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Article
Evaluation of a Number of Water Treatment Plants in Kirkuk Governorate using the Water Quality Index

Authors: AbdulRazaq Khader Abdul Wahid --- Idan I. Ghdhban --- Rodhan Abdullah Salih
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2018 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-59
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

A study was conducted on sixteen water purification plants in Kirkuk governorate to evaluate the treatment of water in them, where physical and chemical tests were conducted for raw water and treated water for a period of (6) months from December until May. Temperature, turbidity, pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electric Conductivity (EC), alkali, Total Hardness (TH) and calcium (Ca+2) were measured. Water quality index Canadian method (CCME) was used to classify raw water quality and treated water. The results showed that the raw water for all stations was classified as category (4) (bad) during the study period. The treated water was different for the treatment plants. Two of the treatment plants recorded good efficiency in water treatment (AL-Shallalah plant and Sin AL-Thiban) the treated water remained in category (2) (good). While the water quality of AL-Mosanaa plant indicated that there was a problem in the treatment of water in this plant, the treated water remained in category (4) bad during the study period. Water quality index fluctuated for other plants during the study period. The study also showed that alkali values of all stations were higher than the allowable limit for raw water and treated water.


Article
Application of CCME WQI in the Assessment of the Water Quality of Danube River, Romania

Authors: Alhassan H. Ismail --- Diana Robescu --- Muntaser A. Hameed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (C) Pages: 142-146
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

An attempt has been made to assess the water quality of the DanubeRiver using water quality index technique. In this study, the Canadian Councilof Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) wasselected to express the quality of water for drinking water abstraction and toprovide information on the spatial and temporal variations of the river waterquality. Water quality of 13 parameters has been considered in four samplingstations during 1-year period. The European Community (EC) standards fordrinking water abstraction were used for CCME WQI calculation. The waterquality variables included in the index are dissolved oxygen, biochemicaloxygen demand, ammonium, nitrates, total phosphorus, water temperature, pH,total suspended solids, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and lead. Theresults revealed that the water quality was found fair in all sampling stationsexcept one station, which was marginal. It was observed that the mostimportant variables that affected the water quality were ammonium, totalphosphorous, water temperature and total suspended solids. Moreover, nosignificant changes were observed for temporal variation in the Danube riverwater quality. The CCME WQI gave reasonable results and introducedrepresentative outcomes of the raw data of the river


Article
Fuzzy Logic Inference Index to Assess the Water Quality of Tigris River within Baghdad City

Authors: Salam Hussein Ewaid --- Turki Diwan Hussein --- Faiza Kadhim Emran
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2018 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 ICSSSA 2018 Conference Issue Pages: 16-20
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study aimed to develop a new water quality index for routine assessment of the river water quality for drinking purpose based on fuzzy logic artificial intelligence method. Four water quality parameters were involved in light of their significance to Iraqi waters, these parameters are biological oxygen demand, and total dissolved solids, total hardness, and fecal coliform. Fuzzy logic inference system with specific rules was developed by Matlab software using Mamdani fuzzy logic Max–Min inference system method. To evaluate the performance of this new fuzzy water quality index (FWQI), tests were conducted using the Iraqi standards for drinking water quality and the 2017 data set of Tigris River within Baghdad. Results revealed the FWQI ability to assess the water quality of Tigris River during the period of the study and that the method of fuzzy inference system was a simple, valuable and applied water quality evaluation tool for human drinking water of Iraqi rivers.

هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى تطوير مؤشر جديد لجودة المياه من أجل التقييم الروتيني لجودة مياه الأنهار لأغراض الشرب على أساس طريقة الذكاء الاصطناعي المنطقي. أستعملت أربعة من متغيرات جودة المياه في ضوء أهميتها للمياه العراقية ، وهذه المتغيرات هي الطلب البيولوجي للأوكسجين ، المواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية ، العسرة الكلية ، والبكتريا القولونية البرازية. تم تطوير قواعد خاصة لنظام أستدلال المنطق الضبابي بواسطة برنامج ماتلاب وبطريقة نظام الاستدلال المنطقي ممداني للحد الأقصى- الأدنى. ولغرض تقييم أداء هذا الدليل الجديد لجودة المياه ، أجريت أختبارات باستخدام المعايير العراقية لجودة مياه الشرب ومجموعة بيانات جودة المياه لعام 2017 لنهر دجلة داخل بغداد. وكشفت النتائج عن قدرة الدليل المقترح على تقييم جودة مياه نهر دجلة خلال فترة الدراسة ، وأن طريقة نظام أستدلال المنطق الضبابي كانت أداة عملية وبسيطة يمكن الاعتماد عليها لتقييم نوعية المياه لغرض الشرب في الأنهار العراقية.


Article
Suitability of Surface Water for Drinking purposes in Basrah City Using Water Quality Index (WQI)
ملاءمة المياه السطحية لأغراض الشرب في مدينة البصرة باستخدام مؤشر جودة المياه (WQI)

Author: Ayman Alak Hassan أيمن علك حسن
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة المدنية ISSN: 19927428 Year: 2018 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-95
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The water quality index (WQI) is applying for the integrating the water quality variables into a single number to indicate the overall quality of water. Rivers is one of the essential water resources, the protecting and preserving for the quality of this resource is important and imperative. An evaluation of water characteristics of the Shatt Al Arab River in Basrah city was performed in order to determine the quality of water for drinking usage. In this research, monitoring of variation in the characteristics of water was accomplished by collecting monthly water samples for three years. The water samples from the Shatt Al Arab River is analyzed for eight Physical and chemical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphate (SO4) and chloride (Cl) using standard methods. Utilizing the WQI discovered that the water quality of the studied river is ranked between very poor water type and not suitable water for drinking usage category. In the present investigation, the quality of water was revealed that the average of WQI value for the studied years was 318, 337.3 and 456.7, respectively.

يعمل مؤشر جودة المياه (WQI) على دمج متغيرات نوعية المياه في رقم واحد للإشارة إلى الجودة الإجمالية للمياه. الأنهار هي واحدة من الموارد المائية الأساسية، وحماية والحفاظ على نوعية هذا المورد هو أمر حتمي ومهم. تم إجراء تقييم لخصائص مياه نهر شط العرب في مدينة البصرة من أجل تحديد نوعية المياه المستخدمة للشرب. في هذا البحث تم رصد التباين في خصائص المياه عن طريق جمع عينات المياه الشهرية لمدة ثلاث سنوات. تم تحليل عينات المياه من نهر شط العرب لثماني معلمات فيزيائية وكيميائية مثل الرقم الهيدروجيني، المواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية، التوصيل الكهربائي ، العسرة الكلية ، الكالسيوم، المغنيسيوم ، الكبريتات ، والكلوريدات وذلك باستخدام الطرق القياسية للقياس والتحليل. وقد اكتشف استخدام مؤشر جودة المياه أن نوعية المياه في النهر المدروسة تصنف بين فئة الماء الرديء جدا وفئة الماء الغير مناسب الاستخدام للشرب. في هذا البحث، تم الكشف عن متوسط قيمة نوعية المياه و للسنوات المدروسة حيث كانت 318، 337.3 و 456.7، على التوالي.


Article
Study of Surface Water Quality and Trends Assessment at Shatt Al-Arab River in Basrah Province
دراسة وتقييم نوعية المياه السطحية وتغيراتها في نهر شط العرب في محافظة البصرة

Authors: Ammar Salman Dawood --- Ammar Ashour Akesh --- Ahmed Sagban Khudier
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 215-231
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

In this paper, the monitoring of surface water quality for the Shatt Al Arab River between 2011 and 2014 have been done by using the physico-chemical parameters. These parameters are sulphate (SO4), phosphate (PO4), nitrate (NO3), magnesium (Mg), dissolved oxygen (DO), chloride (Cl), and calcium (Ca). Five sampling stations were selected to monitor these parameters along the Shatt Al Arab River. Mann-Kendall Seasonal Test for the water quality assessment was done to detect the different levels of pollution and trend is made use of in the area under investigation. The results have revealed parameter variation over time due to, at most, the increasing pollution levels at the monitoring stations along the Shatt Al Arab River during the 2011-2014 period. The current research submits the use and utility of trend statistical assessment of large and complicated database in order to get more useful information on the quality of surface water, sampling design and analytical protocols, the efficient control of pollution, and the good management of the surface water.

تم في هذا البحث رصد نوعية المياه السطحية لنهر شط العرب بين عامي 2011 و 2014 , حيث شملت الدراسة تغطية المعاملات الفيزيائية والكيميائية. حيث ان المعاملات التي تم اختيارها شملت كلا من الكبريتات (SO4)، الفوسفات (PO4)، النترات (NO3)، المغنيسيوم (Mg)، الأوكسجين المذاب (DO)، الكلوريدات (Cl)، والكالسيوم (Ca). وقد تم رصد هذه المعايير السبعة على طول نهر شط العرب في خمس محطات لجمع العينات. تم إجراء اختبار (مان-كندال) الموحد لجميع المعاملات لتقييم جودة المياه وللكشف عن مستويات التلوث المختلفة وقد تم استخدام اتجاه سلوك المتغيرات مع الزمن في منطقة الدراسة. وأظهرت النتائج تباين القيم والتراكيز المقاسة مع مرور الوقت بسبب ارتفاع مستويات التلوث في محطات المراقبة على طول نهر شط العرب خلال الفترة 2011-2014. وتقدم هذه الدراسة استخدام وفائدة التقييم الإحصائي للاتجاه لقاعدة البيانات الكبيرة والمعدة من أجل الحصول على معلومات أفضل عن نوعية المياه السطحية وتصميم العينات والبروتوكولات التحليلية، وكفاءة السيطرة على التلوث، والإدارة الجيدة للمياه السطحية


Article
An Ecological Assessment for Water Quality of Some Water Bodies in Koysenjaq-Erbil, Iraq.

Authors: Janan Jabbar Toma --- Yahya Ahmad Shekha --- Yadi Omar Mustafa Al-Barzingy
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 119-129
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Water `assessment and algal composition study was conducted near Koysenjaq district for nine sites including (4) springs and (5) streams. Monthly water samples collected from April-2013 to March-2014 and 15 physico-chemicals parameters and algal content were analyzed. Generally, pH of water tend to be in alkaline side of neutrality. Mean values of electrical conductivity ranged between 272-441µs.cm-1 in January and July respectively. Total hardness extended from hard to very hard water. Cation arranged in order as follows: Ca> Mg>Na>K. Higher mean value of ammonium recorded in site 6 was 14.8 µg N.NH3.l-1, and minimum value of nitrite was 0.68µg N.NO2.l-1 in site 6. Mean values of phosphate ranged between (0.82-4.5µg P-PO4.l-1). Highest value of dissolved oxygen were observed in sites 7, 8 and 9, while the minimum value of biochemical oxygen demand recorded in site 2 was 0.7mg.l-1. A total 73 species of algal species were identified of which belong to Bacillariophyceae (25 species), Cyanophyceae (23 species), Chlorophyceae (16 species), Euglenophyceae (4 species), Charophyceae and Xanthophyceae (2 species for each one) and 1 species belong to Rhodophyceae. Multivariate statistical techniques results revealed that water quality of the monitored water bodies were influenced by many pollution sources including the geological formation of the area, agricultural activities and effluent of domestic sewage water.


Article
Effect of Alton Kopri Wastewater on Lesser-Zab Raw Water

Authors: Shuokr Qarani Aziz --- Wali Ali Abdullah --- Evan Ogestin Slewa
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2018 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 18-26
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This work aimed to study the impact of Alton Kopri wastewater on the Lesser-Zab River water. Specifically, the study aimed to determine the impacts of the formed wastewater on the Lesser-Zab River using the mass balance principle (MBP) and provide appropriate solutions to this problem. Fresh samples from Alton Kopri wastewater and the Lesser-Zab River water were collected from February 2013 to September 2013. The samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, total acidity, chloride, turbidity, solids, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, and sulfate. Results presented graphically demonstrated that Alton Kopri wastewater can be classified as medium- to strong-type wastewater, whereas the Lesser-Zab River can be categorized as a moderately polluted river and moderately hard to hard water. The application of MBP revealed that Alton Kopri wastewater affected the Lesser-Zab River water; hence, appropriate solutions were outlined to minimize the impact of the former on the water resource and treatment of the latter.


Article
Mapping groundwater quality Index for irrigation in the Dibdibba aquifer at Karbala - Najaf plateau, central of Iraq

Authors: Qusai Y. Al-Kubaisi --- Alaa M. Al-Abadi --- Maitham A. Al-Ghanimy
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3C Pages: 1636-1652
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Mapping groundwater quality Index for irrigation is of great importance for agricultural issues. As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in Iraqi Western Desert area, where the study area (Dibdibba aquifer) represents the extreme eastern part of it, evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation is important. This study aims to develop decision support tools for identifying the optimal locations of groundwater regarding its quality to meet the future demands of the study area. Samples were collected during the wet season (April-May 2017 (and analyzed for determining the physicochemical properties. The indices used in the quality assessment were the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (%Na+), magnesium hazard (MH), and irrigation water quality index (IWQI), incorporating the spatial variation using the GIS-based multi-criteria system highlighted the spatial variation of groundwater quality for irrigation in the study area. This spatial distribution indicated that groundwater is generally of moderate quality in the Dibdibba aquifer.


Article
The low discharge simulation of the Shatt Al-Arab River and its influence on water quality.
محاكاة التصاريف المنخفضة لنهر شط العرب وتأثيرها على نوعية المياه.

Author: A.J.M. Al-Fartusi عادل جاسم محمد الفرطوسي
Journal: Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science مجلة وادي الرافدين لعلوم البحار ISSN: 18152058 Year: 2018 Volume: 33 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-18
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In the present research, a numerical model was developed using the software package Mike 11 to study the water quality of the Shatt Al-Arab river (TDS, DO, TSS). Three stations were selected at the upstream of River (Qurnah) in the middle (Ma,aqal) and downstream (FAO). A value of (50 m3/sec) discharge was used in chain age (0.0 m) and time series file for heights of tides in chain age (240932.0 m) which was the implementation of the programme for one year after calibration and verification between field measurements and the programme outputs, they show that there is a good compatibility. On using the value (250 m3/sec) to explore the impact of high discharge of river on water quality, this study shows that the discharge of the river plays the role of reverse with increase and decrease in these characteristics as well as the location of measuring stations on the estuary, in which all the values of variables are increased has an obvious effect. If the measurement station became closer to estuary that’s lead to increase in the value for variables, because of the tidal river were the values for variables in some stations in flood case larger than of ebb case. The programme represents a first step towards preparing a programme containing more water quality variables. After the success of the programme, made it possible to calculate any of the three variables after knowing the value of the discharge of the river and enter the time series of tidal heights.

تم إعداد أنموذج عددي بأستخدام حزمة برامجيات (مايك 11) لبعض خصائص نوعية مياه شط العرب (المواد الذائبة الكلية والاوكسجين المذاب و المواد العالقة الكلية). أختيرت ثلاث محطات على طول نهر شط العرب في بداية النهر (القرنة) وفي الوسط (المعقل) وفي المصب (الفاو). ادخل قيمة تصريف النهر (50 م3ثا) عند تسلل (صفر متر).كما ادخل ملف السلسلة الزمنية لارتفاعات المد والجزر عند تسلسل (220932.0 متر). تم تنفيذ البرنامج لمدة سنة كاملة وبعد المعايرة والتحقق تبين أن هنالك تطابق بنسبة عالية بين القياسات الحقلية ومخرجات البرنامج المعد. ادخلت قيمة للتصريف (250م3ثا) لمعرفة تأثير ارتفاع تصريف النهر على العناصر المدخلة لنوعية المياه . من خلال الدراسة تبين ان تصريف النهر يلعب دور عكسي في زيادة ونقصان هذه الخصائص كذلك بعد موقع محطات القياس عن مصب النهر له تأثير واضح، إذ كلما قربت المحطة زادت هذه القيم وبما أن النهر هو نهر مدي كانت القيم في بعض المحطات أكبر في حالة المـد منهـا في حالـة الجـزر. البرنامج المعد يمثل خطوه أولى من أجـل إعـداد برنامج يحوي متغيرات أكثر لنوعية المياه. بعد النجاح الذي حققه البرنامج المعد أصبح بالإمكان حساب أي من المتغيرات الثلاث بعد معرفة قيمة التصريف للنهر وإدخال السلسلة الزمنية لارتفاعات المد والجزر.


Article
Application of Overall Index of Pollution (OIP) for the Evaluating of the Water Quality in Al-Gharraf River southern of Iraq

Authors: Wisam Th. Al-Mayah --- Adel M. Rabee
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2A Pages: 660-669
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This comprehensive study investigates has been made to assess the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, which considered the main branch of Tigris River south of Iraq using the overall Index of Pollution (OIP), depending on 9 physical, chemical, and biological important parameters of water quality were analyzed: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), turbidity (NTU), total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD5) , total hardness (TH), sulfate (SO4), nitrate (NO3),and fecal coliform (FC), which measured monthly at twenty one stations on the river during 2016-2017. Water quality deterioration has occurred in the last ten stations, consequently, the health status of the river has changed from acceptable to heavily polluted, and the fecal coliform bacteria (FC) was the major factor that affects the quality of the wter river. In this paper concluded that the Al-Gharraf River was in class poor and the Al-Gharraf River water is relatively not suitable for direct public usage in all seasons.

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