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Article
LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING: AN ETIOLOGICAL STUDY

Authors: Qasim L Abbas قاسم لفته عباس --- Rabah H Asreah رباح هياب الربيعي --- Basim R Ghadban basimgadban@yahoo.com
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 278-286
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is defined as bleeding from a source below the ligament of Treitz. Most series which studied the etiology of the acute LGIB showed that Colonic diverticulae and angiodysplasia were the commonest etiology identified, ranging from (17- 40%, 2-30% respectively). Colitis including the inflammatory bowel disease, account for 6-30% of cases. Uncommon causes of LGIB include colonic neoplasia in 11-14% and anorectal lesions in 4-10% (mostly due to hemorrhoids,). Other less common cause is small bowel source in 2-9%; rare causes include Dieulafoy lesion and colonic ulcerations.Objective:To verify the etiology of LGIB in Iraqi patients.Methods:The study group included 100 patients who were suffering from acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding and referred to the endoscopy unit in the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Teaching Hospital. After the initial history, physical examination and laboratory studies were obtained; all patients with hemodynamic instability were resuscitated with intravenous fluid and blood transfusion. Colonoscopy performed within 12 hours of hospitalization (with or without an upper endoscopy), with the aim of reaching up to the cecum in all cases.Results:Of 100 patients (55 female, 45 male) 78% presented with haematochesia, 11% with red maroon stool with malaena, and 11% with malaena only. Bleeding due to colitis was the most frequent diagnosis, which is reported in 38 patients. The diagnosis of anorectal lesions and colonic neoplasia were the second and third most common diagnosis (21%, 12% respectively). Colonic diverticulae in 12 patients, colonic angiodysplasia in 11 patients and small intestinal source is 5 patients and 1 patient with colonic Dieulafoy lesion.Conclusions:This study showed that inflammatory bowel disease; colorectal polyps including post polypectomy bleeding, diverticulosis, angiodysplasia, and hemorrhoids were the most common causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding.Key words:Lower gastrointestinal bleeding


Article
BacterialiInfectionsiofitheiGastrointestinaliTractiin Calves

Author: RawaaiS.iJumaa
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 81-85
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Thisistudyiaimeditoiidentifyitheipathogenicicausesiofiintestinalitractincalveibyiisolationandidentificationofentericbacteriaiusingisomebiochemicaltests.iBacterialiexaminationiofifecalisamplesselectedi100diarrheicicalvesagedibetweeni(1-2iyears)ifromidifferentiareaofiBaghdadwereicarriedoutitoideterminetheibacterialcausesiassociatedwithdiarrheainicalves.iOfithei100ifecalisamplesiexamined,i78calvesiaffectediwithdifferentbacteria.Analysisiofiresultsi showed thatbacterialenteropathogensiofi100icalvesrevealedithathighestipercentagei54% ofcalvesiwereiinfectediwithProteusisp.,followedbyi26%were infected withiE.coliisp.,15% were infected withcitrobacterisp.andonlyi5%were infected with withisalmonellaisp.Theseiresultsiwereindicatedtheipresencehealthiproblemiwhichileadstoieconomicilossesandirequireditheinecessityispeedupiof implantingcontrollingiprogramonithisidisease


Article
Comparison of therapeutical efficacy of ivermectin and oxybendazole in treatment of draught Horses naturally infected with Gastrointestinal worms in mosul
مقارنة الكفاءة العلاجية للآيفرمكتين والأوكسي بندازول في علاج خيول السحب المصابة طبيعياً بديدان المعدة والأمعاء في الموصل

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Twenty draught stallions, 4-10 years old, were used in this study. The horses were divided into two equal subgroups (10 horses for each) to compare the efficacy of a single dose of Ivermectin (oral paste), 0.2 mg/kg B.W., with a single dose of Oxibendazole (oral suspension), 10 mg/kg B.W. The parameters that used were EPG, RBCS, Hb and PCV pre- and post-treatment. Results indicated reduction in EPG to zero within 14 days after treatment with Ivermectin, while there were gradual reduction in EPG without complete absences of eggs after 21 days of treatment with Oxybendazole. Also there were increase of RBCS, Hb and PCV after 14 days of treatment with Ivermectin and after 21 days of treatment with Oxybendazole. Results of evaluation of therapeutic agents indicated that Ivermectin in a dose of 0.2 mg/kg B.W. given as oral paste as a single dose was more effective than Oxibendazole in a dose of 10 mg/kg B.W. given as oral suspension as a single dose in the treatment of draught horses affected with gastrointestinal and lung worms.

شملت هذه الدراسة فحص 20 حصاناً من خيول السحب الذكور تراوحت أعمارهــا بين 4-10 سنوات كانت مصابة طبيعياً بديدان المعدة والأمعاء، قسّمت إلى مجموعتين متساويتين (10 خيول لكل مجموعة) قورنت من خلالها الكفاءة العلاجية لعقار الآيفرمكتين (عجين فمي) بجرعة 0.2 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم مرة واحدة، مع عقار الأوكسي بندازول (معلّق فمي) بجرعة 10 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم مرة واحدة. و خضعت خيول المجموعتين لبعض الاختبارات قبل وبعد العلاج تم فيها حساب عدد البيض المطروحة مع البراز (عدد البيض لكل غرام من البراز) وعدد كريات الدم الحمر وقياس تركيز خضب الدم وحجم خلايا الدم المرصوصة. وتبين حدوث انخفاض في عدد البيض المطروحة إلى صفر منذ اليوم الرابع عشر بعد العلاج بعقار الآيفرمكتين بينما انخفض عدد البيض لكل غرام من البراز بشكل تدريجي ولم تختفِ بالكامل عند اليوم الحادي والعشرين بعد العلاج بعقار الأوكسي بندازول. كما لوحظ الارتفاع المعنوي في كلٍّ من معدلات كريات الدم الحمر وتركيز خضب الدم وحجم خلايا الدم المرصوصة في اليوم الرابع عشر بعد العلاج بالآيفرمكتين وفي اليوم الحادي والعشرين بعد العلاج بالأوكسي بندازول. تبيّن من خلال نتائج الدراسة كفاءة عقار الآيفرمكتين (عجين فمي)، بجرعة 0.2 ملغم / كغم من وزن الجسم مرة واحدة في معالجة الخيول المصابة بديدان المعدة والأمعاء بالمقارنة مع عقار الأوكسي بندازول (معلّق فمي)، بجرعة 10 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم مرة واحدة.


Article
Neonatal Gastoinestinal Perforations

Author: *Hasan K. Gatea FICMS Paed. **Raghad J. Abulhab FICMS Paed.
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 121-126
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) perforation in neonates is a serious problem for paediatric surgeons especially extremely low birth weight which continue to have a high mortality rate. Methods: A prospective study for 36 neonate were seen and operated upon in Al- Kadhymia Hospital for Children and Al- Mustansiria Hospital during the period 2006 – 2010.Results: There were 36 neonate proved to have GIT perforation (21(58.3%) male and 15 (41.7%) female. Their birth weight ranged from 1500 – 3600 grams with average age at presentation was 4 days. Main causes of perforations included necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) 36%, spontaneous gastroduodenal perforations 11.1%, anterior abdominal wall defect 11.1%, spontaneous intestinal perforation11.1%, iatrogenic intestinal perforation 8.3%, Hirschsprung`s disease, ileal atresia & meconiun ileus were reported in 5.6% and volvulus & imperforate anus were reported in 2.8%. Twenty two patients (61%) were treated by primarily repair ( debridement and repair or limited resection and primary anastomosis). Overall mortality rate 47.2%.Conclusion: It is necessary to substantially improve the level of medical treatment especially for premature baby under both 1500 grams & 32 GWs to prevent secondary pathology by early recognition and management of primary pathology. Rectal temperature monitoring and herbal enemas should be discouraged. Keywords: Gastrointestinal perforation, necrotizing enterocolitis, low birth weight neonate.


Article
Iron Deficiency Anemia: The Utility of Upper GastrointestinalEndoscopy and Histopathology

Authors: Ali M Al-Doori PhDHematol --- Yaseen H Al-Dulaimi --- Adnan MH Al-Hamwandi
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: occult blood loss must be considered as a possible cause in every case of iron deficiency anemia.
Objective: to evaluate upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in finding a potential cause for iron deficiency anemia among children in Al-Anbar governorate.
Methods: Twenty five children aged 2-14 years, referred to the gastroenterology unit in Al-Ramadi General Hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy had iron deficiency anemia. Fiberoptic endoscopy was used under general anesthesia and endoscopic tissue biopsies were taken from 22 patients for histopathological examination.
Results: The main presenting signs and symptoms were pallor, abdominal pain, and stunting. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed thinning of duodenal folds & serrated mucosa in 8 (32%), duodenal ulcer in 3 (12%), esophageal varices in 1 (4%), nodular gastritis in 1 (4%), and reflux esophagitis in1 (4%), with a yield rate of 56%.
While tissue biopsies revealed histopathological findings suggestive of celiac disease in 12 (48%), Giardia lamblia in 2 (8%), Helicobacter pylori gastritis in 1 (4%), and esophagitis in 1 (4%). There was a significant association between the endoscopic finding of thinning of duodenal folds and serrated mucosa and the histopathological finding suggestive of celiac disease, P<0.05.
Conclusion: Iron deficiency anemia in children 2-14 years of age warrants upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to find potentially treatable causes for the iron deficiency anemia.
Key words: Children; Iron deficiency anemia; Upper gastrointestinal Endoscopy.


Article
Clinical and pathological effects of gastrointestinal and lung worms on draught horses in mosul
التأثيرات السريرية والمرضية لديدان المعدة والأمعاء وديدان الرئة على خيول السحب في الموصل

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Abstract

A total of 150 draught stallions 4-10 years old were used in this study, included 125 horses were naturally suffered from gastrointestinal and lung worms infection and 25 clinically normal draught horses served as control group. Coprological examinations revealed that draught horses were infected with many specieses belonged to nematodes and cestodes. The mean EPG were 2020 in McMaster method. Results indicated that diseased draught horses exhibited emaciation, rough coat, pale mucous membrane, black spots on the gum & lip, loss of appetite, diarrhea and/or constipation, worms with feces, mucous with feces, colic, anal pruritis, moist ralse, coughing and strong heart beat. Statistically, significant increase (P<0.01) were encountered between respiratory and heart rates of diseased horses in comparison with control, while there were no changes in body temperature among the two groups. Significant decrease (P<0.01) were encountered in the RBCS, Hb and PCV values of diseased horses, and significant increase (P<0.01) were also encountered in the sedimentation rates of RBCS, while there were significant increase (P<0.01) in WBCS and eosinophils. Results of biochemical tests indicated decrease in total protein and albumin values, the decrease was statistically significant (P<0.01). Levels of BUN and AST were increased significantly (P<0.01), while there were no significant changes observed in ALT levels. Presence of worms causes macroscopical and histopathological lesions in many organs of dead horses.

شملت الدراسة فحص 150 حصاناً من خيول السحب تراوحت أعمارها بين 4-10 سنوات، منها 125 حصاناً مصاباً إصابة طبيعية بديدان المعدة والأمعاء وديدان الرئة، و 25 حصاناً سوياً سريرياً عدّوا مجموعة سيطرة. أوضحت نتائج فحوصات البراز إصابة الخيول بأنواع عديدة من أجناس الديدان الاسطوانية Nematodes والديدان الشريطية Cestodes، وقد بلغ معدل طرح البيوض 2020 بيضة لكل غرام من البراز عند قياسها بطريقة الماك ماستر. تبيّن من الدراسة أن أهم العلامات السريرية الملاحظة على الخيول المصابة هي الهزال وخشونة الجلد وشحوب الأغشية المخاطية ووجود بقع سوداء اللون على اللثة والشفة وفقدان الشهية والإسهال أو الإمساك وخروج ديدان مع البراز وبراز مخلوط بالمخاط والمغص والحكة الشرجية فضلاً عن السعال وخرخرة رئوية رطبة وضربات قلبية قوية. وقد أوضحت الدراسة وجود زيادة معنوية (P<0.01) في ترداد التنفس وضربات القلب في الخيول المصابة بالمقارنة مع خيول مجموعة السيطرة، ولم تظهر درجات حرارة الجسم في الخيول المصابة أيّ تغيّرٍ معنويٍ مقارنةً بخيول مجموعة السيطرة، كما أظهرت الخيول المصابة انخفاضاً معنوياً (P<0.01) في معدلات العد الكلي لكريات الدم الحمر وتركيز خضاب الدم وحجم خلايا الدم المرصوصة وزيادة معنوية (P<0.01) في معدلات سرعة تثفل كريات الدم الحمر بالمقارنة مع خيول مجموعة السيطرة، في حين لوحظت زيادة معنوية (P<0.01) في العد الكلي لخلايا الدم البيض في الخيول المصابة كان سببها الزيادة المعنوية (P<0.01) للحمضات. وبيّنت الدراسة تأثير الديدان على بعض المعايير الكيموحيوية، حيث انخفضت معدلات تركيز البروتين الكلي والألبومين بشكل معنوي (P<0.01) بينما ازدادت معدلات يوريا نيتروجين الدم وخميرة الأسبارتيت ناقلة الأمين AST زيادة معنوية (P<0.01) بالمقارنة مع خيول مجموعة السيطرة، في حين لم يلاحظ أي تغيّر معنوي في معدلات خميرة الألنين ناقلة الأمين ALT. وقد تسبب تواجد الديدان إحداث تغيرات مرضية عيانية ونسجية في مختلف أعضاء جسم الخيول النافقة من جراء الإصابة.


Article
Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul City
تقييم نتائج التنظير للجهاز الهضمي في مستشفى السلام التعليمي في مدينة الموصل

Author: Hanady J. Mahmood
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 168-174
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has now been part of conventional medical practice for over thirty years following the development of useable flexible fibreoptic endoscopes in the early 1970’s.Aim: The study aim is to assess the gastrointestinal endoscopy outcomes and risk factors associated it'sin Al-Salam Teaching Hospital, Mosul City.Methodology: The samples purposively collected from the patients who referred for gastrointestinal endoscopies unit in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul City for period from (20/1/2013) to (20/3/2013). The study sampled consist of (64) participants, (32) males and (32) females, (28.1%) their ages ranged between (46 – 55) years. The data were arranged for gender, age, locality, and the outcomes of the procedure.Results: Sixty four gastrointestinal procedure were performed. Of those who had positive endoscopic findings; gastritis (18.8%), duodenitis (12.5%), and esophagitis, gastric ulcer (7.8%).The study also found that highest percentage of the sample were married, primary educational level, housewife, and urban region. Over two third of study patient's habitual status were NSAIDs followed one third of study patients were smoker. Conclusion: The study showed highest percentage endoscopic finding sited in stomach and esophagus. Recommendation: The study recommended availability of endoscopic facilities at all hospitals in country and make it accessible to all population and thus enables earlier diagnosis of digestive tract diseases. Providing comprehensive care for the patient when undergoing endoscopic procedures, which are in the nature of the case more important and technically complex and this care is provided through the training of nurses trained specifically for endoscopy

الخلفية: في ظل الظروف الحاضرة أصبح تنظير الجهاز الهضمي من الممارسات الطبية التقليدية لأكثر من ثلاثين عاما في أعقاب تطوير المناظير المرنة صالحة الاستخدام في وقت مبكر منذ عام 1970م.الهدف: تقييم نتائج التنظير للجهاز الهضمي في مستشفى السلام التعليمي في مدينة الموصل.المنهجية:عينة الدراسة كانت قصدية من خلال الاشخاص اللذين حولوا الى وحدة التنظير لاضطرابات الجهاز الهضمي للفترة من 20 / 1 / 2013 الى 20 / 3 / 2013 في مستشفى السلام التعليمي في مدينة الموصل. تكونت عينة الدراسة من (64) مريض, (32) من الذكور, و (32) من النساء تم تحليل العينة بالاعتماد على الجنس والعمر والموقع والتشخيص الأخير للمنظار الهضمي.النتائج:اربعة وستون مريضا من الذين لديهم اضطرابات بالجهاز الهضمي. من المشاركين اللذين لديهم استنتاجات إيجابية عن طريق التنظير الهضمي أظهرت (18.8%) التهاب المعدة, (12.5%) التهاب الاثني عشري و (7.8%) التهاب المريء, وقرحة المعدة. ربع المشاركين من هذه الدراسة كانت أعمارهم بين (46 – 55) سنة, الأكثرية من المشاركين كانوا من المتزوجين في مراحل التعليم الأولي, ربات منازل (او البيوت) ومن سكنة المدينة. اكثر من تلثي العينة في هذه الدراسة كانوا يستعملون الأدوية الستيرويدية. والثلث الأخير من العينة كانوا مدخنين.الاستنتاجات: أظهرت الدراسة نسبة عالية من الاستنتاجات الإيجابية بعد تعرضهم للتنظير الهضمي في مناطق المعدة والمريء.التوصيات:توصي الدراسة بتوفير أجهزة التنظير في جميع مستشفيات القطر للوصول الى أكبر عدد ممكن من السكان وهكذا يتيح التشخيص المبكر لأمراض الجهاز الهضمي. كما توصي الدراسة بتوفير الرعاية الشاملة للمريض عند خضوعه لإجراءات التنظير والتي تكون في طبيعة الحال اكثر أهمية وتعقيداً من الناحية التقنية, ويتم توفير هذه الرعاية من خلال تدريب الممرضات خصيصاً للتنظير.


Article
effect of verapamil and metoclopramide on the migrating myoelectrical complex (MMC) of the gastrointestinal tract rats.

Author: Sajida H.Ismaiel
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 1 Pages: 98-101
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Article
Gastric Malignancies and the Trend of Gastric Carcinoma in Duhok City-Iraq

Authors: Alaa Hani Raziq --- Sefar Mohammed Haj --- Sardar Hassan Arif --- Odeesh Yuhanna Odeesh
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 162 -168
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Gastric cancer is one of the common human malignancies particularly gastric adenocarcinoma. The stomach also represents the commonest gastrointestinal site for extra-nodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This study aims to find out the major types of gastric malignancies in Duhok city, their age and gender distribution and the trend of the types of gastric adenocarcinoma over a six year period from January 2008 till December 2013. This study included nearly all cases of gastric malignancies diagnosed in Duhok City and enrolled 155 cases. The type of malignancy was diagnosed by histopathological examination and supported in some cases by immunohistochemical staining procedures and investigations. The trend of the two major types of gastric carcinoma was determined over this six year period. The results of this study showed that the carcinoma constitutes the largest proportion of gastric malignancies (87.7%), followed by lymphoma (6.5%), then Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (4.5%) and lastly neuroendocrine tumors (1.3%). The mean age of the intestinal type (62.1 years) was higher than that of the diffuse type (50.15 years) and the difference was statistically significant (P: < 0.05). Similarly the diffuse type was more common in women than men and also the difference was statistically significant (P: < 0.05). The results of this study show that the trend of intestinal type over a six year period is on the rise side while the trend of the diffuse type is more or less the same. Gastric carcinoma is the most common gastric malignancy in Duhok City with a male predominance and most patients had some bad prognostic factors and there is no decline in the prevalence of the intestinal type.


Article
Experience Of Gastric Cancer In Al- Sadder City in Baghdad

Author: Maytham Hatam Shahid, Saad Ramadan Jawad, Asaad Abdullah Abbas
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 129-137
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to assess the following points among the patients with gastric cancer admitted to the surgical wards in Imam Ali Hospital- Al- Sadder City- Baghdad.•Sex and age distribution. •Mode of presentation.•Results of endoscopic findings and histopathology.•Risk factors and tumour staging.•Treatment options.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A prospective study was done in Imam Ali Hospital for a period of six years from (January 2009 to December 2014) where fifty cases with biopsy proved gastric cancer had been assessed. The age and sex distribution, mode of presentation, site of the tumour, macrosopical appearances histopathological findings, risk factors and treatment options were analysed.RESULTS: The male to Female ratio was 1.4:1, peak age incidence was 60-70 years, non-specific symptoms such as vague epigastric pain, dyspepsia, anorexia, weight loss were the most common symptoms; esophagogastric junction was the commonest site, polypoid type was the commonest endoscopic finding (44%); upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy was the most accurate method of diagnosing gastric cancer; Adencarcinoma was the most frequent histopathological type (96%); cigarette smoking is the predominant risk factor (64%) (32, 33, 34, 35); In the majority of those patients the disease was advanced and the curative measures were not possible.CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer remains a significant problem in Iraq, it's one of the most popular malignancies (ninth most common in Iraq) (37). No age group of both sexes can be excluded. Late presentation is a stigmata of the disease and the gloomy prognosis can only be improved by early detection based on a more vigorous diagnostic approach following a high risk index of suspicion in individuals at risk.

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