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Article
Relationship between Epistaxis and Hypertension

Authors: Ahmed Abdullah Alwan --- Anwar Sadiq Al-Dahan --- Ahmed Mohammed Hassoon
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 2403-2407
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Epistaxis is a common symptom of diverse conditions which may present as mild recurrent bleeds or severe life threatening rhinological emergency. Children and adolescent are more often afflicted with minor episodes of anterior epistaxis, whereas the incidence of severe posterior epistaxis is greater in those who are more than 50 years old. Hypertension has been considered to be a major cause of spontaneous epistaxis for a long time. However, particularly in the recent medical literatures, the relationship between hypertension and epistaxis appears to be more controversial. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between hypertension and epistaxis and to compare the prevalence of the epistaxis in hypertensive patients with normotensive patients.Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 101 hypertensive patients (group A) and 152 normotensive patients (group B) who served as a control group at Department of Medicine and ENT, Al-Hussian Teaching Hospital, Karbala during the period January to July 2015. Data from epistaxis patients for both groups were collected. Results: Out of total 101 hypertensive patients, 61 (60%) were males and 40 (40%) were females (M: F=1.5:1). The age range was 33 to 86 years with a mean age of 58 years. Twenty-seven out of 101 hypertensive patients were found to have epistaxis. The control group (group B) were 152 normotensive patients; 104 male and 48 female (M: F=2.2:1), and only 28 participants have a history of epistaxis. The prevalence of epistaxis was not significantly higher among patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension. Conclusions: We demonstrated that epistaxis was unlikely associated with hypertension, and that epistaxis was not initiated by high BP. However, epistaxis was more difficult to control in hypertensive patients.

Keywords

Hypertension --- Epistaxis --- Emergency


Article
The effect of emergency surgeon-performed sonography on diagnostic accuracy of appendicitis

Author: Mohammed Hassan Jaafar
Journal: Misan Journal of Acodemic Studies مجلة ميسان للدراسات الاكاديمية ISSN: 1994697X Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 29 Pages: 16-24
Publisher: Misan University جامعة ميسان

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Abstract

The diagnosis of acute appendicitis, which is highly prevalent surgical emergency, remained mainly a clinical diagnosis with high false negative and false positive rates. Emergency surgeon can play important role in using some modern diagnostic facilities like ultrasonography (US) to improve the diagnosisAims: To evaluate the role of ultrasonography performed by emergency surgeon in improving the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.Patients and methods: A prospective study over two years on 290 patients with acute appendicitis. We allocated the patients into two group depending on the way of their diagnosis whether US used or not in their diagnosis and the operative state of the appendix and the histopathological results were recorded.Results: The negative appendectomy rate in group 2 patients (US was used in their diagnosis) was lower than in-group 1(US was not used in their diagnosis) 7.2% vs 25%. In group2, the diagnostic accuracy was 79.3%, the sensitivity rate 75.5%, the specificity rate 89.3%, Positive predictive value 95% and the Negative predictive value 57.5%. The results in our study were near or within the results of studies performed by professional sonographerConclusions: There are important roles for US as diagnostic tool in patients with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis; as it improves the diagnostic accuracy of appendicitis and reduces the negative appendectomy, but non-appendicitis US result is not enough to exclude acute appendicitis. The emergency surgeon with proper US training can perform US examination successfully since the results are similar to that performed by professional sonographers.


Article
Health education program in improving knowledge regarding emergency contraception among school teachers in Duhok

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Abstract

Background: Emergency contraception (EC) is a general term used to describe drugs and devices that are utilized to prevent pregnancy following unprotected intercourse or in the event of contraceptive failure. This postcoital birth-control option is available by means of hormonal pills or copper-bearing intrauterine device.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the women's knowledge regarding EC, to compare the knowledge of school teachers with other women in the community, as well as assessing the pre-post test knowledge of teachers.Type of the study: A cross sectional and quasi- experimental study.Methods: It was carried out in Duhok during the period from 20th of November 2014 to 6th of January 2015. A Simple and systematic methods of sampling was used to collect 600 married women in their reproductive age group (15-49 years old ), 300 visitors from Primary health Care Centers, and 300 from school teachers.Results: showed that (77%) of study sample were used a natural (withdrawal) contraceptive way, while (3%) heard about emergency contraceptive, (13.2%) of them had unintended pregnancy and (1.2%) had an experience of induced abortion. From those who heard about emergency contraception (2.7%) considered the hormonal pills were the methods of emergency contraceptive and the friends were the source of information in (1.5%). In addition, there is a highly significant difference between the teacher's knowledge in pre and post-test .Conclusions: Our community knowledge toward EC is low, and there is a good benefit after doing the education program about the information regarding emergency contraception.

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