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Article
Epidemiology of Poisoning In Hospitalized Children

Author: Ahmed S Al-Naaimi
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 4 Pages: 400-406
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Poisoning is an important cause of childhood and adolescence hospital emergency presentations and admissions and a major health problem in this population sector. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology and pattern of poisoning in addition to its case fatality rate. Methods: A total of 1450 pediatric cases with poisoning admitted to the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics, Baghdad, during the 10 years study period extending from the 1st of January 1993 to 31st of December 2002, were analyzed. Results: The peak age for poisoning cases in the present study was 1-4 years, constituting about three quarters of total pediatric admissions with poisoning. Males were more frequent than females in the present work, and this gender bias was more evident in younger ages and less evident in teenagers. Non-medicinal substances were responsible for the major part (three-quarters) of poisoning cases, especially petroleum products and pesticides. The overall case-fatality rate was 2.6%. The risk of death was higher in the more vulnerable age groups (infants and neonates). It was also higher in males and in cases with poisoning by other noxious substances eaten as food, followed by metals (mainly lead), systemic antibiotics and pesticides. However out of a total of 37 deaths attributed to poisoning that occurred during the present study period of 10 years, non-medicinal substances (especially petroleum products, pesticides and metals) were responsible for three-quarters of these deaths. Conclusion: Children under 5 years of age are the most-vulnerable group for poisoning incidents. In addition Petroleum products, insecticides and lead metal were responsible for the highest proportion of poisoning admission and fatality necessitating special steps directed towards the prevention of these problems.


Article
THALLIUM POISONING :CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS THROUGH TWO OUTBREAKS IN BASRAH

Authors: Khalil I. Al-Hamdi خليل الحمادي --- Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi احمد المحمدي
Journal: Thi-Qar Medical Journal مجلة ذي قار الطبية ISSN: 19929218 Year: 2012 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 143-150
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Background: Thallium is the most suitable agent for criminal poisoning of human being as it is tasteless and odorless. It usually associated with typical clinical features mainly dermatological and neurological manifestations.Objective:To report an two outbreaks of thallium poisoning in Basrah.Patients and Methods:This case descriptive study that was conducted in the Department of Dermatology -Basrah Teaching Hospital from January 2009 to February 2010 ,where a total of thirty two patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled in this study. At the first outbreak, 17 patients were seen at January 2009 due to ingestion of cake while 15 patientswere seen at the second outbreak at February 2010 who were accidental ingestion of rat poisons. A detailed history was taken from all patients regarding all demographics points related to this poisoning. Full clinical examination was performed looking for skin manifestationsin addition to other systemic involvement. Thallium in urine has been measured using the colorimetric method and was positive in all of them.Results: Thirty two patients with thallium poisoning were evaluated. The first outbreak including 17 patients ,with 13 males and 4 females, their ages ranged from 11-33 years with a mean of 24 years , all those patients gave history of eating cakes laced with thallium. Whereas the second outbreak that including 15 patients , 8 males and 7 females, their ages ranged from 5-30 years with a mean 15 years ,all those patients gave history of accidental ingestion of rat poisons . Among both out breaks the dermatological findings were mainly anagen hair loss in diffuse and patchy patternaffected the scalp and limbs. Also dusky ecchymotic red dermatitis like rash was observed on the face especially perioral region and dorsum of hands and legs.Neurologic manifestations, mainly of peripheral neuropathy, reported in 50% patients of the second group while no one of the first group showed any of these finding.Conclusion: Outbreak of thallium poisoning is now occurring in recurrent rate which may be lethal to human being as a result of accidental ingestion or for criminal purposes. It gives characteristic cutaneous, neurological and psychological features that can lead to the right diagnosis.


Article
Patterns of Poisoning Cases Reported in the Baghdad Poisoning Control Center during 2014
دراسة حالات التسمم المسجلة في مركز استعلامات السموم في بغداد خلال عام 2014

Author: Hasan Alhaddad حسن الحداد
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 88-97
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Poisoning is an important clinical emergency and represents a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, early diagnosis and management of poisoning significantly affect mortality and morbidity as well as health care costs. Understanding the characteristic of poisoning cases is important for treatment. The present study investigated the characteristic of poisoning cases in Baghdad Poisoning Control Center (PCC). Data on all poisoning cases reported in Baghdad PCC during 2014 were retrospectively obtained from the medical records. A total of 804 reports of poisoning caseswere analyzed according to geographical distribution, age of victims, gender, the type and class of poisoning agent, and the follow up after poisoning. The results of this study showed thenecessity to continue collecting data of patients admitted to emergency departments and poisoning control centers andaddress the main obstacles facing the management of poisoning cases and decrease morbidity and mortality.

تعتبر حالات التسمم من دواعي الطوارئ المهمة وتمثل عامل رئيسي لحالات المرض والوفاة في العالم. التشخيص والعلاج المبكر لحالات التسمم يؤثر إيجابا على عدد الوفيات والكلف المترتبة على علاج حالات التسمم. ان فهم خصائص حالات التسمم مهم لغرض استخدام العلاج المناسب للحالة. تم دراسة خصائص الحالات المسجلة في مركز استعلامات السموم في بغداد. حيث جمعت بيانات حالات التسمم المسجلة بأثر رجعي في عام 2014 من خلال استخدام البيانات الطبية لكل مريض. تم تحليل 804 حالة اعتمادا على الموقع الجغرافي وعمر الضحيةوالجنس ونوع المادة المسببة وكذلك متابعة المريض بعد تلقي العلاج. أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة ضرورة جمع البيانات الخاصة بحالات التسمم وتحليلها بصورة مستمرة بالإضافة الىمعرفة المعوقات الرئيسية التي تواجه عملية العلاج وتقليل حالات التدهور المرضي والوفاة.


Article
The epidemiology of acute childhood and adolescent poisoning in Thi-Qar governorate (2013-2015)
وبائية التسمم الحاد عند الاطفال واليافعين في محافظة ذي قار(2015)

Author: Dr-Raid Kareem Dehiol الدكتور رائد كريم دهيول
Journal: Thi-Qar Medical Journal مجلة ذي قار الطبية ISSN: 19929218 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-13
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Background: acute childhood and adolescent poisoning remain one of the important emergencies causing a significant burden to the populations with important morbidity and mortality rates. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the epidemiological features of poisoning for the patients less than 19 years old in Al-Nasiriyah governorate, and to eliminate the main types, clinical presentations, management, outcome, and seasonal variation of poisoning. Epidemiological studies are so important to determine the extent of the problem, according to which the preventive strategies are related. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was conducted to three hundred forty patients recorded in Al-Nasiriyah poison center from (January 2013 to December 2015), data that collected from the case sheets and records of phone calls including the name, sex, address, type of poisoning, route of administration, management and the outcome of the patients (survive or died) are admitted to the SPSS (statistical package for social science) system and the results was obtained. Results: two hundred (58.8%) of the exposed patients was male, toddler age group seen in 45% of cases with predominance of accidental type, while adolescents (>13-18yrs.) are mostly intentional with female preponderance, urban populations are more prone to poisoning 236 cases (69.4%), accidental exposure is the commonest (83.2%) oral route is the commonest (99.4%), (62.9%) of the causative agents are pharmaceutical, and (50.3%) are asymptomatic . most of them treated conservatively (96.5%) with survival rate of (97.9%), higher mortality seen in those presented after the first 24 hrs. of exposure. One third of acute poisoning was occurred in summer season. Easy accessibility to the drugs and toxic substances are the major risk factor. Conclusion: Although poisoning is a preventable illness but, it is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Acute poison has a significant impact on the health services.


Article
C-Reactive Protein as a Marker in the Iraq Patients with Poisoning Thyroid Gland Disease

Authors: Maryam D. Kamel --- Abbas A. Mohammed --- Ali A. Ibrahim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 44-47
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the possibility of using Creactiveprotein (CRP) and the level of CRP in serum sample as a markerfor patients with poisoning thyroid gland disease. In addition, therelationship between inflammation and poisoning thyroid gland. About 21of serum samples were examined from patients with poisoning thyroid gland(aged between 14 and 60 years old). Qualitative test was done to detect thepresence of CRP in the patient’s serum. The qualitative test showed that21(100%) patients with poisoning thyroid gland give positive result to CRP.The HPLC analysis done to determine the concentration of CRP in patient'sserum. The HPLC analysis showed that the level of concentration for CRPin serum between (6.4-9.49mg/l). According to the results of the present,the significant changes in the levels of CRP for the patients with thyroiddisorders observed in current study confirm that inflammation has animportant role on pathogenesis of thyroid dysfunctions regardless of theirthyroid dysfunction type. As well as the present study shown that, the CRPis a useful marker for patients with poisoning thyroid gland.

Keywords

poisoning thyroid gland --- APR --- CRP --- Inflammation --- HPLC


Article
Epidemiology of the poisoning in children admitted to emergency unit at Al-Diwaniah teaching hospital of pediatrics

Journal: Muthanna Medical Journal مجلة المثنى الطبية ISSN: 2226146x Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-16
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

Poisoning in any medical centre is considered as one of the most common medical emergencies in children. Acute poisoning in children constitute about less than three percent of all pediatric emergency admissions. The aim of study; to evaluate acute poisoning in children below 15 year old admitted to emergency unit. Hydrocarbons were the most common poisonous substances leading to hospitalization; we had the highest frequency of admissions in winter. Further, the highest number of poisonous cases was in January and December 79 case and lowest rate 23 case was observed in October; there is an increasing trend in proportion of kerosene poisoning from December to February. The rate of suicidal attempt is very low in our study only 6 cases this result is contrary to other two studies, these are common in adolescent also related to the nature of social environment and learning in each area. In our society accidental kerosene poisoning, which the most common cause of the intoxicated patient admitted to the emergency unit, occur when the patient try to do procedure to prepare kerosene heater stove or for light (lantern). Only very few cases is related to suicidal attack in our study, We recommend to remove all the poisoning agent as soon as possible from the areas easily reach by the child (removal of poisonous plants and removal of fuel sources like kerosene). Poison control centre to triage poisonings, prepare service accurate and timely advice to health personnel and caregiver should be available in each governorate.

Keywords

Poisoning --- Causes --- Hospital outcome --- Aldiwaniah --- Iraq


Article
Assessment the therapeutic effects of aqueous extracts of Cilantro and Garlic in mercuric chloride poisoning in rats
تقييم التاثير العلاجي للخلاصة المائية للكزبرة والثوم على التسمم بكلوريد الزئبق في الجرذان

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Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of cilantro and garlic aqueous extracts in toxicopathological changes due to acute and chronic mercuric chloride poisoning in rat. The acute toxic signs appeared at short time after treatment with mercuric chloride. Severity of intoxication and mortality rate were proportional to the dose of mercuric chloride given. Chronic clinical signs were checked continuously which characterized by anorexia, body weight loss, pale –yellow mucous membranes, rough skin, ruffled hair, dyspnea and hemoglobin urea the severity of signs was dose dependant. Results showed severe toxicopathological changes in kidneys, liver and brain with precancerous lesions in liver and fore stomach, with residual accumulation of the compound in these organs reaching the highest rate in kidneys in both acute and chronic toxicity. Treatment with plant extracts resulted in decreasing the severity of the pathological changes in the mentioned organs and increase in the immune response of the body especially in the animals treated with combination of cilantro and garlic extracts together. This was reflected in decreased levels of compound accumulation in tissue. It could be concluded that mercuric chloride poisoning in rats causes toxicopathological changes in the kidneys, liver and brain with precancerous lesions in liver and highest residual accumulation in kidneys .Treatment with cilantro and garlic extracts could reduce the severity of these lesions and residual accumulation with elevation in the immune response.

هدفت الدراسة الى تقييم التاثير العلاجي للخلاصة المائية للكزبرة والثوم على التغيرات المرضية السمية الحادة والمزمنة لكلوريد الزئبق في الجرذان . ظهرت العلامات السريرية الحادة بعد وقت قصير من تجريع المادة المذكورة واصبحت اكثر شدة مما ادى الى معدل الهلاكات تتناسب مع تركيز الجرعة المعطاة . تم ملاحظة العلامات السريرية المزمنة بصورة مستمرة ويمكن ايجازها, فقدان شهية مع انخفاض في وزن الجسم وشحوب واصفرار الاغشية المخاطية و خشونة الجلد وتجعد الشعر و ضيق التنفس مع البيلة الهيموغلوبينية. تتناسب شدة هذه الاعراض طرديا مع زيادة الجرعة .اوضحت النتائج وجود تغيرات مرضية سمية واضحة في انسجة الكلى ,الكبد والدماغ مع حصول افات مهيأة للتسرطن في الكبد و المعدة جراء التعرض لكلوريد الزئبق مع حصول الترسب الاكثر تركيزا في كل من التسمم الحاد والمزمن .اما بعد العلاج بالخلاصة المائية لكل من الكزبرة والثوم فقد قلت شدة التغيرات المرضية بالاضافة الى زيادة الاستجابة المناعية وهذا ما انعكس ايضا على حصول قلة في متبقيات المركب في الانسجة خصوصا عند اعطاء خلاصة الكزبرة والثوم معا .نستنتج مما سبق ان التسمم بكلوريد الزئبق في الجرذان يؤدي الى حصول تغيرات مرضية شديدة في الكلى , والكبد والدماغ مع حصول افات مهيأة للتسرطن في الكبد و ان لخلاصتي الكزبرة والثوم معا دور علاجي مهم عند حدوث التسمم حيث ادى الى قلة شدة التغيرات المرضية ونسبة متبقيات المركب في الكلى ,الكبد والدماغ مع زيادة في الاستجابة المناعية .


Article
Evaluation of Poisoning Cases in the Poisoning Consultation Center and Forensic Medicine Institute within Baghdad area
تقييم حالات التسمم في مركز استعلامات السموم ومعهد الطب العدلي في مدينة بغداد

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Abstract

Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning, and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of poisoning cases is important for treating such patients. Therefore, the present study investigated the characteristics of poisoning cases in Baghdad Poisoning Consultation Center (PCC) and Forensic Medicine Institute (FMI). Data on all poisoning cases reported in PCC and FMI during 2013 were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total of 1131 reports of poisoning cases (1082 from PCC and 49 from FMI) were analyzed according to age, sex, geographical distribution and causes of poisoning according to the type and class of poisoning agent. The results showed that most of the poisoning case are from urban area, and the incidence in male is greater than that in females. In both centers, the higher percent of poisoning occurred within the age range 11-20 years. Regarding the type of poisons, zinc sulphide and carbon monoxide represent the cause of poisoning reported in MFI, while metals (mostly copper) and drugs (mostly CNS depressants) represent the major causes of toxicity reported in PCC. In conclusion, among the elements that are common between the two centers are the age distribution of the cases. Rodenticides and metals represent the major causes of poisoning cases reported in Baghdad during 2013. The study results suggest that it is necessary to continuously collect data of patients admitted to emergency departments with toxic poisoning at multiple centers.

قد تؤثر العوامل الاجتماعية على المصادر المتاحة من المواد السامة وأسباب التسمم. وهذه العوامل قد تتغير مع مرور الوقت. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، من المهم فهم خصائص حالات التسمم كونها من متطلبات العلاج لهؤلاء المرضى. ولذلك، حققت هذه الدراسة في خصائص حالات التسمم في مركز استعلامات السموم (PCC) ومعهد الطب العدلي (FMI) في مدينة بغداد. وقد تم الحصول على بيانات عن جميع حالات التسمم التي أعلن عنها في PCC وFMI خلال 2013 بأثر رجعي من السجلات الطبية. وقد تم تحليل ما مجموعه 1131 من تقارير عن حالات التسمم (1082 من PCC و 49 من FMI) وفقا للسن والجنس والتوزيع الجغرافي وأسباب التسمم ووفقا لنوع وفئة العوامل المسببة للتسمم. وأظهرت النتائج أن معظم الحالات هم من المنطقة الحضرية في بغداد، والإصابة في الذكور أكبر من ذلك في الإناث. في كل المراكز، حصلت أعلى نسبة مئوية من التسمم داخل الفئة العمرية 11-20 عاما. وفيما يتعلق بنوع السموم، فأن كل من كبريتيد الزنك وأول أكسيد الكربون تمثل سبب معظم حالات التسمم التي أعلن عنها في المؤسسات المستهدفة بالدراسة، في حين تبين ان المعادن (وبالأخص النحاس) والمؤثرات العقلية (ومعظمه من مضادات الاكتئاب) تمثل الأسباب الرئيسية للتسمم التي تم تسجيلها في PCC. في الختام، من بين العناصر التي هي مشتركة بين المركزين هي التوزيع العمري للحالات. ان مبيدات القوارض والمعادن تمثل الأسباب الرئيسية لحالات التسمم التي أعلن عنها في بغداد خلال عام 2013. نتائج الدراسة تشير إلى أن من الضروري جمع البيانات بشكل مستمر من المرضى المصابين بحالات المحالين إلى أقسام الطوارئ في مراكز متعددة.


Article
Patterns of acute poisoning among children admitted to maternity and children, teaching hospital, Al Diwaniyah city, Iraq
أنماط التسمم الحاد بين الأطفال المقبولين للأمومة والأطفال ، المستشفى التعليمي ، مدينة الديوانية ، العراق

Author: Adel J. Hussein عادل جبار حسين
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 24 Pages: 116-130
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Acute poisoning, a common pediatric emergency, is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality in children, especially in developing countries. The patterns of poisoning usually differ from country to country and from province to another within the same country.The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of acute chemical and drug poisoningcases admitted to the emergency department (ED) of maternity and children, teaching hospital in Al- Diwaniyah city and to compare poisoning characteristics between different age groups in the region. A review of medical records of 125 poisoning cases under 7 years of age, except for cases of food poisoning, snake bite, scorpion stings and cases with incomplete data were not included in this study, presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) during 2016 were determined .The mean age of all poisoned patients (mean ± standard deviation) was 2.26 ± 0.750.One hundred and twenty five children, forming 2.2% (125/5494) of total emergency unit admissions of all patients, were under seven years of age. Slightly more boys 71 (56.8%) than girls 54 (43.2%) were intoxicated with the male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The majority of all cases were due to accidental poisoning. In patients younger than one year of age 23(18.4%), of all poisonings were due to therapeutically error, 1 – 3 year 47 (37.6%), 4 – 7 year 55(44%). Chemical agents (58.4%) mostly kerosene (30.1%), agricultural pesticides/insecticides (19.1%), were the most frequent offending agent, followed by drugs comprised (41.6%), mostly due to Cold and cough medication (15.3%), The vast majority of these materials was stored in non-original containers, These drugs were available at home, being used either by the child or the parents and grandparents. The most common route of poisoning was ingestion of the poison (118 patients; 94.4%) and most were ingested inside the house (73.6%). No deaths were reported.There were obvious seasonal variations and most cases were admitted during in summer (42.4%) and spring (29.6%). Patients from rural areas (57.6%) were more than the patients from the urban areas (42.4%). Effective health promotional programs for parents regarding poisoning hazards are needed to increase the awareness and reduce the incidence of poisoning among children in our region in addition correct dealing with the chemical materials. A relationship exists between the parents’ level of education and the occurrence of pediatric poisoning particularly mothers. Since the level of education in this study was lower in the mothers and for mothers are thoseWho take primary care of children at home; they should be educated regarding care and prevention of lethal injuries to their children at home.

يعد التسمم الحاد ، وهو حالة طوارئ شائعة لدى الأطفال ، أحد أهم أسباب المراضة والوفيات عند الأطفال ، وخاصة في البلدان النامية. عادة ما تختلف أنماط التسمم من بلد إلى آخر ومن مقاطعة إلى أخرى داخل نفس البلد.كان الغرض من هذه الدراسة هو توضيح خصائص التسمم الكيميائي والمخدرات الحادالحالات التي تم قبولها في قسم الطوارئ (ED) للأمومة والأطفال ، والمستشفى التعليمي في مدينة الديوانية ومقارنة خصائص التسمم بين مختلف الفئات العمرية في المنطقة. لم تدرج في هذه الدراسة مراجعة للسجلات الطبية لـ 125 حالة تسمم تقل أعمارهم عن 7 سنوات ، باستثناء حالات التسمم الغذائي ، لدغة الثعابين ، لسعات العقارب والحالات ذات البيانات غير المكتملة ، وتم تقديمها إلى قسم الطوارئ (ED) خلال عام 2016. كان متوسط ​​العمر لجميع المرضى المصابين بالتسمم (متوسط ​​dev الانحراف المعياري) 2.26 50 0.750. وكان هناك مائة وخمسة وعشرون طفلاً ، يشكلون 2.2 ٪ (125/5494) من إجمالي قبول وحدة الطوارئ لجميع المرضى ، دون سن السابعة من العمر . كان عدد الأولاد 71 (56.8٪) أكثر قليلاً من البنات 54 (43.2٪) في حالة سكر مع نسبة الذكور إلى الإناث البالغة 1.3: 1. معظم الحالات كانت بسبب التسمم العرضي. في المرضى الذين تقل أعمارهم عن سنة واحدة من 23 سنة (18.4 ٪) ، كانت جميع حالات التسمم بسبب خطأ علاجي ، 1-3 سنوات 47 (37.6 ٪) ، 4-7 سنة 55 (44 ٪). العوامل الكيميائية (58.4 ٪) معظمها الكيروسين (30.1 ٪) ، والمبيدات الحشرية / المبيدات الحشرية (19.1 ٪) ، كانت العامل الأكثر شيوعا المخالف ، تليها الأدوية تتألف (41.6 ٪) ، ويرجع ذلك في الغالب إلى أدوية البرد والسعال (15.3 ٪) ، تم تخزين الغالبية العظمى من هذه المواد في حاويات غير أصلية ، وكانت هذه الأدوية متاحة في المنزل ، والتي تستخدم إما من قبل الطفل أو الآباء والأجداد. كان أكثر طرق التسمم شيوعًا هو تناول السم (118 مريضًا ؛ 94.4٪) ومعظمهم تم تناولهم داخل المنزل (73.6٪). لم يتم الإبلاغ عن وفيات.كانت هناك اختلافات موسمية واضحة وتم قبول معظم الحالات خلال الصيف (42.4٪) والربيع (29.6٪). كان المرضى من المناطق الريفية (57.6 ٪) أكثر من المرضى من المناطق الحضرية (42.4 ٪). هناك حاجة لبرامج ترويجية صحية فعالة للآباء والأمهات فيما يتعلق بمخاطر التسمم لزيادة الوعي وتقليل حدوث التسمم بين الأطفال في منطقتنا بالإضافة إلى التعامل الصحيح مع المواد الكيميائية. توجد علاقة بين مستوى تعليم الوالدين وحدوث تسمم الأطفال خاصة الأمهات. لأن مستوى التعليم في هذه الدراسة كان أقل في الأمهات وبالنسبة للأمهاتالذين يعتنون بالأطفال في المنزل ؛ يجب تثقيفهم بشأن الرعاية والوقاية من الإصابات المميتة لأطفالهم في المنزل.


Article
The toxic effects of ammonia on growth rate and some blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
التأثير السمي للأمونيا على معدل النمو وبعض معايير الدم في اسماك الكارب الاعتيادي

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Abstract

This study was performed to know the effect of ammonia on the blood picture and the weight of common carp fish. 50 fish were used at the age of 6 months and were divided into two groups. Each group included 25 fish. The first group represented the treatment group with ammonia at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ L. and the second group represented control group. It is grown in plastic basins with dimensions of 1.5 × 2 meters and continued treatment for four weeks. It was observed that the weight in the ammonium treatment group had the lowest significant value (p≤0.05) compared to the control group. It was also observed in this study that the ammonia group had the lowest significant values in (white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration and Packed cell volume) compared with control group. As for the biochemical parameters, it was observed that the Glucose concentration and each of the enzymes Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) had a record the highest value in the group treated with ammonia compared with the control group while the total protein recorded the lowest significant value in the group treated with ammonia Compared to control group. We conclude from this study that increasing the concentration of ammonia in the aquatic environment has a negative impact on fish breeding and health

أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة تاثير الامونيا على الصورة الدموية ووزن اسماك الكارب الاعتيادي اذ تم استخدام 50 سمكة بعمر 6 اشهر وتم تقسيمها الى مجموعتين ضمت كل مجموعة 25 سمكة مثلت المجموعة الاولى المجموعة المعاملة بالامونيا بتركيز (1.0 ملغم/ لتر) أما المجموعة الثانية فعدت مجموعة السيطرة وتمت تربيتها في احواض بلاستيكية ذات ابعاد 1.5 × 2 متر. استمرت المعاملة مدة أربعة أسابيع. لوحظ ان معدل الوزن في المجموعة المعاملة بالامونيا قد سجل ادنى قيمة معنوية (P≤0.05) بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. كما لوحظ من خلال هذه الدراسة ان المجموعة المعرضة للامونيا قد سجلت ادنى قيمة معنوية في كل من خلايا الدم البيض, كريات الدم الحمر, تركيز الهيموكلوبين وحجم الخلايا المتراصة بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. اما بالنسبة للمعايير الكيموحيوية فقد لوحظ ان الكلوكوز وكل من انزيمي ناقلة امين الالانين (ALT) وانزيم انزيم ناقلة امين الاسبارتات (AST) قد سجلا اعلى قيمة معنوية في المجموعة المعاملة بالامونيا بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة في حين ان البروتين الكلي سجل ادنى قيمة معنوية في المجموعة المعاملة بالامونيا بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. نستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان لزيادة تركيز الامونيا في البيئة المائية تاثيرا سلبيا على تربية وصحة الأسماك

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