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Article
Scientific lightings for the judiciary in the United States of America
اضاءات علمية عن القضاء في الولايات المتحدة الامريكية

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Abstract

Every nation has its own judicial system, but what is important is how to guarantee thee4 existence of an independent judiciary by the provisions laid down in their Constitutions. Hence, the independence of the judiciary is an essential matter to warrant the implementation of the Constitution and its provisions in one hand, and to endorse the legitimacy of the government.In this context, the Constitution of the United States (the U.S. Constitution) has singled out its Article III to determine the legal basis for the judicial authority in appointing judges, their service obligations and the structure of the courts as well as the relationships between the Supreme Court and the lower courts. Moreover, the Constitution has divided the American political system into three institutions; they are legislative, executive and judiciary, without constructing any boundaries to circumvent occurring interferences between the three authorities. This intervention happens particularly by both the executive and legislative with the political affairs of the country, which is considered as a major dilemma of This research, thus, focusses on the independence of the judiciary, its tasks, approvals and the constitutionality of laws enacted. In fact, the U.S. Constitution did not put solutions for the conflicts occurring between the President and Congress in the political arena. This is to implicitly safeguard the existing balance between authorities, and to achieve objectives planned for. The researcher will conclude from this study on the judicial system of the United States the following three points: 1.In the past, the independence of the judiciary and the emergence of a strong judicial system had a significant impact on the course of the application of the Constitution. Besides that, it was backing of the authority of the Federal Constitution (Federal) and the constitutionality of laws and in general to respect the legal principles. In fact, before the year 1803there was a principle called “right of cancellation”, which means every state has the right to prove the invalidity of all legal texts contrary to the Constitution, and to accordingly bring the application of that legal text into an end. This principle is based on the idea of the validity of each State as a member of the Union and by their respective legislative could determine whether or not a violation of the Constitution had occurred. However, in 1803 the Supreme Court of the United States of America issued a judicial decision (by Chief Justice John James Marshall who and served as minister in the government of President John Adams), to reinforce the principle that in the event of a conflict between the Constitutional provision and the ordinary law of a particular case is presented to the judiciary, the Court has the power to implement one of the following three options: Firstly, to validate the contradiction between ordinary law and constitutional provision; secondly, to choose either one; or, thirdly to give preferences to the Constitution, and to disapprove ordinary law. Nonetheless, if the judge acted otherwise, his action was to be deemed in violation of the Constitution.2.The United States laws are valid laws which in fact contributed to the success of both the judicial system and to the stability of democratic government in the country. 3.The distribution of major powers in the Constitution of the United States had been in accordance with the objectives set forth by articles 1,2 and3. This is to formulate the general framework which can guarantee the existence of the legal text between the authorities, and to ensure the continuation and suitability of the legal text for all conditions, but with no effect to the power of the Federal Union and its function in each authority particularly the judiciary and its independence.

تتضمن بحثنا الموسوم اضاءات علمية عن القضاء في الولايات المتحدة الامركية الاصول القانونية ومباديء العدالة المطلقة تجسدت في دستور صدر عام 1787 والى يومنا الحالي ومجموعة مباديء واردة تجسدت في أحكام اتجاهاته نحو البقاء والاستمرار والتطور، وانطوى بحثنا في المحددات التالية مقدم تضمنت أهم معالم الدستور ... أولأ: أ- المحاكم الاتحادية. ب- المحاكم العليا واختصاصاتها. ج- المحاكم الخاصة. ثانياً: أصول المحاكمات في الولايات المتحدة. أ- الاجراءات الجنائية. ب- الاجراءات المدنية. الاجراءات قبل المحاكمة. د- المحاكمة وثم الخاتمة ومجموعة استنتاجات.


Article
United States of America and the Challenge of the European Economic Power
الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية ورهان القوة الاقتصادية الأوروبية

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Abstract

The run after interests raises conflicts among the states of the World which they move according to what interests can be achieved depending on the fact that power plays main role to achieve these national interests. This leads to continuous struggle among them even to those that integrated into strategic partnerships. The European Union makes efforts to get back its position lost after world war II as one of the international poles through its integration and the introduction of euro which it has traded above the U.S. dollar since the end of the 2002 .In return, the U.S. endeavors to protect its interests and preserve its globally unique position that achieved after the declining role of Europe, the end of the cold war and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.So, the United States will stand up against the European project despite being a strategic ally if the Union project contradicts with the United States’ uniqueness and dominance the international economic and political arena. The euro will face many obstacles that do not allow it to compete with the dollar. This is the reason behind keeping continuous conflict without the absence of one of the competing and conflicting parties and keeping the balance among the key powers that run the international scene according to the rules of competition and power

تثير مسألة البحث عن المصالح حالة من الصراع بين دول العالم والتي تتحرك من منظور مايتحقق لها من مصالح بالاعتماد على حقيقة ان القوة تؤدي دورا اساسيا بالنسبة لمصالحها القومية مما يتسبب بحالة دائمة من الصراع بينها حتى بالنسبة للذين يرتبطون بشراكات استراتيجية.الاتحاد الاوروبي الذي يسعى جاهدا لاستعادة موقعه الذي خسره بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية كاحد اقطاب السياسة الدولية وذلك من خلال مشروعه الوحدوي واستحداث عملة اليورو التي اصبحت عملة عالمية منافسة للدولار، وبالمقابل تجتهد الولايات المتحدة الامريكية في تامين مصالحها والحفاظ على موقعها المتفرد عالميا والذي تحقق لها بعد تراجع دور اوروبا وانتهاء الحرب الباردة وتفكك الاتحاد السوفيتي ، لذا فانها ستقف بوجه المشروع الاوروبي على الرغم من كونه حليفاً استراتيجياً لها اذا ماتضارب مشروعه الاتحادي مع ماتسعى اليه من تفرد وهيمنة على الساحة السياسية والاقتصادية الدولية ، وان اليورو سيواجه العديد من العقبات التي لاتسمح له بتخطي منافسهُ الدولار ، وهو مايبقي حالة صراع المصالح مستمرا دون ان يغيب احد الاطراف المتنافسة والمتصارعة والابقاء على حالة من التوازن بين قوى اساسية تدير ذلك المشهد ضمن قواعد التنافس والقوة .


Article
The Role of Neo- Conservatives in Supporting Israel
دور المحافظين الجدد في دعم إسرائيل

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Abstract

This research deals with the role of the neo-conservatives in the United States who support Israel, since they have an influential presence and role in the American society. Moreover, because they have an effective role in the governmental institutions, especially the administration of President George W. Bush, they were able to achieve what they couldn't achieve during other administrations. Therefore, they have employed religion to support Israel which finally serves their objectives and interests.

يتناول البحث الدور الذي يقوم به تيار المحافظون الجدد في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية لتوفير الدعم الأمريكي لإسرائيل, لاسيما انهم يتمتعون بحضور وتأثير كبيرين في المجتمع الأمريكي. فضلاً عن تأثيره ونفوذه في المؤسسات الحكومية في مختلف مستوياتها, لاسيما في ادارة الرئيس جورج بوش الأبن التي حققوا فيها ما لم يحققوه في غيرها. وقد وظف هذا التيار كل امكانياته وقدراته لتحقيق أهدافه. وللأهمية التي تحظى بها الديانة المسيحية فقد أضفى هذا التيار صفة القدسية على العديد من طروحاته التي تحث وتوجب تقديم الدعم لإسرائيل. وقد تمكن من تحقيق أهدافه الى حد كبير


Article
Role of the United States in the War Against Germany
دور الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية في الحرب ضد ألمانيا ( 1941-1945 )

Authors: Helal Thejeel Jilwi هلال ثجيل جلوي الخفاجي --- Hussain Abd Al – Qadir Muhyi حسين عبد القادر محيي
Journal: ADAB AL-BASRAH آداب البصرة ISSN: 18148212 Year: 2014 Issue: 68 Pages: 199-226
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The role taken by the States against Germany in the Second World War was great and effective , from the military point of view in order to defeat the Germans and prevent Germany of any spread in Europe , even vet to make them gaining any victory , The states played a positive roles in making the European policy against Germany during the post war time , for its effect on the forums held beginning with the first was hirston forum in 1942 ; in scenes forum in 1943 ; Yalta in 1945 .The states succeeded in issuins the European decision in order net to make Germany threat the European security again , and the same with the world peace

ان الدور الذي اتخذته الولايات المتحدة الامريكية ضد الالمان منذ الحرب العالمية الثانية عظيما ً وفعالا ً من الوجهة العسكرية لغرض هزيمة الالمان ومن انتشارها في اوربا .لعبت الولايات المتحدة الامريكية أدوارا ً ايجابية في السياسة الاوربية ضد المانيا اثناء فترة الحرب العالمية الثانية بسبب نفوذها الفعال في المؤتمرات التي تم عقدها ابتداءا ً من المؤتمر التاريخي الاول في سنة 1942م ومؤتمر يالطا سنة 1945 .نجحت الولايات المتحدة الامريكية في اصدار القرار الاوربي في عدم تمكين المانيا من تهديد الامن الاوربي والسلم العالمي ثانية .

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