum, mesentery, gastrointestinal tract and or solid organs. Reported incidence of abdominal TB varies from country to country. The most common clinical features are abdominal pain, fever and weight loss.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the role of surgery in the management of abdominal TB especially with the advent of minimal access surgery (laparoscopy) in the diagnosis of this disease.PATIENT AND METHODS:Prospective study was conducted in Al-Kadhymia Teaching Hospital over three years (2007-2010), fifty six patients with abdominal TB were included, the patients were managed by full surgical and or medical teams, results was analyzed by appropriate statistical measures.RESULTS:Most patients were in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th decades of life. Female to male ratio was 1.5:1. Most of the patients (82%) considered to have primary abdominal TB. Diagnostic laparoscopy was done for 21 patients and proved TB in 19 patients. Explorative laparotomy was done in 19 patients, the commonest operative finding was ascites and peritoneal tubercles.CONCLUSION:Abdominal TB should be considered in all patients who presented with unexplained abdominal symptoms and signs. Laparoscopy is an effective modality for diagnosis of abdominal TB.


Article
Tuberculosis pneumonia, a typical presentation of pulmonary TB.
ذات الرئة الدرنية وطريقة لا نمطية لإظهار إصابة بالتدرن الرئوي

Author: Ghaed'a J. Al-Ghizawi غيداء جاسم الغزاوي
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 36-42
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was carried out to see the pattern of pneumonic disease in Basrah general hospital in the two groups of patients, inpatients out patients and to see the extent of tuberculosis presented as pneumonia, not as atypical case of clinical and X-ray findings in the apices of lungs.This is prospective study for patients with typical history, signs investigation chest x-ray of pneumonia, lobar and bronchopneumonia from the period of (April 2006) to (October 2008) were included in this study, they are attending the out patient department or are admitted in the wards of the Basrah general hospital. From a total of 374 cases of pneumonia, 26 cases of TB pneumonia diagnosed. There findings did not suggest TBto start. There age range from one to 72 years, the most common age group affected was 20-40 year for both sexes, while at age group 50-70 males affected more, bronchopneumonia was comment type of pneumonia in this group recorded in 13 patients, or bronchitis in 6 patients. ESR was less than 50 mm/hr in 12 patients so it is unreliable in 50% of cases.This study show that pulmonary TB is increasing (5.36%), and it could present in pneumonia like picture not involving the typical sites (apices) even in those who are not diabetic or immune compromised.

أجريت هذه الدراسة لتقصي أسباب ذات الرئة في مستشفى البصرة العام للفئتين الراقدين في المستشفى ومرضى العيادة الخارجية. وبصورة غير مباشرة لاكتشاف مدى حدوث التدرن الرئوي كذات الرئة وليس كالمتعارف عليه من الإصابة النمطية من خلال إصابة قمة الرئة مع الأعراض السريرية والعلامات التشخيصية المتعارف عليها للتدرن.هذه دراسة مستقبلية شملت جميع المرضى الذي تنطبق عليهم أعراض ذات الرئة وعلاماتها مع التأكد من الإصابة إشعاعيا بنوعيها الفصية والقصبية من الفترة (نيسان 2006) إلى (تشرين الاول 2008) والذين يراجعون العيادة الخارجية أو الداخلين إلى ردهات مستشفى البصرة العام.من مجموع (374) حالة ذات رئة وجدت 26 حالة ذات الرئة الدرنية والذين لم تكن علامات المرض الأولية تشير إلى التدرن تراوحت أعمارهم ما بين 1-72 سنة. أكثر الفئات إصابة من 20-40 سنة لكلا الجنسين، بينما أصيبت الفئات العمرية 60-70 سنة للرجال أكثر من النساء.كانت ذات الرئة القصبية الأكثر شيوعاً حيث سجلت لدى 13 حالة ثم حالات التهاب القصبات حيث سجلت لدى 6 حالات كتشخيص أولي وشعاعي. كان مستوى ترسب كريات الدم الحمر أقل من 50 ملم/ساعة لدى 12 مريض لذلك كان غير معولاً عليه لدى 50% من المرضى.يستخلص من هذه الدراسة إن التدرن الرئوي في ازدياد (5.36%) من هذه الدراسة، وإنها قد تكون مشابهة لاصابات ذات الرئة الأخرى ولا تصيب قمة الرئة حتى لدى المرضى غير المصابين بداء السكري وهبوط المناعة.


Article
ENDOBRONCHIAL TUBERCULOSIS MIMING TUMOR - CASE SERIES
التدرن داخل القصبات المشابه للورم - سلسة حالات

Author: ASHUR Y. IZAC اشور اسحاق
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2011 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 97-102
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Endobronchial tuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection of the bronchial tree, a rare form of pulmonary tuberculosis. The bronchoscopic appearances of Endobronchial tuberculosis maymimic tumor lesions. Literature review revealed few case reports and short case series from various parts of the world. This is a report of Endobronchial tuberculosis from Duhok/Iraqi Kurdistan diagnosed by bronchoscope and managed successfully with anti-tuberculous chemotherapy.

التدرن داخل القصبات المشابه للورم هو عدوى جرثومية تصيب القصبات الهوائية وهو شكل نادر من التدرن الرئوي.ظهور هذا الشكل من التدرن الرئوي عن طريق الناظور يمكن ان يشابه الاورام السرطانية. المقالات المنشورة اظهرت وجود عدد قليل من الحالات في انحاء العالم . هذا المقال عن التدرن داخل القصبات في محافظة دهوك في اقليم كوردستان العراق عن الحالات المشخصة عن طريق الناظور والتي عولجت بنجاح بواسطة الادوية المضادة للتدرن.


Article
Association between life-style factors and pulmonary tuberculosis in Erbil
العلاقة بين عوامل نمط الحياة والسل الرئوي في أربيل

Authors: Namir G. Al. Tawil --- Badia M. Najib --- Ibrahim H. Mustafa
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 6-11
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: The majority of individuals in a population do not develop tuberculosis, due either to lack of exposure or due to individual characteristics that limit development of the disease after exposure. Evidences suggested that there is an association between lifestyle variables and tuberculosis. The main objective of this study was to study the association between lifestyle characteristics and pulmonary tuberculosis.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Erbil city during the period May 10, to December 28, 2009. A convenient sample of 150 cases of TB attending the Consultation Clinic for Chest and Respiratory Diseases was included in the study. A sex and age matched, 150 patients were included in the study as a control group. The control group was taken from patient of the Medical Wards of both Rizgary and Hawler Teaching Hospitals who were free from chest infections and lung cancer. Cases and controls were interviewed using a questionnaire designed by the researchers.Results: Around one quarter (24%) of the cases were smokers compared with 14.7 % among the controls. Significant difference of nutritional status between both groups was detected. Controls eat more food and of better quality than cases. No significant association between alcohol drinking, practicing of sports/ exercise and TB was detected.Conclusion: TB was found to be associated with low nutritional status and smoking.


Article
Does Normal Chest X ray in Patients with Chronic Cough Exclude Pulmonary tuberculosis?

Authors: Mohammad Yahya Abdulrazaq --- Abdulla Janger Minshed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 130-133
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis is the second infection in causing deaths from infectious agent in the world, currently in Iraq approximately 67% of new cases of Tuberculosis involve the lung only ,cough is the most common symptom of pulmonary Tuberculosis , pulmonary Tuberculosis nearly always causes detectable abnormalities on chest film, but still atypical or absent radiologic findings can occur.OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to determine whether in patients with chronic cough normal chest X ray exclude pulmonary tuberculosis.PATIENTS AND METHODS:One hundred seventy two patients attending the respiratory clinic, complaining from chronic cough and they are suspected cases of tuberculosis, were enrolled in this study. A full medical history and physical examination was done then a chest X ray was ordered, for those with normal chest X ray finding (seventy seven patients), sputum smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB) ordered .RESULTS:47 females (61%), 30 males (39%) with chronic cough with females to male ratio = 1.56/1.The age ranged between 17-67, with mean age of 37.16 years. The age of males ranged between 18-67 and the mean was 39.32 years, the age of females ranged between 17-66 and the mean was 34.93 years. X ray finding were negative in all the patients. Positive AFB in sputum smear examination by microscopy was found in only one patient but with ENT examination it was proved to be a case of laryngeal tuberculosis not pulmonary tuberculosis.CONCLUSION:Normal chest x ray in patients with chronic cough excludes pulmonary tuberculosis


Article
Epidemiological characters of Tuberculosis in Salahaldeen Governorate during 2008.
الوبائية حرفا من السل في محافظة Salahaldeen خلال عام 2008.

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Abstract

Study the some epidemiological characters of tuberculosis in Salahaldeen Governorate during 2008. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 238 suspected referral cases of tuberculosis who attended the consultant clinic of respiratory diseases of Salaldeen Governorate from 1st January to 31st December 2008. After full history taking and thorough physical examination a CXR was done for each patient and sample of sputum was taken for zeihl nelson staining. The males were 51.5% while the females were 48.5%, the diagram of the registered cases of tuberculosis from 2000 to 2008 showed that the highest detection cases was in 2000, where 891 cases registered at that year, while the lowest registered cases was in 2006, where only 191 cases registered. Extra pulmonary cases constituted about 36.70% of the cases , active pulmonary tuberculosis cases constituted about 17 %, the negative smear cases were 43 % and the extrapulmonary cases constituted 3.30 %. The highest registered cases was in Tikrit District 83 cases while in Dour District was only 7 registered cases. The highest cases of pulmonary tuberculosis also registered in Tikrit District 53 cases while in Dour was only two cases. Pleural effusion was the most frequent type of extra pulmonary tuberculosis where 41 cases registered from the whole cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Regarding the frequency of new smear positive cases to the summation of positive and negative smear results was 50% in Dour district and only 21 % in Tikrit District. Tuberculosis is still the most serious health problem in Salahaldeen Governorate .

عض الدراسات الوبائية الأحرف من مرض السل في محافظة Salahaldeen خلال عام 2008. وقد أجريت دراسة وصفية المقطعية على 238 حالة مشتبه فيها من إحالة السل حضر عيادة مستشار منظمة الصحة العالمية لأمراض الجهاز التنفسي في محافظة Salaldeen من 01-31 يناير كانون الأول 2008. بعد أخذ التاريخ الكامل والفحص البدني شامل تم إجراء CXR لكل مريض وأخذ عينة من البلغم لتلطيخ نيلسون zeihl. وأظهر الرسم البياني من الحالات المسجلة لمرض السل 2000-2008 وكسول وكانت 51.5٪ في حين أن الإناث 48.5٪، وأعلى حالات الكشف وكان ذلك في عام 2000، حيث سجلت 891 حالة في ذلك العام، بينما تم تسجيل أقل الحالات في عام 2006 ، حيث لا يوجد سوى 191 حالة مسجلة. وكانت الحالات اللطاخة سلبية الحالات الرئوية اضافية تشكل نحو 36.70٪ من الحالات، نشط حالات السل الرئوي وتشكل حوالي 17٪، 43٪، وحالات خارج الرئة تشكل٪ 03:30. وكان أعلى الحالات المسجلة في حالات تكريت 83 منطقة في حين في منطقة عنيد لم يكن سوى 7 حالات مسجلة. أعلى حالات السل الرئوي في منطقة تكريت أيضا تسجيل 53 حالة في حين كان عنيد في حالتين فقط. وكان الانصباب الجنبي النوع الاكثر شيوعا من السل الرئوي اضافية حيث سجلت 41 حالة من هذه الحالات كلها من مرض السل خارج الرئة. فيما يتعلق بتواتر حالات تشويه ايجابية جديدة لجمع النتائج تشويه الإيجابية والسلبية وكان 50٪ في منطقة عنيد و 21٪ فقط في منطقة تكريت. مرض السل ما زال أخطر مشكلة صحية في محافظة Salahaldeen.


Article
Extra pulmonary tuberculosis among patients attended the consultation clinic of respiratory diseases in Salahiddin governorate; an epidemiological study
حضر السل الرئوي بين المرضى الذين يعانون من خارج العيادة تشاور من أمراض الجهاز التنفسي في محافظة صلاح الدين، دراسة وبائية

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Abstract

The study was carried out to identify the impact and pattern of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Salahiddin governorate during 2009. Four hundred and forty one tuberculosis patients (sputum positive, sputum negative and extrapulmonary) who were diagnosed and treated in between January 2009 and December 2009 in the Consultant Clinic of Pulmonary Diseases in Salahiddin governorate were included in this study.Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounted for about 25.7% of total tuberculosis cases. Tuberculous Pleural effusion was found to be the commonest form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, comprising about 39% of the extrapulmonary cases. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was noted in about 30% of cases, bone and joint tuberculosis in 4% and other forms in 27% of cases. Eighty four percent of Extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases were under the treatment, 14% cured after completing the treatment and 2% of cases died.

وقد أجريت هذه الدراسة إلى التعرف على أثر ونمط من السل خارج الرئة في محافظة صلاح الدين خلال عام 2009. شملت مرضى السل وأربعمائة و41 (البلغم الإيجابية، البلغم السلبية وخارج الرئة) الذي تم تشخيصه وعلاجه في الفترة ما بين يناير 2009 وديسمبر 2009 في عيادة استشاري الأمراض الرئوية في محافظة صلاح الدين في هذه الدراسة. وشكلت حالات الدرن غير الرئوي لحوالي 25.7٪ من مجموع حالات السل. تم العثور على الانصباب الجنبي سلي أن يكون الشكل الاكثر شيوعا من مرض السل خارج الرئة، أي ما يوازي 39٪ من الحالات خارج الرئة. ولوحظ العقد اللمفية السلي في حوالي 30٪ من العظام، والحالات والسل مشترك في 4٪، والأشكال الأخرى في 27٪ من الحالات. أربع وثمانون في المئة من حالات السل الرئوي كانت تحت العلاج والشفاء بنسبة 14٪ بعد الانتهاء من العلاج، وتوفي 2٪ من الحالات

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