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Article
Energy Losses Resulting from the Flaring of the Associated Gases of the (North&South) Jambour Oil Fields

Author: Sinan A.Baker
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 14 Pages: 127-143
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

This research includes a study of the components of the associated gases in Jambour fields (North and South) using Gas Chromatography instrument type (Varian cp-3800),The associated gases of The Southern Jambour contains small amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) and it is a sweet gas, while the associated gasesof Northern Jambour field is much higher up to 4 % Mole according to the analysis that has done on the associated gas for both fields by (GC), also the results of the analysis show that methane ratio is 80% for both fields gases (north, south) and can take advantage of the associated gas of Southern Jambour fields to feed the operating units in North Oil Company, North Gas Company, and Mulla Abdulla Power plant. The productivity of Southern Jambour field at the present time of the associated gas is (130 MMSCF/day) while the production of Northern Jambour field is (60 MMSCF/day) and can take advantage of the associated gas of SouthernJambour field to operate gas stations, because it is asweetgas.The amount of the associated gas burned in (flare) of Jambour fields is (1-4 MMSCF / day), and assuming the density of the associated gas rate is 0.00086 gm / cm3) where (mgas = ρgas * vgas), the (1 MMSCF) of gas equivalent to (25 ton), the flaring associated gas rate in Jambour fields equivalent to (25 ton/ day).


Article
Bulk heterojunction blend (NiPcTs:PEDOT:PSS)in gas sensing
المزيج الهجين من نيكل فثالوسايلين تتراسولفنك و بوليمر PEDOT:PSS كمتحسس غازي

Authors: Morooj A. Abood مروج علي عبود --- Izzat M. AI-Essa عزت محمود العيسى
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 32 Pages: 31-42
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Thin films of bulk heterojunction blend Ni-PhthalocyanineTetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt and dpoly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (NiPcTs:PEDOT:PSS) with different (PEDOT:PSS) concentrations(0.5,1, 2)are prepared using spin coating technique with thickness 100 nm on glass and Si substrate. The X-Ray diffraction pattern of NiPcTs powder was studied and compared with NiPc powder, the pattern showed that the structure is a polycrystalline with monoclinic phase.XRD analysis of as-deposited (NiPcTs/PEDOT:PSS) thin films blends in dicated that the film appeared at(100),(102) in concentrations (0.5,1) and (100) in concentration (2).The grain size is increased with increasing (PEDOT:PSS) concentrations. FTIR measurements for these bulk heterojunction blend thin films also carried out in this work and gave good information about the bonds and their locations. Sensor measurements of Si/NiPcTS:PEDOT:PSS bulk heterojunctions blend thin films show a good sensitivity for NO2 gas Compared to NH3gas. The NiPcTS/PEDOT:PSS gas sensor device work at room temperature than high temperature for NO2 gas but good sensitivity at100ºC for NH3 gas and sensor work more effectively in 0.5 concentration for both gases.

حضرت أغشيه رقيقه من المزيج المتغاير نيكل فثايوسايلين تترا سولفينك والبوليمر الموصلPEDOT:PSS بتركيز (0.5,1,2) بطريقة الطلاء ألبرمي بسمك 100نانومتر على الزجاج وشرائح السليكون. تم دراسة نمط حيود الأشعة السينية لمسحوق NiPcTs ومقارنتها مع مسحوق NiPc وقد تبين ان التركيب متعدد التبلور احادي الوجة. تحليل حيود الأشعة السينية للمزيج (NiPcTs:PEDOT:PSS) يبين أن الاغشيه المحضرة عند التركيز (0.5 ,1) تظهر قمم عند (100),(102) و(100) عند التركيز 2. الحجم الحبيبي يزداد مع زيادة تركيز(PEDOT:PSS). فحوصات FTIR أعطتنا معلومات جيده عن الأواصر ومواقعها.فحوصات التحسس الغازي للمزيج المتغاير المرسب على السيلكون Si/NiPcTs:PEDOT:PSS)) أظهرت تحسسية عالية لغاز اوكسيد النيتروجين مقارنة بغاز الامونيا. المتحسس الغازي لغاز اوكسيد النيتروجين يعمل بصوره افصل في درجة حرارة الغرفة مقارنة بالدرجات الحرارية الأعلى ولكن برجة 100ºC بالنسبة لغاز الامونيا ويعمل بصورة أكفأ عند التركيز 0.5 لكلا الغازين.


Article
Enhancement of vanadium oxide doped Eu+3 for gas sensorapplication
تحسين اوكسيد الفناديوم المشوب بمادة Eu+3 كمتحسس غاز

Authors: Issam M.Ibrahim عصام محمد ابراهيم --- Hassan M. Odhaib حسن مطشر عذيب
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 33 Pages: 17-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Thin films of vanadium oxide nanoparticles doped with different concentrations of europium oxide (2, 4, 6, and 8) wt % are deposited on glass and Si substrates with orientation (111) utilizing by pulsed laser deposition technique using Nd:YAG laser that has a wavelength of 1064 nm, average frequency of 6 Hz and pulse duration of 10 ns. The films were annealed in air at 300 °C for two hours, then the structural, morphological and optical properties are characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD),Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy respectively. The X-ray diffraction results of V2O5:Eu2O3 exhibit that the film has apolycrystalline monoclinic V2O5 and triclinic V4O7 phases. The FESEM image shows a homogeneous pattern and confirms the formation of uniform nanostructures on the glasssubstrate. The type of the particle foundnanoparticles with different doping concentrations of Eu2O3. The optical energy gap increases with the increase of doping concentration and it varies from 2.67 eV to 2.71 eV. The prepared thin films are used to fabricate sensor against nitrogen dioxide gas. The dependence of sensitivity and response time on doping ratio and operation temperature of gas sensors has been studied, the maximum sensitivity was about 100%, the response time is equal to 24s and recovery time 16s for V2O5 doped 2% Eu2O3 at 50 °C.

تم في هذا البحث استخدام طريقة الترسيب بالليزر النبضي بواسطة ليزر Nd:YAG ذي الطول الموجي nm1064λ= وبمعدل تكرار Hz6 وفترة نبضة ns10 لترسيب أغشية رقيقة بنوعية عالية لاوكسيد الفناديوم النقية و المشوبه بأوكسيد اليوربيوم وبنسب مختلفة (0, 2, 4, 6, 8) wt. % على قواعد زجاجية ورقائق السليكون من النوع (111) وتم تلدين الغشاء بدرجة حرارة 300 درجة مئوية لمدة ساعتين. تم دراسة الخصائص التركيبية باستخدام حيود الاشعة السينية والمجهر الالكتروني والطوبوغرافية للسطح والخصائص البصرية باستخدام طيف الامتصاص للكيف المرئي والفق البنفسجية. بينت دراسة طيف حيود الاشعة السينية لأغشية V2O5 ذات التركيب النانوي وبتراكيزEu2O3مختلفة (0% -8 %) والتي تم تحضيرها باستخدام الترسيب بالليزر النبضي ان جميع الاغشيه المحضره كانت ذات تركيب متعدد التبلور وتبين أيضا ان الطور الذي ظهر في غشاءEu2O3كان أحادي الميل مع ظهور طور ثانوي و انقلاب في الطور الى V4O7. بينت صور المجهر الالكتروني ا شكال نانوية منتظمة الترسيب مع تغير النوع مع تغير نسبة التشويب. فجوة الطاقة البصريةتزداد بزيادة نسبة التشويب من 2.67 الى 2.71 الكترون فولت. تم استخدام الاغشية المحضرة لتصنيع متحسس لغاز اوكسيد النتروجين. تم دراسة تاثير تغيير النسبة ودرجة الحرارة على كل من التحسسية وزمن التحسس و زمن الرجوع. وجد ان اعظم تحسسية 100% وزمن تحسس 24 ثانية وزمن الرجوع 16 ثانية للعينة بنسبة 2% Eu2O3 وبدرجة حرارة 50 درجة مئوية.


Article
Analysis of Boltzmann Equation for SF6 and Some Gas-Mixture Discharges at Critical Field Condition
تحليل معادلة بولتزمان لسداسي فلوريد الكبريت وبعض تفريغات الخلائط الغازية تحت شرط المجال الحرج

Authors: Abdulrida S. Hasaani --- Mukhlis M. Ismail
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-34
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

The energy electron distribution function at a particular reduced electric field E/p (where E is the electric field and p is the gas pressure) for SF6+He and SF6+Ar mixtures has been studied. The distribution function has been calculated as a function of percentage mixture ratio (k) ranging from zero (pure SF6) to 100% (for He or Ar) at (E/p)crt. On the other stage, these distribution functions are also studied as a function of (k) at a particular (E/p)crt. under which the breakdown occurs for the same gas mixtures. The (E/p)crt calculation is adopted to explain the discrepancy of the distribution function for gas mixtures. It is also found that the distribution function for gas mixtures at (E/p)crt. and for any value of (k) are identical.


Article
Study of the Influence of Incorporation of Gold Nanoparticles on the Modified Porous Silicon Sensor for Petroleum Gas Detection

Authors: A.M. Alwan --- A.B. Dheyab --- A.J. Allaa
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 811-815
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this work, the influence of alloying the porous surface with uniform distributed gold nanoparticles on the characteristic porous silicon gas sensors for petroleum gas detection has been fabricated and studied extensively. Well-controlled gold nanoparticles were prepared by employing the simple dipping process of the macro porous silicon surface in diluted concentrations of HAuCl4 salt aqueous solution. The sensing properties of the prepared porous silicon-based sensors, sensitivity response and recovery times at room temperature operating in CO gas were studied. The sensitivity of alloyed porous silicon increased from 38% to about 82% incorporation of gold nanoparticles. The lowest gas pressure detection process of CO molecules was improved from 1 mbar to 0.5 mbar. The surface alloying with rounded gold nanoparticles improved the integrated specific surface area of the alloyed porous silicon/gold nanoparticles structure, so efficient gas developed with the low-cost process.


Article
Synthesis and Study of Modified Nanostructure Porous Silicon Layers for Chemical Gas Sensing

Authors: A.D.Thamir --- A. L. Abed --- F. Q. Mohammed --- A. S. Hasan
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 970-974
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this work, We prepared a modified nanostructure porous silicon (PS) layers for effective chemical gas sensing. Nanopore covered microporous silicon gas sensor has been fabricated using electrochemical etching in an HF acid and ethanol solution. A porous silicon (PS) surface has been modified using selective depositions formed from metal to enhance the response to Sensing of CO2. (PS) has been interest for gas sensing because of the exceptional gathering of importent features. By setting the process parameters,the porosity, pore size, and the morphology can be modifid and practically controlled. The modified porous silicon layers were characterized using different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and a series of electrical characterizations to study the structures in the contact of the carbon dioxide was achieved.


Article
Stimulated Emission Cross Section in Xenon-Neon Lasers
مساحة‌ مقطع الانبعاث المحفز فی اللیزر نیون – زینون

Author: Gulalla Yaseen Bakr گوڵاڵه‌ یاسین بكر
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 208-212
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Gas Lasers are important tools that are used in variety purposes, for their low and (cw) output power. The aim of this study was to prepare a way to calculate an optimum stimulated emission cross-section in a gas laser containing a mixture of Xenon and Neon by (30%-70%). The process was a theoretical study of each gas in separate in terms of their physical properties as an active medium. The results of these calculations are logic and more convenient than other mixtures used before.

تعتبر اللیزرات الغازیة‌ من التقنیات المهمة‌ التی تستخدم فی عدة‌ مجالات و سبب ذلك هو قدرتها الواطئه‌ و ذات الموجه‌ المستمرة. ‌والهدف من هذه‌ الدراسة‌ هو حساب وتماثل ما یسمی مساحة مقطع الانبعاث المحفز فی لیزر غازی یملك خلیط من غازی النیون والزینون بالنسبة (30:70)‌% علی التوالی. وتمت هذه من خلال دراسة‌ نظریة لكل غاز علی حدة من حیث الصفات الفیزیائیة‌ تعمل كوسط فعال وكانت النتائج منطقیة واكثر مناسبة من الدراسات السابقة.


Article
Natural Gas Investment in Iraq , Objective Determinants
استثمار الغاز الطبيعي في العراق , محددات موضوعية

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Abstract

Natural gas is one of the most important types of hydrocarbon resources that abound in the land of Iraq, where large reserves. This global strategic supplier form a pulsedartery of modern industrial and economic life which denied to Iraq because of required a lot of experience and massive investments and experience in the world of economics and industry,due to of colonialism that imposes control over these resources in order to serve his interests.Despite what happened to Iraq of eventswhich hindered the development of their resources to invest in natural gas, but he saw the percentage of exploitation of this resource, and then take off from a base created in the seventies of the last century,But abnormal conditions created by wars and economic sanctions have prevented exploited optimally.Iraq has suffered from isolation, deprived him of that keep pace with development and modernity, that with the emergence of a range of challenges and problems for which received from the evolution of investment of this resource properly done


Article
Improving Gas to Liquid production by Associated Gases

Authors: Hadi Ebrahimi --- Akbar Zamaniyan --- Khaled Forsat
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 14 Pages: 211-225
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) is a process for converting natural gas into synthetic oil, which can be further processed into fuels and other hydrocarbon-based products. The total GTL plant is self-sufficient. Therefore most of the required utilities provided, too. High energy cost is the main driving force behind currently increasing interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of GTL. The catalytic synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H2 Syngas mixtures leads to a large variety of products such as paraffins, olefins, alcohols, and aldehydes. The process uses mainly natural gas. However, other gases fuels could also be employed. Three-fourths of Iraq's natural gas resources are associated with oil. Meanwhile, Majnoon oil production is generating significant amounts of associated gas that was usually flared while different options to abate flaring are under review. The current article presents using a 10 MM m3 annually associated gases in the southern part of Iraq in 3000 BPD GTL plant. The simulation of the plant shows that the added associated gas which is currently flared could increase the productivity and there is no need to send it to the flares. Research Institute of Petroleum Industry has a license of the GTL process, both fixed-bed and slurry types.


Article
Preparation of Light Fuel Fractions from Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil by Thermal Cracking Reaction
تحضير مقاطع وقود خفيفة من زيت الغاز الفراغي الثقيل بواسطة تفاعل التكسير الحراري

Author: Saleem Mohammed Obyed سليم محمد عبيد
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 103-109
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This work deals with thermal cracking of heavy vacuum gas oil which produced from the top of vacuum distillation unit at Al- DURA refinery, by continuous process. An experimental laboratory plant scale was constructed in laboratories of chemical engineering department, Al-Nahrain University and Baghdad University. The thermal cracking process was carried out at temperature ranges between 460-560oC and atmospheric pressure with liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) equal to 15hr-1.The liquid product from thermal cracking unit was distilled by atmospheric distillation device according to ASTM D-86 in order to achieve two fractions, below 220oC as a gasoline fraction and above 220oC as light cycle oil (LCO).The first fraction which was below 220oC was fractionated to light fractions (gasoline, kerosene and gas oil) by atmospheric distillation device. The fractions (gasoline, kerosene and gas oil) were distilled by atmospheric distillation device in order to obtained distillation curve for these fractions. Physical properties were recorded for these cuts to compare it with standard property test, in order to studying the possibilities of industrial uses. The maximum conversion of heavy vacuum gas oil was obtained by this process equal to 82 wt. % of feed at 540oC.

يتناول هذا البحث التكسير الحراري لزيت الغاز الفراغي الثقيل الذي ينتج من الجزء العلوي من وحدة التقطير الفراغي في مصفاة الدورة، عن طريق عملية تكسير حراري مستمرة.- تم تصميم وتنفيذ منظومة مختبريه تجريبية في مختبرات قسم الهندسة الكيميائية في جامعة النهرين وجامعة بغداد. وقد أجريت عملية التكسير الحراري في معدل درجة حرارة تتراوح بين 460-560oC والضغط الجوي الاعتيادي مع سرعة الفضائية (LHSV) تساوي 15〖سا〗^(-1). - تم تقطير السائل المنتج من وحدة التكسير الحراري بوساطة جهاز التقطير الجوي طبقا للمواصفة ASTM D-86 من أجل تحقيق مقطعين، تحت 220م^° بوصفه مقطعا للبنزين وفوق 220م^° بوصفه زيتا خفيفا مدور (LCO).- تم تقطير الجزء الأول الذي كان تحت 220م^° إلى المقاطع الخفيفة (البنزين والكيروسين وزيت الغاز) عن طريق جهاز التقطير الجوي. - كذلك تم تقطير المقطر لمقاطع (البنزين والكيروسين وزيت الغاز) من خلال جهاز التقطير الجوي من أجل رسم منحنى التقطير الذي تم الحصول عليه لهذه المقاطع وذلك لحساب معدل درجة الغليان لهذه المقاطع. حساب بعض الخصائص والمواصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية المهمة مثل (متوسط درجة الغليان، الوزن النوعي، نقطة الوميض، نقطة الأنيلين، نقطة الدخان، الوزن الجزيئي) وذلك لمقارنتها مع المواصفات القياسية التجارية من أجل دراسة إمكانيات الاستخدامات الصناعية. تم الحصول على أقصى قدر من تحويل زيت الغاز الثقيل الفراغي من هذه العملية يصل إلى 82 بالوزن. ٪ عند540.م^°

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