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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN BLENDING ON LAMINAR FLAME SPEED FOR IRAQI LPG
دراسة تجريبية لتاثير خلط الهيدروجين على السرعة الطباقية للغاز المسال العراقي

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Abstract

An experimental study on laminar flame speed of the premixed Iraqi liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-hydrogen /air flames is conducted in a centrally ignited constant volume chamber specially constructed by the authors; at different initial pressures (0.1-0.3MPa) and initial temperature of (308 K). The tests are carried out at a mixture equivalence ratio ranges from 0.8-1.3. The investigated blends of hydrogen are 0-80% by volume . Experimental results show that the effect of hydrogen addition becomes obvious when the hydrogen blend is larger than 60%. When hydrogen blending 80%, the laminar flame speed of LPG also increases from (2.2-4.75 m/s) for stoichiometric mixture at atmosphere pressure. Increasing initial pressure from (1-3 bar), reduces stretched laminar flame speed of LPG-air mixture from (2.2-1.5 m/s) .

تم اجراء دراسة عملية عن سرع الاحتراق الطباقيه لخلائط غازات البترول السائلة مع الهيدروجين والهواء المسبقة الخلط، باستخدام حجرة احتراق ثابته الحجم ذات اشعال مركزي تم تصميمها وبنائها خصيصا من قبل الباحثين وبضغوط ابتدائية مختلفة (0.1-0.3 MPa) ,عند درجه حرارية ابتدائية ثابته (308 K) بالإضافة الى نسب مكافئه مختلفة (0.8 - 1.3). ان نسب خلط الهيدروجين الحجمية التي تم اختبارها كانت0-80%. بيّنت الدراسة أن تأثير نسبة خلط الهيدروجين يصبح اكثر وضوحا عندما تزداد نسبة الخلط عن %60 وعند نسبة خلط 80% من الهيدروجين فان سرعه انتشار اللهب الطباقيه للخليط سوف تزداد من 2.2 m/s الى 4.75 m/s للخليط المتكافئ عند الضغط الجوي. بيّنت النتائج ازدياد الضغط الابتدائي (bar 1-3) فان سرعه ان تشار اللهب الطباقيه للخليط سوف تقل من 2.2 m/s الى 1.5 m/s .


Article
Manufacturing of Bi-functional Nano-sensor of Nobel Metal for Hydrocarbon Gas Detection in Petroleum Sector Using Pulse Laser Deposition Technique

Authors: K.A. Sukkar --- S.M. Kadhim --- A.S. Falih
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 864-871
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In the present investigation bi-functional nano-gas-sensor was manufactured from two types of metals: ZnO metal oxide and Pt noble metal. The nano-gas-sensors were designed for monitoring and control the environmental pollution in petroleum sector. The preparation technique was carried out by design and construction of a pulse laser deposition unit (PLD) with Nd: YAG laser (λ=532nm, laser fluence 2 J/cm2, repetition rate 6 Hz and the pulse duration 7ns). The target was pure ZnO and Pt:ZnO that containing 4%wt Pt. The hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) was used as Pt source. The PLD films were deposited at three different temperatures 200, 250, and 300oC. Many characterization tests are used to study the influence of temperature on surface morphology of prepared films: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and (UV) visible. The results pointed to a direct relationship between the deposition temperature and the grain sizes of the nanoparticles formed on the substrate. On the other hand, the results of RMS roughness of AFM showed an increased value with increasing of deposition temperature. The best value of RMS roughness was 10.3nm for thin films deposited at 250ºC. The x-ray results shows formation of nanostructure on the substrate at deposition temperature of 250ºC, in which represent high surface area of gas sensor and especially with Pt. In addition, the UV-VIS transmittance measurements have shown that the films are highly transparent in the Visb-NIR wavelength region, with an average transmittance of about 90%. These results pointed to that the manufactured bi-metals nano-gas-sensor (Pt:ZnO) at 250oC is more suitable for LPG hydrocarbons detection application in petroleum positions.


Article
Structural, Morphological, and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanorods for LPG sensor
الخصائص التركيبة والسطحية والبصرية لقضبان الخارصين النانوية لتحسس غاز البترول المسال

Authors: Ali J. Mohammed علي جاسم محمد --- Jalal J. Hassan جلال جبار حسن --- S J Kasim ستار جبار قاسم --- M. A. Mahdi مازن عوني مهدي
Journal: Journal of Kufa - physics مجلة الكوفة للفيزياء ISSN: 20775830 Year: 2017 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 140-148
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

In this research, zinc oxide nanorods were prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD) through using raw materials on the glass substrate. The crystalline structure, surface morphology, elemental composition and optical properties of ZnO were studied by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometers (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDXS), and UV-vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The sensing properties of the ZnOnanorod arrays were determined for different flows and temperatures. The results indicate that the ZnOnanorods have good sensitivity and stability when compared with other traditional ZnO films.

في هذا البحث، تم تحضير قضبان اوكسيد الخارصين النانوية بطريقة الحمام الكيميائي باستخدام المواد الخام على قواعد الزجاج. تم دراسة الخصائص التركيبية والسطحية والتكوينية والبصرية لقضبان اوكسيد الخارصين النانوية عن طريق حيود الاشعة السينية والمجهر الالكتروني الماسح الضوئي و طيف الامتصاصية. خصائص الاستشعار لقضبان اوكسيد الخارصين النانوية تم تحديدها لعدد مختلف من تدفقات الغاز وكذلك لدرجات حرارة مختلفة. النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها من خلال قضبان اوكسيد الخارصين النانوية تشير الى ان هناك حساسية جيدة واستقرارية عالية مقارنتا مع الاغشية الرقيقة التقليدية لاوكسيد الخارصين.

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