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Article
Socioeconomic status in relation to dental caries in Dewanyiah governorate among 12 years old school students

Authors: Amjed K. Al-Hassnawi امجد الحسناوي --- Athraa M. Al-Waheb عذراء الوهب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 131-134
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: The socioeconomic is important factor that effect in the severity and prevalence of most predominantand wide spread oral disease named dental caries, since this oral disease effects children, adolescents, adults andelderly peoples especially in developing countries as in Iraq.This survey was aimed to investigate the prevalence andseverity of dental caries in relation to socioeconomic status.Materials and Methods: This oral health survey was conducted among primary and secondary school students aged12 years old in Dewanyiah governorate in Iraq. The total sample composed of 804 (401 boys and 403 girls) selectedrandomly from different schools in Dewanyiah governorate. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries was assessedaccording to the criteria described by WHO (1997).The modification of Kuppuswamy's index (1976) was applied formeasurement of socioeconomic status.Results: The most of low socioeconomic category was occupied by rural students. The prevalence of dental carieswas 70.65 % for the total sample. The mean DMFT was equal to (1.83 ± 0.068) and DMFS (2.89 ± 0.126). No significantdifference was seen between socioeconomic status and DMFS.Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries was recorded. Socioeconomic status may affect dental cariesindicating the need for public and health preventive programs among school students

المقدمة:الحالة الاجتماعیة الاقتصادیة من العوامل المھمة التي تؤثر على شدة وانتشار ابرز الامراضالفمویة واوسعھا انتشارا المسماة بتسوس الاسنان طالما ھذاالمرض الفموي یصیب الاطفال ,المراھقین , البالغین و المسنین خصوصا في البلدان النامیة كالعراق.البحث المیداني ھدف الى تشخیص نسبة وانتشار تسوسالاسنان وعلاقتھ بالوضع الاجتماعي الاقتصادي.المواد والطرق : البحث المیداني تم ما بین طلاب المدارس الابتدائیة والمتوسطة بعمر 12 سنة في محافظة الدیوانیة. العینة الكلیة تكونت من 804 طالب403 بنات و 401 بنین) تم اختیارھم عشوائیا من مختلف مدارس محافظة الدیوانیة.تشخیص تسوس الاسنان تم وفق مقاییس منظمة الصحة العالمیة ).(Kuppuswamy's, تشخیصالوضع الاجتماعي الاقتصادي تم باستخدام تعدیل لمقیاس ( 1976 .(WHO,1997)النتائج : اظھرت الدراسة ان نسبة الطلاب الذین ینتمون للفئة الاجتماعیة المتدنیة كانت ضمن فئة المناطق الریفیة .كما اظھرت الدراسة ان نسبة تسوس الاسنان± مساوي الى ( 2.89 DMFS 0.068 ) بینما ± مساوي الى ( 1.83 DMFT للعینة كلھا كانت ( 70.65 %). كانت قیمة المتوسط الحسابي لتسوس الاسنان الدائمة. DMFS 0.126 ).لم توجد فروقات معنویة بین الوضع الاجتماعي الاقتصادي معالاستنتاجات: لقد وجدت الدراسة ان نسبة تسوس الاسنان كانت عالیة . الوضع الاجتماعي الاقتصادي قد یؤثر على صحة الفم مما یشیر الى حاجة طلاب المدارسلبرامج وقائیة عامة لتعزیز صحة الفم.


Article
Selected salivary constituents, physical properties and nutritional status in relation to dental caries among 4-5 year’s old children (Comparative study)

Authors: Noor A. Kadoum --- Ban A. Salih بان علي صالح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 150-156
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Tooth decay is still one of most common diseases of childhood, child’s primary teeth are importanteven though they aretemporary. This study was conducted to assess the physiochemical characteristic of salivaamong caries experience preschool children and compared them with caries free matching in age and gender.Then an evaluation was done about these salivary characteristics to dental caries and evaluated the relation ofbody mass index to dental caries and to salivary variables.Materials and method: After examination 360 children aged 4-5 years of both gender. Caries-experiences wasrecorded according to dmfs index by (World Health Organization criteria 1987) during pilot study children with cariesexperience was divided in to three groups according to decay fraction of decay missing filled surfaces index .Mildwith decay surfaces<6, moderate with 6≤decay surfaces≤13 and severe with decay surfaces>13 and select thirtychildren with moderate caries experience and compared with thirty caries free children decay missing filledsurfaces=0 match in age and gender. Nutritional status of each child was assessed by measuring weight and heightto calculate body mass index. Unstimulated saliva collected from sixty child under standardized condition andpotential hydrogen and flow rate were measured. Total antioxidant concentration, total protein, calcium, inorganicphosphorus, zinc and copper were measured.Results: Statistically highly significant differences were found in concentration of salivary calcium and inorganicphosphorus between caries-experience and caries free children with higher mean value among caries free group.Statistically significant differences were found in concentration of salivary zinc between groups. Statistically nonsignificantdifferences were found in concentration of salivary total antioxidant, total protein, copper and body massindex between caries experience and caries free groups.Salivary flow rate and PH showed statistical non-significantdifferences between groups. Positive non-significant correlation was found between dmfs index, (ds) fraction of dmfsindex and salivary flow rate, total antioxidant and negative correlation with salivary PH, total protein, calcium,phosphorus, zinc and copper. Positive a non-significant correlation was found between BMI, salivary flow rate, PH,total antioxidant, zinc and copper while a negative weak correlation found with dmfs, ds fraction of index andsalivary total protein, calcium and inorganic phosphorus in caries experience group. Furthermore a non-significantpositive correlation was found between BMI, salivary flow rate, PH, total antioxidant inaddition to that negativeweak correlation was found with salivary total protein, calcium inorganic phosphorus, zinc and copper among cariesfree group.Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that inorganic components of saliva play an important role inreminerlization of incipient caries and there is an inverse association between body mass index and dental caries


Article
Dental caries and treatment needs among 12 year-old school children in Heet city/Al-Anbar governorate/Iraq

Authors: Neamat M. Al-Ani --- Sulafa K. El-Samarrai سلافة خالد السامرائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 160-163
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

and disability across all age groups and still consider as a major cause of tooth loss. The aim of this study was toassess the prevalence and severity of dental caries and treatment needs among school children in Heet city.Materiales and methods: The sample included all school children at age of (12 years old) males and females fromurban areas in Heet city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and treatment needs were done according to thecriteria of WHO.Results: The prevalence of dental caries was (90.2%). The DMFS/dmfs values were (5.85±0.168, 1.57±0.146)respectively for the total sample. Females were found to have higher value as compared to males with statisticallyhighly significant difference (P< 0.01) for DMFS, while the opposite picture was found for dmfs. The higher percentageof examined children were in need of preventive or fissure sealant (91.6%), followed by those in need of one surfacefilling (80.4%).Conclusions: School children were found to have a high prevalence of dental caries, thus there is a need forpreventive programs among those children


Article
Evaluation of the Sequelae of Untreated Dental Caries Using PUFA Index

Author: Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 101-110
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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To evaluate (PUFA/pufa) index in assessing the prevalence and severity of oral conditions relat-ed to untreated caries in a group of primary school pupils in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: Dental examination was conducted on 756 school pupils aged 7–12 years old, divided into 3 groups according to age; 7–8, 9–10, and 11–12 years old. Caries was recorded in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth for both primary teeth (dmft) and permanent teeth (DMFT). The PUFA/pufa index was also recorded for both dentitions regarding the presence of severely decayed teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f) and abscess (A/a). Results: Caries experience in the primary dentition was found to be 6.33, 4.75, 1.00, and 4.43 for the three age groups as well as the total sample, respectively. While for the permanent dentition, it was 0.59, 1.18, 3.67, and 1.58, respectively. The PUFA/pufa index recorded the following values for each age group as well as the total sample for permanent and primary teeth respectively; 0.03/2.35, 0/1.66, 0.42/0.58, and 0.12/1.66. The main component in this index for all age groups, and both denti-tions was found to be pulpal involvement. Conclusion: The PUFA index should be seen as a comple-mentary to the current caries assessment index (DMF), with relevant information for epidemiologists and health care planners.


Article
Dental caries and salivary physiochemical characteristics among osteoporotic old adult women

Authors: Hiba F. Al-Sekab --- Ban S. Diab بان صالح ذياب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 122-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder affects general health in addition to effect on salivaryphysical and chemical composition which lead to an adverse effect on oral health status. This study was conductedto evaluate the concentration of glycoprotein (osteonectin) in saliva and its effect on dental caries in relation tosalivary flow rate and viscosity among osteoporotic women and compared to control group.Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of 60 females aged 60-65 years attending Al-Yarmook TeachingHospital, 30 females diagnosed with osteoporosis by measuring bone density at the spine and femur with a dualenergyX-ray absorptiometry at T-score of >2.5, and 30 women without osteoporosis with T-score of -1 (controlgroup).The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was through the application of D1-4MFS index according tocriteria of Mühlemman (1976). Stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition, accordingto Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, (1994). The flow rate and viscosity were estimated and then the saliva was analyzed forestimation of glycoprotein (osteonectin) by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: The percentage of dental caries occurrence was 100% among osteoporotic group and control group.Results revealed that DMFS value was higher but statistically not significant among osteoporotic women, ConcerningDMFS components, the data of the present study showed that the DS was lower but statistically not significantamong osteoporotic women, while MS value was significantly higher among them (t=2.044, P<0.05, df =58), on theother hand the opposite figure was found concerning filling component FS however the difference was notsignificant.Correlation coefficients of caries experience with salivary flow rate revealed a weak negative not significantcorrelation with D1-4MFS and its component.On the other hand, the data of the present study showed that salivaryviscosity correlate weakly not significant in negative direction with DS and its severity and in positive direction withMS, FS, DMFS.. The correlation coefficient between salivary osteonectin and dental caries were weak significant inpositive directions concerning Ds and its severity except D3 and FS component as the relation were in negativedirection, the positive not significant relation were also found between salivary osteonectin and MS,DMFS.Concerning the relation between salivary osteonectin and physical properties of saliva, the data of the present studyrevealed a non-significant relation in negative direction with salivary flow rate and in positive direction for salivaryviscosity.Conclusions: Dental caries revealed lower percentage of occurrence among osteoporotic group


Article
Oral health status among fifteen years-old students in Maysan governorateIraq

Authors: Ahmed M. Mughamis --- Ahlam T. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 147-151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common and widely spread diseases affectinghumans at different ages. Aim of this study is the assessment of prevalence and severity of dental caries, gingivitis,oral hygiene and enamel anomalies in relation to gender and residency among 15 years old students in Maysangovernorate –Iraq.Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 750 students (400 males and 350 females, 450 urban and 300rural) selected randomly from different high schools in the Governorate. Diagnoses and recording dental caries wasaccording to the criteria of WHO (1987), Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment,Ramfjord index (1959) was applied for the assessment of calculus, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) wasfollowed for recording gingival health condition and criteria of WHO (1997) to assess enamel anomalies.Results: Caries prevalence was found to be (92.53%) of the total sample. The DMFS value was higher among femalescompared to males with statistically high significant difference (P<0.01) also the value was higher among ruralcompared to urban with statistically high significant difference (P<0.01). Plaque, gingival and calculus indices werehigher among rural than urban and higher among males than females, statistically, there were high significantdifferences regarding plaque and gingival indices (P<0.01) while non-significant difference regarding calculus index(P>0.05), for both genders and residencies.Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis were recorded indicating the need of a public healthprograms in this governorate

الخلفیة: تسوس الاسنان ومرض ما حول السن الاكثر شیوعا والاوسع انتشارا التي تؤثر على الانسان في مختلف الاعمار. ھدف ھذه الدراسة لتقییم انتشار وشدة تسوسالاسنان,التھاب اللثھ, نظافة الفم وعیوب المینا بالنسبة الى الجنس والاقامة بین الطلاب بعمر 15 سنة في محافظة میسان-العراق.المواد والطرق: تتكون العینة الكلیة من 750 طالب ( 400 ذكور و 350 اناث, 450 حضر و 300 ریف) اختیرت عشوائیا من مدارس ثانویة مختلفة في المحافظة. تشخیصوتسجیل تسوس الاسنان كان حسب معاییرمنظمة الصحة العالمیة ( 1987 ), دلیل الصفیحة الجرثومیة لسلنس ولو ( 1964 ) استخدم لقیاس الصفیحة الجرثومیة, دلیل رامفورد1959 ) طبق لتقییم القلح, دلیل اللثة للو و سلنس ( 1963 ) اتبع لتسجیل حالة اللثة الصحیة و معاییر منظمة الصحة العالمیة ( 1997 ) لتقییم عیوب المینا. )كانت اعلى بین الاناث بالمقارنة بالذكور مع اختلاف معنوي كبیر احصائیا (DMFS) النتائج: وجد ان انتشار تسوس الاسنان ( 92.53 ) من العینة الكلیة. قیمة تسوس اسطح السنمقاییس الصفیحة الجرثومیة, اللثة و القلح كانت اعلى بین الذكور .(P< ایضا القیمة كانت اعلى بین الریف بالمقارنة مع الحضر مع اختلاف معنوي كبیر احصائیا ( 0.01 (P<0.01)بینما لا یوجد اختلاف معنوي بخصوص ( P< من الاناث واعلى بین الریف من الحضر, احصائیا, توجد اختلافات معنویة كبیرة بخصوص مقاییس الصفیحة الجرثومیة واللثة ( 0.01لكل من الجنس ومكان الاقامة. (P> مقیاس القلح ( 0.05الخاتمة: نسبة انتشار عالیة لتسوس الاسنان والتھاب اللثة التي سجلت تحدد الحاجة الى برامج صحة عامة في ھذه المحافظة.


Article
Comparison Between Traditional and PCR Analysis for Identification of Oral Streptococci with Dental Caries in Iraqi Diabetic Patients
مقارنة بين التحليل التقليدي وتقنية PCRلتشخيص بكتيريا المسبحيات الفموية في مرضى السكري العراقيين المصابين بتسوس الاسنان

Author: Halah Kamal AL-Qazzaz Norrya A. Ali Wia'am Al-Amili
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2-2 Pages: 224-236
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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The relationship between diabetic and non-diabetic patients were determined according to the dental caries occurrence and its causes by Streptococcus spp. (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis(which are isolated from oral cavity, In addition, this study was carried out to study the comparison between the traditional (bacterial culturing) and molecular diagnosis methods. The total number of the studied groups was 95 Iraqi patients ; 45 diabetic dental caries patients (DDCP) and 50 non-diabetic dental caries patients (NDCP) of both genders who their ages ranged from 18-65 years old. The patients, samples including saliva and buccal swabs that randomly collected from DDCP and NDCP who were reviewing Al-Alweyia Centers of Dental Caries and diabetic diseases in Al-Yarmook Hospital in Baghdad city. The results of culturing samples (saliva and buccal swabs) on mitissalivarius bacitracin agar media (MSBA) appeared that out of 95 bacterial cultures, 67 bacterial cultures were grown (32 bacterial cultures for diabetic dental caries patients and 35 bacterial cultures for non diabetic dental caries patients); S. mutans, S. salivarius, and S. oralis species were identified according to the results of microscopic examination, API 20-strep, hemolysis on blood agar, motility test and catalase test. The molecular study focused on the analysis of DNA which extracted directly from saliva, buccal swabs and from the bacterial culture cells of S. mutans, S. salivares and S. oralis from both diabetic dental caries patients and non diabetic dental caries patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results revealed the presence of the product with 433, 544, and 374 bp which were related to gtfD (S. mutans), gtfK (S. salivarius) and gtfR (S. oralis) respectively in all samples (saliva, buccal swabs and bacterial culture). According to the presence of these three genes, there were high significant differences at (p<0.01) between DDCP and NDCP, while there were no significant differences according to the percentage of presence of each gene between the three species of bacteria.

لقد تم تحديد العلاقة بين مرضى السكري و مرضى غير السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان اعتمادا على تسوس الاسنان بانواع Streptococcus ( Streptococcus mutansو Streptococcus salivarius وStreptococcus oralis ) المعزولة من تجويف الفم، بالإضافة إلى دراسة العلاقة بين الطرق التقليدية ( التنمية على الاوساط الزرعية) والطرق الجزيئية في تشخيص البكتريا. كان العدد الكلي للمجاميع المدروسة 95 مريض ( 45 مرضى السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان DDCP)) و 50 مرضى غير السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنانNDCP) )) لكلا الجنسين الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 18-65 سنة. جمعت العينات من اللعاب ومسحات بطانة الفم الداخلية عشوائيا من مرضى السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان وغيرالسكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان المراجعون لمركز آلعلوية التخصصي لطب الأسنان ومركز أمراض السكري في مستشفى اليرموك في مدينة بغداد.اظهرت نتائج عينات (اللعاب ومسحة بطانة الفم الداخلية) المزروعة على وسط المايتس ساليفارس بـ ari استراسين اكار ((MSBA ان من أصل 95 عينة مزروعة, نمت 67 بكتريا مزروعة ( 32 بكتريا مزروعة لمرضى السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان و 35 بكتريا مزروعة لمرضى غير السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان) ؛ شخصت الأنواع البكتيرية. mutans .S و S. salivarius وS. oralis اعتمادا على الفحص االمجهري، و اختبار API 20-strep وتحلل الدم على أكار الدم واختبار الكتليز. تركزت الدراسة الجزيئية على تحليل الحمض النووي الذي تم استخلاصه مباشرة من اللعاب ومسحات بطانة الفم الداخلية ومن خلايا البكتريا المزروعة ( S. mutans S. salivariusو S. oralis) من كلا مرضى السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان والمرضى غير السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان. اظهر تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل نواتج بحجم 433 و 544 و 374 زوج قاعدي التي تعود لجينات gtfD (S. mutans) وgtfK (S. salivus) و gtfR (S. oralis) على التوالي في جميع العينات (اللعاب ومسحات بطانة الفم الداخلية والزرع). اعتمادا على وجود هذه الجينات الثلاثة كانت هناك فروقات معنوية احصائية عالية (p<0.01) بين مرضى السكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان مع مرضى غيرالسكري المصابين بتسوس الاسنان، بينما لم تكن هناك فروق معنوية إحصائية وفقا لنسبة وجود كل من الجينات بين الانواع الثلاث من البكتريا.

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