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Article
IJAP Subject Index 2005-2014

Author: Editorial Board
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 30-33
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Subject Index


Article
IJAP Author Index 2005-2014

Author: Editorial Board
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 34-38
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Author Index


Article
Variability in calculating non-HDL atherogenic lipoprotein in reference to atherogenic index in type 2 diabetes
التباين في حساب البروتين الدهني غير المصلب الشحمي (HDL) في إشارة إلى مؤشر تصلب الشرايين في مرض السكري من النوع 2

Author: Maysoon Al-Haideri
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 805-810
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objective: Diabetes mellitus is a disorder that is often associated with cardiovascular diseases and underlying lipid abnormalities. The aim of this study was to calculate the serum level of LDL indirectly, using different equations in type 2 diabetes patients in an attempt to focus on the variation of estimating level which reflected on the decision to prescribe lipid lowering agents.Methods: A total of 70 patients with type 2 diabetes using oral hypoglycemic agents alone and/or once- or twice-daily insulin, their non-HDL atherogenic lipoprotein in reference to atherogenic index were conducted in Martyr Layla Qasm Center for Diabetes Mellitus in Erbil, Iraq, during the period from June, 2011 to January, 2013.Results: Age of type 2 diabetes patients ranged from 29 to 82 years with a mean age of 56.6 years with duration of disease ranged between 1.2-39 years. Results revealed that the mean fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were 181.9 mg/dl and 8.428%, respectively. The mean value of serum triglycerides was 171.5 mg/dl which is higher than the cut-off normal value of 150 mg/dl. Results showed significant correlation between atherogenic index and calculated atherogenic lipoprotein and significant correlation between atherogenic index and waist circumference as an indicator of central obesity.Conclusion: The mean body mass index value indicated that the patients were obese and the mean value of waist circumference did not reach the cut-off level of central obesity. The mean value of atherogenic index indicated that the patients were at increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of LDL value from the direct measurement of lipid profile in type 2 diabetes with high serum triglyceride level is not a reliable method.


Article
Effect of Body Mass Index and Physical Activities on Risk of Osteoporosis in Babylon Iraq

Authors: Sulaf A. Hussain --- Aleem Mardas K. Al-nuaimi --- Ali Alkazzaz
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 173-187
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Objectives: To identifying effect of body mass index and physical activities on risk of osteoporosis in Babylon governorate.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study carried out during the period from December 2012 till the end of March 2013. Data were collected by the researcher depending on the direct interview with the participants using especial questionnaire, was constructed for the purpose of the study, consisted of five parts: the first part was concerned with the socio-demographic characteristics, second part was physical activities levels, third part was about obstetric-gynecological history of female, fourth part measured body mass index, fifth part dealt with Medical history and family which consist of Chronic diseases, Medications used, Certain features and Family history. The study sample was (312), (281) females and (31)males.Results: The results indicated that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis in this study was 25.6%. The higher percentage of osteoporosis (26.7%) were female ,while (16.1%)were males and (58.3%) were within age group (70+) years. The majority of osteoporosis were (35.1%) were illiterate ,(34.3%)female at menopause,(36.5%) had rheumatoid arthritis,(47.1%)had intestinal disease, (27.6%) did not take Calcium supplement,(30.5%) had backache,(50%)were change in height,(54.8%)had fracture bone and (60%)family history with osteoporosis.The present study showed that (52.6%) of patients with osteoporosis had normal body mass index, while (11.9%)were obese(3+). In addition to, the study revealed that (55.4%) of patients with osteoporosis were within lowest quartile of physical activitiesRecommendation: For prevention and control of osteoporosis, the researcher recommends the following: We suggest Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry examination to be done as a survey for all females above 50 years and all males above 70 years with serial assessment and follow up to be done yearly or every two years to decrease possibility of risk of fracture or osteoporosis. In addition, the high risk groups should be identified, educated and well communicated by the health personnel.

ألهدف : تحديد تأثير مؤشر كتلة الجسم و الأنشطة البدنية على خطر الإصابة بهشاشة العظام في محافظة بابل.المنهجية: أجريت دراسة وصفيه ,مقطعية نفذت خلال الفترة من ديسمبر 2012 وحتى نهاية مارس 2013. تم جمع البيانات من قبل الباحث اعتمادا على مقابلة مباشرة مع المشاركين باستخدام استبيان خاص ، تم إعداده لغرض الدراسة ، ويتألف من خمسة أجزاء: الجزء الأول كان يعني مع الخصائص الاجتماعية و الديموغرافية ، وكان الجزء الثاني مستويات الأنشطة البدنية ، وكان الجزء الثالث حول تاريخ الولادة و أمراض النساء من الإناث ، الجزء الرابع قياس مؤشر كتلة الجسم ، الجزء الخامس التعامل مع التاريخ الطبي و العائلي الذي يتضمن من الأمراض المزمنة ، الأدوية المستخدمة ، بعض الميزات و التاريخ العائلي . كانت عينة الدراسة 312, (281 ) إناث و ( 31 ) ذكور. ألنتائج: أشارت النتائج إلى أن معدل انتشار هشاشة العظام في هذه الدراسة هو 25.6 ٪ . وكانت أعلى نسبة من مرض هشاشة العظام ( 26.7 ٪ ) من الإناث ، في حين أن ( 16.1 ٪ ) من الذكور و ( 58.3 ٪) كانوا ضمن الفئة العمرية ( 70 + ) سنوات . وكانت غالبية من هشاشة العظام (35.1 ٪ ) هم من الأميين ، وكان ( 34.3 ٪ ) من الإناث في سن اليأس ، ( 36.5 ٪ ) التهاب المفاصل الروماتويدي ، ( 47.1 ٪) لديهم مرض معوي ، ( 27.6 ٪) لا تأخذ مكملات الكالسيوم ، ( 30.5 ٪ ) لديهم الم الظهر ، ( 50 ٪) التغير في الطول ، ( 54.8 ٪ ) كسر في العظم و ( 60 ٪) تاريخ عائلي مع مرض هشاشة العظام. وأظهرت هذه الدراسة أن ( 52.6 ٪ ) من المرضى الذين يعانون من هشاشة العظام كان مؤشر كتلة الجسم الطبيعي ، في حين أن ( 11.9 ٪) كانوا يعانون من السمنة المفرطة (30 + ). وكشفت الدراسة أن ( 55.4 ٪ ) من المرضى الذين يعانون من هشاشة العظام كانت ضمن الربع الأدنى من الأنشطة البدنية. التوصيات: للوقاية والسيطرة على مرض هشاشة العظام ، يوصي الباحث بما يلي : نقترح فحص (قياس الأشعة السينية مزدوج الطاقة) الذي يتعين القيام به لمسح جميع الإناث فوق 50 سنة و جميع الذكور فوق 70 عاما مع تقييم مستمر ومتابعة القيام به سنويا أو كل سنتين لتقليل احتمال خطر الإصابة بكسور أو هشاشة العظام . وبالإضافة إلى ذلك ، ينبغي تحديد الفئات المعرضة للخطر، تعليمها وإبلاغها بشكل جيد من قبل العاملين في المجال الصحي.


Article
Drought assessment in Iraq using analysis of Standardized precipitation index (SPI)
تقييم الجفاف بالعراق باستعمال تحليل دليل المطر القياسي

Authors: Monim H. AL-Jiboori منعم حكيم الجبوري --- Yaseen K. AL-Timimi ياسين كاظم التميمي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 23 Pages: 36-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The Present study investigated the drought in Iraq, by using the rainfall data which obtained from 39 meteorological stations for the past 30 years (1980-2010). The drought coefficient calculated on basis of the standard precipitation index (SPI) and then characteristics of drought magnitude, duration and intensity were analyzed. The correlation and regression between magnitude and duration of drought were obtained according the (SPI) index. The result shows that drought magnitude values were greater in the northeast region of Iraq.

تتناول الدراسة الحالية الجفاف في العراق, حيث تم دراسة ظاهرة الجفاف من خلال جمع بيانات الامطار الشهرية والتي تغطي 39 محطة انواء جوية خلال 30 سنة الماضية 1980 الى 2010, بعد حساب دليل المطر القياسي لكل محطة تم تحليل خصائص الجفاف مقداراً, استدامة وشدة, حيث تم حساب معامل الارتباط والانحدار بين قيمة الجفاف واستدامته, نتائج الدراسة توضح بان اكبر مقدار من الجفاف كان في المنطقة الشمالية الشرقية من العراق.


Article
The Suitability of Soils for Constructor in selected sites at Nasiriya City, South of Iraq
تقیم صلاحیة التربة للأعمال الإنشائیة لمناطق مختارة في مدیة الناصریة جنوب العراق

Author: Shaymaa k. khadhim شیماء ك كاظم
Journal: basrah journal of science البصرة للعلوم ISSN: 18140343 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1C eng Pages: 32-48
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Expansive soils are defined as those soils whose volume changesunder the effect of wetting and drying cycles are these soils associatedwith the problems and failures that have been observed in constructionfield as reported from many parts of the world. In this paper variousgeotechnical properties have been studied .The purpose of this study is toevaluate soils for suitable construction. Four different sites were selectedto evaluate some of geotechnical properties in some regions of Nasiriyacity. By studying grain size distribution, chemical tests, Atterbreg limits,Consistency index swelling potential, and consolidation parameters. Thepresent study provides typical ranges of some soil parameters.The soil in the city of Nasiriya has a variation of engineeringproperties with depth. The sites were selected from different areas tocompare between the engineering properties. The soil has low plasticity(LL < 50), and high swelling potential. Some of the study areas contain apercent of sulphate, which has a negative effect on concrete structures.

یمكن تعریف الترب الانتفاخیة بأنھا التربة التي یتغیر حجمھا بتغیر محتواھا الرطوبي . فيھذا البحث اختیرت أربع مناطق في مدینة الناصریة الواقعة في الجزء الجنوبي من العراق .تمدراسة بعض الخواص الجیوتكنیكیة لغرض تقیمھا ھندسیا وملائمتھا لبناء المنشاة ، وقد تمدراسة خواص التحلیل ألحجمي وحدود اتربرغ والتحلیل الكیمیائي للترب وفحص القواموالانضمام ،,وحساب جھد الانتفاخ اعتمادا على حد السیول ودلیل اللدونة.أظھرت النتائج اختلاف في الخواص الجیوتكنیكیة مع العمق من منطقھ إلى أخرى، وقد بینتذات انتفاخیة ، (L.L< نتائج حدود اتربرغ أن تربة مناطق الدراسة كافھ واطئھ اللدانة (% 50عالیة اعتمادا على طریقة الفعالیة .فحص الانضمام اظھر أن الترب ذات انضمام اعتیادي


Article
Durability of some Weak Rocks Selected from Nineveh
ديمومة بعض الصخور الضعيفة المختارة من محافظة نينوى

Authors: Mohammed K. Faris --- Amina. A. Khalil --- Suhail I. A. Khattab
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 4 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 908-921
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Some rocks are naturally weak, or it becomes weak due to weathering. Durability of weak rocks is one of the most important engineering properties to be evaluated. This study aims to determine the decrease of strength over time due to weathering processes for some weak rocks selected from four different locations within Nineveh. Rock samples were prepared for all types of selected rocks according to American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) and International Society for Rock Mechanic (ISRM). Physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied (dry density, absorption, Uniaxial compression test, Brazilian test, Point load test, and Slake–Durability test) in both dry and wet conditions. Slake - durability test used to determine the decrease in strength and weight loss% for studying rock samples using distilled water for all selected rock samples. Baghdad street and Talafare rocks samples were subject to a solution containing solute hydrochloric acid with 5%, and 10%, concentrations.Results show that rock samples taken from Hay-AL-Quds and Hay-AL-Arab can be classified as very weak to weak with low durability, and weak with medium-high durability for samples selected from Baghdad street and Talafar. Results also indicate that there is a reduction in strength of treated rocks due to an increase in the level of weathering of rock. Higher values of reduction pointed out for samples treated with solute hydrochloric acid compared with the case when using distilled water with less effect in 5% concentration than that 10% concentration.

يمكن أن تتواجد الصخور في الطبيعة بصورة ضعيفة أو أنها تصبح ضعيفة نتيجة لعمليات التجوية. تعتبر ديمومة الصخور الضعيفة كاحدى الخواص الهندسية الأكثر أهمية التي تستلزم التقييم. تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى تحديد مقدار النقصان في مقاومة نماذج من صخور مختارة من أربع مواقع في محافظة نينوى (شارع بعداد، تلعفر، حي القدس، حي العربي). تم تهيئة النماذج للصخور المواصفات العالمية للصخور (ASTM) (ISRM)، درس الخواص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية لنماذج الصخور المختارة (الكثافة الجافة، نسبة الامتصاص، فحص الانضغاط احادي المحور، الفحص البرازيلي، فحص التحميل النقطي، فحص الديمومة والتاكل) للحالتين الجافة والرطبة. تم دراسة ديمومة نماذج الصخور نتيجة تعريضها لدورات من الترطيب والتجفيف من خلال فحص قابلية التآكل باستخدام الماء المقطر لجميع النماذج وكذلك محلول حامض الهايدروكلوريك بنسبة تركيز 5% و 10%لنماذج شارع بغداد وتلعفر.أظهرت النتائج بأنه يمكن تصنيف نماذج الصخور المأخوذة من منطقتي حي القدس وحي العربي على أنها صخور ضعيفة إلى ضعيفة جدا، في حين صنفت نماذج الصخور المأخوذة من منطقتي تلعفر وشارع بغداد إلى أنها صخور ذات ديمومة متوسط إلى عالية. كما أظهرت النتائج أيضا أن هنالك نقصان في مقدار مقاومة التحمل للصخور باستخدام محلول حامض الهايدروكلوريك بمقدار أعلى مقارنة بتحمل نفس الصخور باستخدام الماء المقطر وبنسبة اقل عند التركيز 5% عنه عند 10%.


Article
Applicability of Overall Index of Pollution (OIP) for Surface Water Quality in Assessment of Tigris River Quality within Baghdad
ملائمة تطبیق مؤشر نوعیة المیاه السطحیة (OIP) لتقییم نوعیة میاه نھر دجلة في بغداد

Author: Alhassan H. Ismail
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 74-90
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Water quality index is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of water to the concerned citizens and policy makers. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the water quality of Tigris River within Baghdad using the overall Index of Pollution (OIP) for surface water and examine the applicability of OIP for Iraqi water bodies by comparison the results with previousscientific studies conducted for the same river. Twelve parameters were considered for estimation of OIP in Tigris River. It was found that mathematical equations given by OIP developers to estimate the index does not give a precise calculations, therefor,Microsoft excel (2010) for windows was used to extract value function curves for theindividual parameter. According to OIP, the river water is heavily polluted at Al-Doura WTP and Al-Rasheed WTP and the total coliform bacteria (TC) was the major factor that affects the quality of the river. Based on previous scientific studies, it was noticedthat the OIP is not quite applicable in assessment of Tigris river quality and even the previous studies that were conducted for the same river and used different water quality indices, it was found that some contrarieties and variations in the results of these studies when compared between each other. Therefore, develop a unique waterquality index applicable to Iraqi water bodies is of a prime importance.


Article
Evaluation of the Sequelae of Untreated Dental Caries Using PUFA Index

Author: Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 24 Pages: 101-110
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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To evaluate (PUFA/pufa) index in assessing the prevalence and severity of oral conditions relat-ed to untreated caries in a group of primary school pupils in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: Dental examination was conducted on 756 school pupils aged 7–12 years old, divided into 3 groups according to age; 7–8, 9–10, and 11–12 years old. Caries was recorded in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth for both primary teeth (dmft) and permanent teeth (DMFT). The PUFA/pufa index was also recorded for both dentitions regarding the presence of severely decayed teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f) and abscess (A/a). Results: Caries experience in the primary dentition was found to be 6.33, 4.75, 1.00, and 4.43 for the three age groups as well as the total sample, respectively. While for the permanent dentition, it was 0.59, 1.18, 3.67, and 1.58, respectively. The PUFA/pufa index recorded the following values for each age group as well as the total sample for permanent and primary teeth respectively; 0.03/2.35, 0/1.66, 0.42/0.58, and 0.12/1.66. The main component in this index for all age groups, and both denti-tions was found to be pulpal involvement. Conclusion: The PUFA index should be seen as a comple-mentary to the current caries assessment index (DMF), with relevant information for epidemiologists and health care planners.


Article
Formulation of New Equation to Estimate Productivity Index of Horizontal Wells

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Significant advances in horizontal well drilling technology have been made in recent years. The conventional productivity equations for single phase flowing at steady state conditions have been used and solved using Microsoft Excel for various reservoir properties and different horizontal well lengths. The deviation between the actual field data, and that obtained by the software based on conventional equations have been adjusted to introduce some parameters inserted in the conventional equation. The new formula for calculating flow efficiency was derived and applied with the best proposed values of coefficients ψ=0.7 and ω= 1.4. The simulated results fitted the field data. Various reservoir and field parameters including lateral horizontal length of the horizontal well (L), Skin factor (S), ratio of the vertical to horizontal permeability of the formation (KV/KH), and the vertical thickness of the productive zone (h) were studied and verified to generalize the suggested equation to estimate the horizontal well productivity indices for various reservoir kinds. This led to creating a new formula of flow efficiency equation that could be applied in AHDEB field.

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