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Article
IMPACT OF SOCI-ECONOMIC STATUS ON BIODEGRADABLE CONTENT OF RESIDENTIAL SOLID WASTE AT POINT OF GENERATION

Authors: Entessar Kareem Hussain --- Jathwa Abd-Alkareem Al-Ameen
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-4) Pages: 125-134
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

a mixed methodlogical approach including qustionnaire survey, field investigation and personal interviews has been adopted for gathering data to obtain Municipal Solid Waste generation rate ,biodegradable waste generation rate and non biodegradable waste. sample were taken from different socio-economic group(socio-income level). based on the results of the preliminary survey for 99% confidence interval and 10% standard error,46 household was the optimum size of sample, where 644 sample was collected. the research conclude that average generation rate of: biodegradable waste was 0.531 kg/capita.day, non biodegradable waste was 0.151 kg/capita.day, and personal generation rate was 0.68 kg/capita.day. statistically analysis showed a positive relationship between income and non biodegradable waste generation rate in high income group and biodegradable waste generation rate in middle income group. The study revealed a statistically significant difference between non biodegradable waste generation rate in different socio-economic group while there is no statistically significant difference in biodegradable waste for the same groups


Article
Determine types and reasons of waste in Diyala pharmaceutical supply chain-Iraq

Authors: Waleed Al-Zaidi --- Ahmed Al-Zuhairi --- Asaad Al-Karawi
Journal: Tikrit Journal For Administration & Economics Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الادارية والاقتصادية ISSN: 18131719 Year: 2018 Volume: 1 Issue: 41 part 1 Pages: 258-274
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Reducing or removing all kind of wastes, which are defects, inventory, waiting, transportation and extra-processing, are the main aim for organizations in order to minimize cost, so, excluding any activity which cannot add value is required. The main aim of this study is to select the main reasons standing behind any kind of waste in Diyala pharmaceutical supply chain like damage, spoilage, surplus, shortage and expiry date in medicines and pharmaceutical supplies; and administration activities based on the questionnaire prepared for this purpose. The Diyala health sector is one of the Iraqi health sectors linked centrally with the Ministry of Health. The main tool for collecting data was secondary data on website and unstructured interviews with 15 drug store and pharmacy directors; also, a multi-choice questionnaire was distributed to 42 drug stores and pharmacies in Diyala health sector. The main results in this study, there are several reasons behind waste in the Diyala pharmaceutical supply chain. The expiration of medicines and medical materials is the first reason and the storage conditions are the second reason. There are difficulties in reporting surplus medicines and medical materials because of long administrative procedures. The main difficulties to report expired medicines and medical materials is because of fear of accountability.

Keywords

: lean --- waste --- pharmaceutical --- supply chain


Article
Using Paper Waste as Adsorbent for Methyl Violet dye removal from waste water
أستعمال المخلفات الورقية كمازة لأزالة صبغة المثيل البنفسجية من مياه الصرف الصحي

Authors: Dr. Besma Mohammed Fahad --- Nisreen Sabah Ali --- Tamarah Tareq Hameed3
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study has been conducted to examine the possibility of using waste paper as an adsorbent to remove methyl violet (MV) 2B dye from waste water. Initial dye concentration in the rang (20 to 80mg/L), pH of solution in the rang (4-10), adsorbent dose range (0.5-2.5 g) and contact time varying from (30 to 180)min, were studied. The experimental adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be more represented to the experiments with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.8144). The results showed that the highest (MV ) dye removal efficiency was (97.63) at optimization condition pH 8, at room temperature for 120min, 2 g adsorbent dose and 20 mg/L dye concentration. The value of adsorption capacity was found to be 4.3 mg /g.


Article
Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Biodegradable Municipal Solid Waste using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
تحديد الظروف المثلى لانتاج الوقود الحيوي من المخلفات البلدية القابلة للتحلل باستخدام منهجية (RSM)

Authors: Dr. Nadhim H. Hayder --- Dr. Hussain M. Flayeh --- Ali W. Ahmed3
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-64
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this work the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biodegradable municipal solid waste (BMSW), was studied. The maximum yield of reducing sugar was 4102.27 mg/L with optimum conditions; initial concentration 4%, pH 6, incubation time 16 hrs., and inoculum 2%. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process parameters of bioethanol production. Maximum bioethanol yield 332.9 mg/L, was practically achieved fllowing thirty different experimental runs, as specified by 24 –full factorial central composte design(CCD). The optimum values for the aforementioned four prameters, corresponding to the maximum yield. were; initial sugar weight = 75 g/L, pH = 6, fermentation time = 39 hrs. (aerobic fermentation = 24 hrs. and anaerobic fermentation = 15 hrs.), and finally yeast inoculum = 2 mL/L. The obtained data were utilized to develop a semi-empirical model, based on a second degree polynomial, which help to predict bioethanol yield. The model was tested using ANOVA software (Design Expert 10) and the (R2= 0.9771), which is acceptable. The develop model using to generate contour plots and yield response surface. Maximum bioethanol production was observed in lab scale bioreactor reached to 492.9 mg/L within optimum conditions


Article
Geological analysis of the reality of solid waste management in Hilla city
تحليل جغرافي لواقع ادارة النفايات الصلبة في مدينة الحلة

Author: أ0م جبار عبد جبيل أ0م جبار عبد جبيل رسل محمد كاظم الجبوري
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2018 Volume: 2 Issue: 25 Pages: 601-634
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The solid waste management in the city of Hilla is one of the important issues that the city's municipality pays great attention to in order to preserve the health and safety of man and the environment. This research aims to identify the solid waste, its sources, methods and methods used in its management through the collection and transport operations until the final disposal of them. In recent years, the city suffers from the problem of accumulation of waste and a clear lack of municipal management in it. Population increase and lack of cadres and financial allocations.

تنشأ عن النشاطات اليومية للانسان العديد من المخلفات وتعد هذه النفايات الصلبة من اكثر تلك المخلفات اثراً وثقلاً على كاهل الانسان، وتعد ادارة النفايات الصلبة في مدينة الحلة احدى القضايا المهمة التي توليها بلدية المدينة اهتماماً واسعاً وذلك من اجل المحافظة على صحة وسلامة الانسان والبيئة . لذا فقد جاء هذا البحث للتعرف على النفايات الصلبة ومصادرها والطرق والاساليب المتبعة في ادارتها من خلال عمليات الجمع والنقل حتى التخلص النهائي منها ،إذ تعاني المدينة في السنوات الاخيرة من مشكلة تراكم النفايات وقصور واضح من من قبل بلدية المدينة في ادارتها وذلك نتيجة الزيادة السكانية وقلة الكوادر والتخصيصات المالية .


Article
THE EFFECT OF USING RUBBER TIER AND GLASS WASTE ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTAR

Author: Mais Abdulrahman Abdulkareem
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-4) Pages: 84-93
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This research studies the effect of rubber tier waste and waste glass together on the properties of cement mortar and used mixing ratio (1: 3) and has been added rubber tier waste ratio are (10%, 20%, and 30%). Has been added waste glass ratio are (10%, 20%and 30 %) and also added rubber tier waste and waste glass together ratio are (10%, 20% and 30%) by weight of the replacement of cement. This study includes mechanical properties such as compressive strength and physical properties such as water absorption, density and also setting time. The results obtained from the study that compressive strength decreases when increasing the percentage of additives of mortar .The water absorption increased when the percentage of additive is increased. The density decrease when both percentage of additive increase in mortar cement. Also, the setting time increases when the percentage of additive is increase.


Article
Effect of Fertilizer by Waste Poultry and Sulfur in The Growth And Yield on Onion ( Allium cepa l.)
تأثير التسميد بمخلفات الدواجن والكبريت الزراعي في نمو وحاصل البصل (Allium cepa L.)

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Abstract

A factorial experiment felid was carried out in Diyala province- Baquba city during season 2014, This study tested the effect of two factors on the growth and holds the local Red Onion (Allium cepa L.). They are chicken manure in four levels (0,500,1000 and 1500) gram.m2 and agricultural sulfur in four levels (0.250.500.750)gram.m2­¹. The experience was accordance with the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The treatments have repeated with three replications. The study concluded the following results: significant improve(P<0.05) in agricultural sulfur Especially treatment Fertilization with agricultural sulfur 750 (g.m2 ­¹) S3 in all growth traits and product for Red domestic onion compared with control treatment and there were not significant differences between the levels of added of agricultural sulfur among them, and the organic fertilization was significant improve(P<0.05) in chicken manure in all vegetative growth traits but the yield traits the treatment of chicken manure fertilization was showed improve in treatment Fertilization of poultry waste 1000(g.m2­¹ ) the character of the percentage of dry matter treatment Fertilization of poultry waste 500 (g.m2­¹ ) of bulb and yield in hectares treatment (C3). The employees treatments have recorded the highest values in all studied traits and were significant compared with control treatment but most of there were not significant between the level of employees.

نفذت تجربة عاملية حقلية للموسم الزراعي 2014- في محافظة ديالى- بعقوبة, اختبر في هذه الدراسة تأثير عاملين على نمو وحاصل البصل الاحمر المحلي(Allium cepa L.), وهما مخلفات الدواجن بأربع مستويات (1500.1000,500,0) غم.م2-1 والكبريت الزراعي بأربع مستويات هي(750.500.250.0) غم.م2-1 . نفذت التجربة وفق تصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة RCBD وكررت المعاملات بثلاث مكررات وقورنت المتوسطات حسب أختبار L. S.D. وخلصت الدراسة الى النتائج التالية: تفوق معاملة الكبريت الزراعي معنويا على مستوى احتمال 0.05 في جميع صفات النمو والحاصل للبصل الاحمر المحلي على معاملة المقارنة ولم تكن الفروق معنوية بين مستويات اضافة الكبريت الزراعي فيما بينها , و تفوقت معاملات التسميد العضوي بمخلفات الدواجن معنويا على مستوى احتمال 0.05 في جميع صفات النمو الخضري اما صفات الحاصل فقد تفوقت نفس المعاملة في الحاصل الكلي بالهكتار68.2 (طن.هكتار-1),وتفوقت معاملة التسميد بمخلفات الدواجن1000غم.م2-1 في صفة النسبة المئوية للمادة الجافة %9.4وسجلت معاملات التداخل اعلى القيم في جميع الصفات المدروسة وكانت معنوية بالمقارنة مع معاملة المقارنة الا انها لم تكن في معظمها معنوية بين مستويات التداخل للعاملين.


Article
Synthesis of Nano Crystalline Gamma Alumina from Waste Cans

Authors: Nada Sadoon Ahmedzeki --- Sattar Jalil Hussein --- Waqar Abdulwahid Abdulnabi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study waste aluminium cans were recycled and converted to produce alumina catalyst. These cans contain more than 98% aluminum oxide in their structure and were successfully synthesized to produce nano sized gamma alumina under mild conditions. A comprehensive study was carried out in order to examine the effect of several important parameters on maximum yield of alumina that can be produced. These parameters were reactants mole ratios (1.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5), sodium hydroxide concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 55%) and weights of aluminum cans (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g). The compositions of alumina solution were determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); and maximum yield of alumina solution was 96.3% obtained at 2 mole ratios of reactants, 40% sodium hydroxide concentrations and 10g of aluminum cans respectively. Gamma alumina was acquired by hydrothermal treatment of alumina solution at pH 7 and calcination temperature of 550 ºC. The prepared catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/ desorption isotherms, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed good crystallinity of alumina as described by XRD patterns, with surface area of 311.149 m2/g, 0.36 cm3/g pore volume, 5.248 nm pore size and particle size of 68.56 nm respectively.


Article
Producing of eco-friendly lightweight concrete using waste polystyrene particles as aggregates with adding waste plastic
إنتاج خرسانة خفيفة الوزن صديقة للبيئة باستخدام نفايات جزيئات الفلين كركام ناعم مع إضافة النفايات البلاستيكية

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Abstract

This research includes studying the possibility of producing a new kind of No-fines concrete by replacing granules of coarse aggregates with grains results from the fragmentation of industrial waste of polystyrene. This replacing were with different volumetric proportions of coarse aggregate, and theses volumetric ratios were equal to (5%, 10%, 15% and 25%). Waste plastic fibers (WPFs) resulting from cutting of soft drinks bottles were added for strengthening this new kind of concrete. Mixing ratio was equal to (1:5) (cement: coarse aggregate) by weight. One reference mix was produced for comparative purpose. Compressive strength, flexural strength and density tests were conducted, it was examined three samples of each examination and taking the average.Compressive strength values of the new sustainable concrete were ranged from 10 MPa to 12.4 MPa at age of test equal to 28 days, while the average value of the density of this concrete at the same age reaches 1930 kg/m3. This average value of modulus of rupture was equal to 2.36 MPa at 28-day age test.

تتضمن هذا الدراسة امكانية انتاج نوع جديد من الخرسانة الخالية من الركام الناعم عن طريق استبدال الحبيبات الناتجة من تفتيت فضلات البولستارين (polystyrene) الصناعي المستخدم في حفظ المواد المنزلية وبنسب حجمية مختلفة بحبيبات من الركام الخشن. لقد استخدمت نسب حجمية للاستبدال بالركام الخشن مساوية لـ (5%،10%،15% و25%) كما و تم تعزيز الخرسانة المصنعة للوحدات البنائية بألياف الفضلات البلاستيكية الناتجة من تقطيع قناني المشروبات الغازية (Waste Plastic Fibers) . كانت نسب الخلط نسب وزنية مساوية لـ(5:1) (سمنت:ركام) كما و تم انتاج خلطة مرجعية واحدة لغرض المقارنة .اجريت عدة فحوصات منها مقاومة الانضغاط ، معاير الكسر والكثافة حيث تم فحص ثلاث نماذج من كل فحص واخذ المعدل.تراوحت قيم مقاومة الانضغاط للخرسانة الجديدة الصديقة للبيئة ما بين (10) ميكا باسكال الى (12.4 ) ميكا باسكال بعمر 28 يوم في حين كانت اقل قيمة لكثافة هذه الوحدات وبنفس العمر تصل الى (1930) كغم/م3 . حقق هذا النوع من الوحدات البنائية اعلى قيمة لمعاير الكسر مساوية الى (2.36) ميكا باسكال بعمر فحص 28 يوما.


Article
The Effects of adding Waste Plastic Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams
تأثير ألياف النفايات البلاستيكية على الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة و مقاومة القص للعتبات الخرسانية المسلحة

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Abstract

The concept of sustainability was developed in the last years and included the construction industry to solve the issues that pertaining by high consumption of natural sources, environmental pollution and high amount production of solid wastes. On the other hand, the plastics generation is growing exponentially every year, especially, types of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) that are used to produce soft drinks bottles, this study attempts to apply the concept of sustainability and reduce the environmental pollution by cutting the plastic bottles (PET) as small fibers added to the ordinary concrete to improve the shear and tensile strength of reinforced concrete beams. For this purpose, the experimental work was carried out to study the effect of waste plastic fibers (PET) on the shear behavior of seven reinforced concrete beams with dimensions of (100×150×1200) mm that were designed to fail in shear, the fibers percentages that were used in this study are (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5%). Also, the influence of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete was studied such as: workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

تم تطوير مفهوم الأستدامة في السنوات الماضية لتشمل صناعة البناء والتشييد لحل القضايا التي تتعلق بالاستهلاك المرتفع للمصادر الطبيعية والتلوث البيئي وإنتاج كميات عالية من النفايات الصلبة، ومن ناحية أخرى فإن إنتاج البلاستيك ينمو بشكل كبير في كل عام، وخاصة أنواع البولي إثيلين تيريفثالات (Polyethylene Terephthalate-PET) التي تستخدم لإنتاج قناني المشروبات الغازية. تحاول هذه الدراسة تطبيق مفهوم الاستدامة للحد من التلوث البيئي عن طريق تقطع قناني المشروبات البلاستيكية على شكل ألياف صغيرة التي تضاف إلى الخرسانة العادية لتحسين مقاومة القص و الشد للعتبات الخرسانة المسلحة، ولتحقيق هذا الغرض، تم إجراء الفحص المختبري لدراسة تأثير ألياف النفايات البلاستيكية (PET) على سلوك القص لسبع عتبات خرسانية مسلحة بأبعاد (100 × 150 × 1200) ملم صممت لتفشل في القص، وكانت النسب المئوية للألياف التي استخدمت في هذه الدراسة هي (0.25، 0.5، 0.75، 1، 1.25 و 1.5٪). كما تم دراسة تأثير ألياف البولي إثيلين تيريفثالات (Polyethylene Terephthalate-PET) على الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة مثل قابلية التشغيل، مقاومة الانضغاط، ومقاومة شد الانشطار، معامل المرونة و سرعة الموجات فوق الصوتية.

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