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Shanghai Cooperation Organization study in the framework of international law
منظمة شنغهاي للتعاون دراسة في إطار القانون الدولي

Author: muhammed hussen د. محمد حسين كاظم العيساوي
Journal: journal of legal sciences مجلة العلوم القانونية ISSN: 2070027X , 2663581X Year: 2015 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-56
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) It is a regional international organization official. It was created by China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan in Shanghai, China on 15 June of 2001. The area of the countries that is a member of SCO presently, around thirty million and one hundred eighty nine thousand kilo meter square, which is worth three – fifths of the area of the continents of Europe and Asia and The population of the countries participating in the SCO about half the world's population. SCO has two main Permanent offices, the first branch located in the capital city of china – Beijing used for the general secretariat of organization of SCO and the second branch located in the capital city of Uzbekistan – Tashkent used for a regional counter – terrorism. The purpose of SCO is achieving cooperation in the fields of political, security, economic, commercial, cultural, networks, transport and energy, adopting many strategies to solve problems such as countries border, counter – terrorism and drugs. since SCO establishment seeking to maintain regional and international peace and security. The organization has achieved since its inception a decade ago to the present time made great achievements in the establishment of security and cooperation in the fields of economic, cultural, educational, security and others.

إن منظمة شنغهاي للتعاون (Shanghai Cooperation Organization – SCO) هي منظمة دولية إقليمية حكومية فريدة من نوعها أُسست من قبل الصين، روسيا، كازاخستان، قرغيزستان، طاجيكستان وأوزبكستان بمدينة شنغهاي الصينية في 15 حزيران 2001. تتجاوز مساحة الدول الأعضاء للمنظمة حالياً 30 مليون و189 ألف كيلومترمربع أي ما يساوي ثلاثة أخماس مساحة قارتي أوروبا وآسيا، ويبلغ عدد سكان الدول الأعضاء فيها نحو نصف تعداد سكان العالم. لها مقريين دائميين هما مقرالأمانة العامة للمنظمة في العاصمة الصينية بيجين ومقر جهازمكافحة الإرهاب الإقليمي في العاصمة الأوزبكية طشقند. تهدف المنظمة إلى تحقيق التعاون في المجال السياسي والأمني والإقتصادي والتجاري والثقافي وشبكات النقل والطاقة وكذلك تبنيها العديد من الستراتيجيات لحل مشاكل الحدود ومكافحة الإرهاب والمخدرات، فالمنظمة منذ تأسيسها قبل عقد من الزمن إلى الوقت الحاضر تسعى إلى الحفاظ على السلم والأمن الإقليمي وإلى تعزيز السلم والأمن الدولي، حيث حققت إنجازات ملحوظه في إستتباب الأمن والتعاون في كافة المجالات الأُخرى.


Article
Assessment of Science Teachers' Awareness towards Immunity and Immunization in Primary School at Baghdad City
تقييم وعي مدرسي العلوم تجاه المناعة والتحصين في مدارس مدينة بغداد الأبتدائية

Authors: Mohammed F.Khalifa --- Raad K. Faraj
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 198-203
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objectives: To assess of Science Teachers' Awareness towards immunity and immunization in Baghdad City Primary SchoolsMethodology: A descriptive study was conducted, included (100) primary school,(50) in Al Rassafa sector, and (50) in Al Karkh sector, from March 5th 2012 to March 15th 2013, to assess of science teachers' awareness towards immunity and immunization. A cluster sample of (100) Science teachers (males and females) were selected, as one teacher from each school. A questioner format was used for data collection. The validity of questioner was estimated through a penal of experts related to the field of study, and its reliability was estimated through a pilot study conducted in (20) schools is excluded from the original sample which included (20) teachers from April 8th 2012 to April 14th 2012. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Results: The results of the study indicated that (78%) of sample were female, and (39%) of them their ages were between (30-39) years old, (65%) of them were married, while (21%) of them were single, and (50%) of them were institute graduates. Also the study indicated that (26%) of teachers had (15–19) years of employment in teaching sector. Furthermore, (58 %) of sample had no opportunity to be involved in training courses concerning communicable diseases control. The results of this study indicate that, teachers' awareness was poor (in adequate awareness) towards immunity and immunization against communicable diseases in Baghdad City Primary SchoolsConclusion: The study concluded that teachers' awareness towards immunity and immunization in Baghdad primary schools was poor. Recommendations: The study recommends that there is a need for cooperation between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education on writing a book systematically for primary schools about the nature of the transitional diseases and how to control them through immunity and immunization, and Emphasis on continuous sessions concerning communicable diseases control for teachers in all primary schools

الهدف: تقييم وعي مدرسي العلوم تجاه المناعة والتحصين في مدارس مدينة بغداد الأبتدائية. المنهجية: أجريت دراسة وصفية شملت (100) مدرسة أبتدائية، (50) في قطاع الرصافة ، و (50) في قطاع الكرخ للفترة من 15 أذار 2012 إلى 15 أذار 2013 لغرض تقييم وعي مدرسي العلوم تجاه المناعة والتحصين. وتم أختيار عينة متعددة من (100) مدرس لمادة العلوم (ذكور وإناث) وبواقع مدرس من كل مدرسة. أستعملت أستمارة أستبانة لجمع المعلومات وتم تحديد مصداقيتها من خلال عرضها على مجموعة من الخبراء في مجال الاختصاص ، أما ثباتها فقد تم تحديده من خلال دراسة استطلاعية أجريت في (20) مدرسة أبتدائية من غير المذكورة أعلاه وشملت (20) مدرساً للفترة من 8/نيسان/2012 الى 14/نيسان/2012. وتم تحليل بيانات الدراسة من خلال أستعمال الإحصاء الوصفي والاستدلالي.النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الدراسَة الى أن ( 78% ) من العينة هم من المدرسين الأناث، وان (39%) منهمم تتراوح أعمارهم ما بين (40-49) سنة وان (65%) هم من المتزوجين ، وأن (50%) منهم هم من خريجي معاهد المعلمين. كما بينت الدراسة أن (26%) منهم ممن لديه سنوات خدمة في مجال التعليم تتراوح بين (15-19) سنة . وأن (58%) منهم لم تتح له الفرصة للأشتراك في دورات تخص المناعة والتحصين. وأشارت نتائج الدراسة إلى ان وعي مدرسي العلوم كان غير كافياً حول المناعة والتحصين ضد الأمراض الأنتقالية في مدارس مدينة بغداد الأبتدائية. الإستنتاج: إستنتجت الدراسة بأن وعي مدرسي العلوم في المدارس الأبتدائية لمدينة بغداد كان غير كافياً حول المناعة والتحصبن ضد الأمراض الأنتقالية.التوصيات: أوصت الدراسة الى ضرورة التعاون بين وزارة الصحة ووزارة التربية والتعليم على تأليف كتاب منهجي للمدارس الابتدائية عن طبيعة الأمراض الانتقالية وكيفية السيطرة عليها ، والتركيز على أهمية الدورات مستمرة للمدرسين في جميع المدارس الابتدائية.

Keywords

Objectives: To assess of Science Teachers' Awareness towards immunity and immunization in Baghdad City Primary Schools Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted --- included --- 100 primary school --- 50 in Al Rassafa sector --- and --- 50 in Al Karkh sector --- from March 5th 2012 to March 15th 2013 --- to assess of science teachers' awareness towards immunity and immunization. A cluster sample of --- 100 Science teachers --- males and females were selected --- as one teacher from each school. A questioner format was used for data collection. The validity of questioner was estimated through a penal of experts related to the field of study --- and its reliability was estimated through a pilot study conducted in --- 20 schools is excluded from the original sample which included --- 20 teachers from April 8th 2012 to April 14th 2012. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Results: The results of the study indicated that --- 78% of sample were female --- and --- 39% of them their ages were between --- 30-39 years old --- 65% of them were married --- while --- 21% of them were single --- and --- 50% of them were institute graduates. Also the study indicated that --- 26% of teachers had --- 15–19 years of employment in teaching sector. Furthermore --- 58 % of sample had no opportunity to be involved in training courses concerning communicable diseases control. The results of this study indicate that --- teachers' awareness was poor --- in adequate awareness towards immunity and immunization against communicable diseases in Baghdad City Primary Schools Conclusion: The study concluded that teachers' awareness towards immunity and immunization in Baghdad primary schools was poor. Recommendations: The study recommends that there is a need for cooperation between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education on writing a book systematically for primary schools about the nature of the transitional diseases and how to control them through immunity and immunization --- and Emphasis on continuous sessions concerning communicable diseases control for teachers in all primary schools

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