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Article
Removing of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Dried Yogurt, and Studying Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters
إزالة الكروم السداسي من المحاليل المائية بإستخدام اللبن الزبادي المجفف، دراسة الأيزوثيرم والحركية والعوامل الثرموديناميكية

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Abstract

In this study, Yogurt was dried and milled, then shaked with distilled water to remove the soluble materials, then again dried and milled. Batch experiments were carried out to remove hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions. Different parameters were optimized such as amount of adsorbent, treatment time, pH and concentration of adsorbate. The concentrations of Cr6+ in solutions are determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Maximum percentage removal of Cr6+ was 82% at pH 2. Two equilibrium adsorption isotherms mechanisms are tested Langmuir and Freundlich, the results showed that the isotherm obeyed to Freundlich isotherm. Kinetic models were applied to the adsorption of Cr6+ ions on the adsorbents, pseudo-first-order, the pseudo second-order respectively. Results showed that pseudo second-order kinetic model was applicable to the experimental data well. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔGº, ΔHº and ΔSº were calculated. ∆H°, ∆S° and ΔGº for this study were negative indicating that the process is exothermic, while negative values of ΔGº indicate spontaneous process.

في هذه الدراسة، تم تجفيف الزبادي وطحنه، ثم شطفهِ بالماء المقطر بالهزاز لإزالة المواد الذائبة وتجفيفه وطحنه ثانيةً. أُجريت مجموعة تجارب لإزالة الكروم السداسي التكافؤ من المحاليل المائية. تم دراسة تأثير عوامل مختلفة على النسبة المئوية لإزالة الكروم السداسي مثل كمية المادة المازة والزمن ودرجة الحموضة وتركيز المادة الممتزة. حُسِبَ تركيز الكروم السداسي في المحاليل بواسطة مطياف الاشعة فوق البنفسجية - المرئية. أعلى نسبة مئوية لإزالة الكروم السداسي كانت 82٪ عند الرقم الهيدروجيني 2. تم اختبار اثنين من ايزوثيرمات الاتزان وهي لانكماير وفريندلج، اظهرت نتائج دراسة الايزوثيرم الاطاعة بشكل اكبر لنموذج فرينلج. كما تم تطبيق نموذجين لحركية إمتزاز أيونات الكروم السداسي على المادة المازَة وهما الرتبة الأولى الكاذبة والرتبة الثانية الكاذبة على التوالي. اظهرت نتائج دراسة الحركية ان الرتبة الثانية الكاذبة اكثر إنطباقاً على البيانات التجريبية. وتم إحتساب بعض القيم الثرموديناميكية مثل التغيرات في الطاقة الحرة والانثالبي والانتروبي وكانت قيم التغيرات في الانثالبي والانتروبي لهذه الدراسة سالبة يشير ذلك إلى أن العملية طاردة للحرارة، بينما تشير القيم السلبية للتغير في الطاقة الحرة إن العملية تلقائية.


Article
Removal of Methyl Orange from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Corn Leaves as Adsorbent Material
إزالة صبغة الميثيل البرتقالية من المحاليل المائية عن طريق الامتزاز باستخدام أوراق الذرة كمادة مازة

Authors: Omar Hisham Fadhil --- Mohammed Y. Eisa
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 55-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A comparative study was done on the adsorption of methyl orange dye (MO) using non-activated and activated corn leaves with hydrochloric acid as an adsorbent material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized to specify the properties of adsorbent material. The effect of several variables (pH, initial dye concentration, temperature, amount of adsorbent and contact time) on the removal efficiency was studied and the results indicated that the adsorption efficiency increases with the increase in the concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage and contact time, while inversely proportional to the increase in pH and temperature for both the treated and untreated corn leaves. The equilibrium data is best fitted to Freundlich isotherm for untreated adsorbent, while Langmuir isotherm show best agreement with the data when the treated adsorbent is used. The rate of adsorption was found to follow the pseudo first order kinetic model (PFO) when non-activated adsorbent is used, while the pseudo second order model (PSO) is fitted to the adsorption data using activated adsorbent.

أجريت دراسة مقارنة على امتصاص صبغة الميثيل البرتقالية (MO) باستخدام أوراق الذرة غير المنشطة والمنشطة بحامض الهيدروكلوريك كمواد مازة. تم استخدام الماسح المجهري الإلكتروني (SEM) والتحليل الطيفي بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (FTIR) لتحديد خصائص المادة المازة. تمت دراسة تأثير العديد من المتغيرات (الأس الهيدروجيني، التركيز الابتدائي للصبغة، درجة الحرارة، كمية المادة المازة وزمن الامتزاز) على كفاءة الإزالة و بينت النتائج أن كفاءة الإمتزاز تزداد مع زيادة تركيز الصبغة و الجرعة الممتزة ووقت التلامس، بينما يتناسب عكسيا مع الزيادة في درجة الحموضة ودرجة الحرارة لكل من أوراق الذرة المنشطه وغير المنشطه. اظهرت نتائج بيانات التوازن توافقا مع Freundlich Isotherm عند استخدام المادة المازة غير المنشطه، في حين اظهر Langmuir Isotherm توافقا مع البينات عند استخدام المادة المازة المنشطه بالحامض. وجد بأن معدل الامتزاز يتبع معادلة حركيات الدرجة الأولى الزائفه (PFO) عندما يتم استخدام المادة المازة غير المنشطة، في حين يتبع معادلة حركيات الدرجة الثانية الزائفه (PSO) عند استخدام المادة المازة المنشطة.


Article
Synthesis of Activated Carbon from Eichhronia Crassipes Plant as Adsorbent for the Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Atheel H. Alwash --- Dheaa Zageer --- Hussain Mohammed Ali
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2019 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-54
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

For a friendly environment, adsorbents are prepared from harmful natural sources to reduce their impact on the environment. The preparation of activated carbon from the Eichhornia crassipes was done by carbonization at 450C°, followed by activation step at 800C°. The adsorption processes were carried out by the batch system to determine the optimal conditions for the removal of phenol from the aqueous solutions. Different parameters were used in batch experiments such as initial concentrations of phenol (in the range from 10-100 ppm), pH (from 2-12), temperature (from 298-328k), AC dosage (from 0.09-0.4g). All the adsorption experiments were carried out in thermostat shaker at 150 rpm. The removal percentage of phenol on activated carbon was 98.2% at optimum conditions of 10 ppm initial phenol concentration, 25 minutes, pH=7, 308 k, 0.2 g of AC dosage). The thermodynamic functions of phenol adsorption were studied at different temperatures. The values of Gibbs free energy (∆G) at maximum removal with temperatures (298, 308, 318 and 328K) was (-5.17, -6.83, -8.22, -8.48) respectively and enthalpy ∆H, entropy ∆S values was 29.22 and 0.114. The activated carbon extracted from Eichhornia crassipes has a double benefit. first, to remove various organic pollutants such as phenols in aqueous solutions and the second, to create a clean water environment free of this plant found in Iraqi waters.


Article
EVALUATION OF INHIBITOR EFFICIENCY IN CRUDE OIL PIPELINE OF MISSAN OIL FIELDS SOUTH IRAQ

Authors: Raed Abd Al-Hussain --- Haider Hadi Jasim
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 145-161
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this paper, three different types of pipeline materials and four types of corrosion inhibitors were test using immersion method in the crude oil solutions collected from six fields southern Iraq. The influence of crude oil composition; temperatures and pipeline roughness were performed. As a result the X80 carbon steel has lower corrosion rate, while ductile iron has largest value and X60 steel shows moderate value. Imidazonline inhibitor has best efficiency while Great inhibitor shows lower efficiency, the pipeline and oil-line inhibitor show moderate values. Increasing roughness of pipeline material reduced inhibitor adsorption and lead to increase of corrosion rate


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study of poly(vinyl acetate)-g-Chitosan and its Use in Removal of Cadmium (II) ions from Water

Authors: Ali Jasim Hammood --- Salam A. H. Al-Ameri --- Zyad H. Jawad Al-Qaisi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2019 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The grafted vinyl acetate copolymerization lying on chitosan in weak acidic aqueous solution was examined via using K2S2O8 as initiator. FTIR spectra, DSC, DTG and TGA were used for graft polymer characterizing. The monomer to chitosan ratio was tested and the optimal grafting conditions were affixed. the highest grafting percentage PG of production polymers have been applied to remove Cd(II) ions from water samples through adsorption experiments at pH=7. The amounts of adsorbed metal ion on the polymers was estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The temperature effect on Cd(II) adsorption was studied too. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as kinetic study equations were employed to fit the experimental data. The results of the adsorption equilibrium for Cd(II) fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the removal percentage at 30°C after 5 min is 76.65 % and the thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption are ΔH= 96.87 kJ/mol ΔS= 339.19 J/mol K and ΔG= -5.11, -11.13 and -11.78 kJ/mol in different temperatures. The kinetic study of these adsorption isotherms showed that all these isotherms correlates well with the second order equation.


Article
Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution onto Sawdust Activated Carbon
أمتزاز المعادن الثقيلة من محلول مائي على كاربون منشط منتج من نشارة الخشب

Authors: Marah W. Khalid مرح وليد خالد --- Sami D. Salman سامي داود سلمان
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 60-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, sawdust as a cheap method and abundant raw material was utilized to produce active carbon (SDAC). Physiochemical activation was utilized where potassium hydroxide used as a chemical activating agent and carbon dioxide was used as a physical activating agent. Taguchi method of experimental design was used to find the optimum conditions of SDAC production. The produced SDAC was characterized using SEM to investigate surface morphology and BET to estimate the specific surface area. SDAC was used in aqueous lead ions adsorption. Adsorption process was modeled statistically and represented by an empirical model. The highest specific surface area of SDAC was 688.3 m2/gm. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the adsorption process, where equilibrium data was best represented by Langmuir isotherm model. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations were used to study adsorption kinetics, lead adsorption on SDAC fitted pseudo- second order more adequately. Best removal efficiency was found to be 99.63% with highest adsorption capacity of 19.92 mg/g.

نتيجة للاستعمالات الواسعة للرصاص في الصناعة، بالإضافة الى أن اثاره الخطرة، وجب البحث عن طريقه فعاله واقتصاديه لإزالته من المياه العادمة. في هذه الدراسة، تم استخدام نشارة الخشب، كماده اوليه رخيصة، لإنتاج الكاربون المنشط. تم استخدام طريقه فيزيائية كيميائية للتفعيل، حيث تم استخدام هيدروكسيد البوتاسيوم كعامل تفعيل كيميائي وثنائي أوكسيد الكربون كعامل تفعيل فيزيائي. تم استخدام طريقة تاغوشي لتصميم التجارب لإيجاد أفضل الظروف لتحضير الكاربون المنشط من نشارة الخشب. تم تشخيص الكاربون المنتج بالمجهر الالكتروني للتحقق من شكله السطحي وتم استخدام ال(BET) لمعرفة مساحته السطحية. تم استخدام الكاربون المنتج من نشارة الخشب لامتزاز ايونات الرصاص من المحاليل المائية. تم تمثيل عملية الامتزاز رياضيا بواسطة معادله قياسيه تجريبيه. اعلى مساحة سطحيه تم الحصول عليها هي 688.3 م2/غم. تم استخدام معادلة لانغماير وفريندليتش لتمثيل عملية الامتزاز، حيث كانت العملية متطابقة بصورة كبيرة مع نموذج لانغماير. تم استخدام معادلة الدرجة الأولى والدرجة الثانية الخاصة بدراسة حركيه الامتزاز، حيث كانت عملية الامتزاز متوافقة بصورة كبيرة مع معادلة الدرجة الثانية. أعلى كفاءه امتزاز تم الحصول عليها بلغت 99.63% مع أعلى قدرة امتزاز تصل الى 19.92 ملغم/غم.


Article
Isothermic Adsorption and Applications of Kinetics Models, Thermodynamics Functions ,Probability Sticking for Benzoic Acid and Some Substituted by Using Anew Adsorbent Substance

Authors: Khaleel-Ibrahim Al-Neimi --- Ahmed Ghanem Ahmed
Journal: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE مجلة التربية والعلم ISSN: 1812125X Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 23-39
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The research including used anew adsorbent substance collected from sandstorms which arrived to Mosul city to study adsorption of Benzoic acid and some substituted and application of kinetics Models (pseudo first and second order reaction ) Elovich model kinetics and determination of thermodynamic function for adsorption process as well as the probability sticking for acids molecules on surface (S*)and the appareant activation energy , the isothermic constants were determined for frendlich ,Langmir,Tempkin at different temperature and factors affecting on adsorption process ,the results gives indicates that the physical mechanism which predominate and some times physical and chemical the adsorption was increased and desorption decreased ,this process non spotonous and need lower energy to happened


Article
Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studys of Adsorption of Azo Dyes on The Local Bentonite Clay

Authors: Safwan.A.S.Aldbouni --- Emad.A.S.Alhyali --- Ammar.A.H.Alkazraji
Journal: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE مجلة التربية والعلم ISSN: 1812125X Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 50-70
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This work is included the synthesizs of two azo dyes from the reaction of p-methoxy aniline and 2-amino benzo thiazol .via diazounium ions.A number of clays are tested as adsorbents for the removal of these dyes from their aqueous solution by adsorption . The most efficied one was selected to peforme this study . The prepared dyes are characterized by some of their physical propertier such as(max) , (max) melting point. Stretch bond of (N=N) group by(IR)spectrometry and colours. The optimal condition of the adsorption systems undre study such as effect of does ,initial concentration ,and temperature wear investigated . Two isotherm models,Langmuir and Freundlich were fitted to the experimental data of adsorption .the thermodynamic Function ( ∆H, ∆G°,∆S°) are estimated. The results of the thermodynamic study showed that ,the forces controlling the adsorption process of the systems under considerate are physical in nature . The adsorption process are exothermic , occur spontaneously in the direction of connecting the dye to the clay surface ,and forming less random system.


Article
Mechanism, Kinetic And Thermodynamic For Transport Of Citric Acid Ions To Removal By Adsorption Using Electrical Conductivity, Potential Difference And Acidity Function

Author: Dr.Khaleel-Ibraheem-AL-Niemi
Journal: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE مجلة التربية والعلم ISSN: 1812125X Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 85-102
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

In this research used the electrical conductivity, potential difference, acidity function and the probability Sticking on surface were used to detected the mechanism of Ions transportation of citric acids by adsorption from the solution to the surface of solid particles using anew adsorpent clay. The kinetics model (pseudo first and second order, Eleovich kinetic and Intraparticle diffusion) applied on the experimental results of adsorption as well as Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms, this study arrived to that the a high transportation of acid ions to the surface to form a surface complexation model with solid particles happened at low concentrations and temperatures, the result of adsorption obeyed the pseudo first order kinetic, and the Intraparticle diffusion occurred was a controlled process , the constants KF, KT for isotherms used to calculated the thermodynamic functions ΔG,ΔH,ΔS for adsorption process.


Article
Using Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Power in Air-Conditioning Processes by Adsorption Technique
استخدام الطاقة الشمسية والطاقة الكهروضوئية في عمليات تكييف الهواء بواسطة تقنية الامتزاز

Author: Jabbar Kh. Mohammed جبار خلف محمد
Journal: JOURNAL OF MADENAT ALELEM COLLEGE مجلة كلية مدينة العلم الجامعة ISSN: 2073,2295 Year: 2019 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-131
Publisher: City College of Science University كلية مدينة العلم الجامعة

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Abstract

The research is present the heat-driven adsorption chiller performance by using low temperature water which be extracted from the solar energy through using photovoltaic solar panels and solar thermal collectors as a main energy source. The adsorption system employs the silica gel-water as the adsorbent. Also this system has an advantage such as the maintenance is low, no major parts movement and environmental friendly. The numerical simulations have been carried out for heat sources temperatures ranged between 60-80°C, chilled water and cooling from 15 °C to 35 °C respectively. Program in FORTRAN was built to achieve the numerical simulation for adsorption system. The results indicated the coefficient of performance for lower hot water temperature is increased with time processes of heating or cooling. The refrigeration capacity for high hot water temperature is increased with time processes of heating or cooling while the effect of low hot water temperature is low.

يقدم البحث الحالي دراسة أداء منظومة تبريد تعمل بتقنية الامتزاز باستخدام ماء ساخن بدرجة حرارة واطئة يمكن الحصول عليها من الطاقة الشمسية وذلك من خلال استخدام طاقة الخلايا الشمسية والمجمعات الشمسية كمصدر اساسي لطاقة النظام .تستخدم المنظومة الماء-هيلام السيليكا كمكثّف لعمل النظام. الفائدة الرئيسية لاستخدام أنظمة التبريد التي تعمل بتقنية الامتزاز هي عدم وجود أجزاء متحركة ، تحتاج إلى صيانة قليلة إضافة إلى إنها صديقة للبيئة. المحاكاة العددية نفذت لمصدر ذي درجة حرارة تتراوح بين 60 ºCالى 80 ºC ودرجة حرارة الماء المثلج وماء التبريد من 15 ºC إلى 35 ºC على الترتيب، لإنجاز الحل للمحاكاة العددية تم بناء برنامج بلغة فورتران 90 لإنجاز المحاكاة العددية، النتائج بينت إن معامل الأداء يزداد مع الزمن عند درجة حرارة الماء الساخن الواطئة. سعة التبريد تزداد مع زمن اشتغال المنظومة لحالة درجة حرارة الماء العالية.

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