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Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Calcium levels Evaluation as a Biomarker in Stress Patients Undergoing Surgical Wisdom Tooth Extraction
قياس إنزيم الالفا- اميليز وايون الكالسيوم في اللعاب كدالة حيوية عند الشد العصبي للمرضى الخاضعين لقلع ضرس العقل جراحيا

Author: Ali Jabbar Hussain Al_Sheakh علي جبار حسين الشيخ
Journal: Al-Rafidain University College For Sciences مجلة كلية الرافدين الجامعة للعلوم ISSN: 16816870 Year: 2013 Issue: 31 Pages: 137-151
Publisher: Rafidain University College كلية الرافدين الجامعة

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Abstract

The salivary enzyme alpha-amylase has been proposed as a biomarker for stress-induced activity of the sympathetic nervous system. In the growing field of amylase research, recent studies have underscored the usefulness of salivary alpha-amylase in this regard. Calcium is the major component of bones and teeth, and it is not surprising that disturbances in calcium metabolism have been implicated in most of the major chronic diseases, including renal disease, osteoporosis; and periodontal tissues.Twenty healthy Iraqi male undergo wisdom tooth extraction from undergraduates dental students were considered in this study with age mean of 22 years old, 2 ml samples of stimulated saliva were collected prior ten mints of surgical wisdom tooth removal, and recollected after one week fromsurgery from these students, the samples were analyzed to assess changes in ∝-amylase and calcium ion concentration under controlled conditions. The collected data predicted elevation of amylase level from ((7652.965 ±34.0410) to (7674.710 ± 68.8958) IU/L) with a significant change. And also increase in the calcium ion concentration level from (0.1465 ± 0.048) to reach level (0.1975± 0.100) mmol/L. Positive correlation were recorded between alpha amylase and calcium concentration when plotted the correlations values of stress and no stress individual's. In a conclusion. Acute stresscaused by wisdom tooth removal will elevate level of amylase in saliva significantly, howeverSignificant increasing in calcium concentration was observed in the stimulated saliva in comparison with the non-stimulated saliva with significant mean changes. However, our result predicted elevated levels of calcium concentration of the stimulated saliva than the non-stimulated (after extraction).

استخدم إنزيما الامليز اللعابي كمؤشر بيولوجي لفعالية الجهاز العصبي التلقائي ومحفز للشد العصبي. ويتطلب الوصول للفعالية القصوى للإنزيم وجود ايون الكالسيوم. يعد الكالسيوم من العناصر المتوفرة في العظام والأسنان وهو في حركة متواصلة بين النسيج وسوائل الجسم المختلفة. يتأثر تركيز الكالسيوم بالعديد من الإمراض مثل ترقق العظام, الكلية وأمراض اللثة وغيرها. تم شمول عشرون طالب من الذكور بمعدل عمر يبلغ اثنان وعشرون سنة. تم جمع 2 مل من اللعاب قبل عشرة دقائق من قلع سن العقل جراحيا ومرة أخرى بعد اسبوع من إجراء عملية إزالة سن العقل. وتم إجراء حساب مستوى الامليز الكالسيوم لبيان تأثير الشد العصبي .النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها تبين ارتفاع مستوى الامليز اللعابي من (7652. 965 ±34.0410) إلى(7674.710 ± 68.8958) IU/L . كذلك تبين ارتفاع مستوى الكالسيوم من (0.1465 ± 0.048) إلى (0.1975± 0.100) ملي مول / لتر وبترابط إحصائي موجب. من خلال النتائج تبين تأثير الشد العصب على رفع مستوى إنزيم الامليز مقرون بارتفاع ايون الكالسيوم مقارنة بنفس الأشخاص ولكن في غياب تأثير الشد النفسي.


Article
Anti–Nociceptive Efficacy of Tramadol Following Surgical Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar

Author: Tahani A Al-Sandook
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 88-94
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims of the Study: To evaluate the efficacy of analgesia mediated by preoperative 100 mg IM Tra-madol to the post operative Tramadol and placebo after the surgical removal of mandibular wisdom tooth. Materials and Methods: Surgical removal of mandibular third molar was performed in three groups of individuals, total of thirty patients were anticipated in this study. All medically fit, average of age 24 + 2.2; each group consisted of ten patients. Group 1: Preoperative 100 mg Tramadol IM injec-tion 30 minutes prior surgical operation; Group 2: Post operative 100 mg Tramadol IM injection; Group 3: Placebo or control group where distilled water IM injection was applied. All patients received post operatively Augmentin capsules 675 mg tid, and supplementary Paracetamol 500 mg tablet as required. Analgesia was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Verbal Pain Scale (VPS), patient satisfaction (PS), duration of post operative analgesia and total number of analgesic tablet were record-ed between groups. Results: Analgesia mediated by Tramadol was superior in its efficacy compared to control group in both pre and post operative Tramadol groups, according to VAS and VPS assessment (p= 0.001). There was no significant difference between the preoperative and post operative analgesia according to VAS and VPS; whereas there was a significant difference in PS, and duration of analgesia mediated by the preoperative injection in comparison to the post operative and control groups. Conclu-sion: Preoperative Tramadol analgesia was superior to post operative analgesia in PS and prolonged duration of analgesia that explain its anti–nociceptive effect in controlling post surgical pain.

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