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Article
Study the Effect of Friendly Environmental Materials Addition on Viscosity Index and Pour Point of Engine Diesel Lubricating Oil

Author: Taghreed Mahdi Hameed
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 105-111
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In this work, the effect adding of some vegetable oils to mineral oil on physical properties such as viscosity and pour point of mineral lubricating oil was studied. Some vegetable oils, like corn oil and castor oil were used. Engine lubricating oil (si-cf4 diesel oil) that produced in AL-Doura refinery was selected and used in this study. Viscosity and pour point measurements were tested by viscometer and pour point tester respectively. Deferent mixtures of castor oil and corn oil were prepared with mixing ratios ranging from (0-100)% at 80°C added to the Iraqi motor lubricating oil with a percentage ratio in the range of (0-6 ) % and the best results was obtained at percentage ratio of 6% and study the viscosity index and pour point of the resulting lubricant oil. It was found that the addition of the of vegetable oil gave lubrication oil has a viscosity index ranging (106-115) and pour point ranging (-14--18)°C. It was found that the effect of addition of corn and castor oil mixture to mineral oil was varied according to the ratio of that oils.


Article
Evaluation of Gharraf River Water for different Uses, South Iraq

Authors: Moutaz A. Al-Dabbas --- Ayser M. Al-Shamma'a --- Kareem G. Al-Mutawki
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3C Pages: 1697-1907
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Water quality has become an important requirement in recent years, assumed the enormous pressure on water resources. As a result of the rapid population growth and climate change. Seven sampling stations were chosen along the river, specifically near the important cities. After analyzing the water samples, it was found that pH values range from (7.1 to 7.5). The values of total dissolved ions ranged from (730 to 1390) mg/l. It was found that the sodium percentage in the river water samples ranged from (36.8 to 51.3), which is acceptable for irrigation purposes. The water content of magnesium hazard ranges from (45.1 to 48.6), it is within the permissible limits for watering purposes. The residual sodium amounts range from (-4.01 to -2.86) and are within acceptable limits. Water quality index model was used and according to this model classification, it was found that water is good. PHREEQC model was used to identify the geochemical changes of the river water with distance, found that carbonate mineral were under saturation, while clay mineral were in saturation phase.

Keywords

Gharraf River --- quality --- SAR --- Saturation index


Article
The value of middle cerebral artery to umbilical artery ratio by Doppler velocimetry in low risk postdate pregnancies
قيمة الشريان الدماغي الأوسط إلى نسبة الشريان السري عن طريق قياس سرعة دوبلر في حالات الحمل المتأخرة الولادة و منخفضة المخاطر

Authors: Chea Nofel N --- Chro N Fattah
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 164-171
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Placental insufficiency is the primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction in normally formed fetuses and can be identified using middle cerebral artery to umbilical artery ratio Doppler velocimetry, and provide an estimate of downstream placental vascular resistance and placental blood flow. There is a strong association between reduced end-diastolic umbilical artery blood flow velocity and increased vascular resistance in umbilical placental microcirculation. Doppler ultrasound can assess the uteroplacental blood flow just before labor. This study aimed to investigate the use of the fetal cerebroumbilical ratio to predict the intrapartum fetal compromise in appropriately grown fetuses.Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study set at Sulaimania Maternity Teaching Hospital, Sulaimania, Iraq, from January to June 2015. The study recruited 121 cases, fetal biometry and Doppler indices were measured before established labor. The intrapartum and neonatal outcome details recorded.Results: Infants delivered by cesarean section for fetal compromise had significantly lower cerebroumbilical ratio than those born by spontaneous normal (none assisted) vaginal delivery and by cesarean section for other intrapartum causes. Infants with cerebroumbilical ratio <10th percentile were more likely to be delivered by cesarean section for fetal compromised than those with a cerebroumbilical ratio > 10th percentile. A cerebroumbilical ratio >90th percentile appears protective against cesarean section for fetal compromise. Amniotic fluid index of < 5 was associated with an increased cesarean section for fetal indication.Conclusion The cerebroumbilical ratio can identify fetuses at high risk of intrapartum fetal compromise. As a confounding variable, the amniotic fluid index was a useful tool for surveillance in prolonged pregnancy.


Article
Fuzzy Logic Inference Index to Assess the Water Quality of Tigris River within Baghdad City

Authors: Salam Hussein Ewaid --- Turki Diwan Hussein --- Faiza Kadhim Emran
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2018 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 ICSSSA 2018 Conference Issue Pages: 16-20
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study aimed to develop a new water quality index for routine assessment of the river water quality for drinking purpose based on fuzzy logic artificial intelligence method. Four water quality parameters were involved in light of their significance to Iraqi waters, these parameters are biological oxygen demand, and total dissolved solids, total hardness, and fecal coliform. Fuzzy logic inference system with specific rules was developed by Matlab software using Mamdani fuzzy logic Max–Min inference system method. To evaluate the performance of this new fuzzy water quality index (FWQI), tests were conducted using the Iraqi standards for drinking water quality and the 2017 data set of Tigris River within Baghdad. Results revealed the FWQI ability to assess the water quality of Tigris River during the period of the study and that the method of fuzzy inference system was a simple, valuable and applied water quality evaluation tool for human drinking water of Iraqi rivers.

هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى تطوير مؤشر جديد لجودة المياه من أجل التقييم الروتيني لجودة مياه الأنهار لأغراض الشرب على أساس طريقة الذكاء الاصطناعي المنطقي. أستعملت أربعة من متغيرات جودة المياه في ضوء أهميتها للمياه العراقية ، وهذه المتغيرات هي الطلب البيولوجي للأوكسجين ، المواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية ، العسرة الكلية ، والبكتريا القولونية البرازية. تم تطوير قواعد خاصة لنظام أستدلال المنطق الضبابي بواسطة برنامج ماتلاب وبطريقة نظام الاستدلال المنطقي ممداني للحد الأقصى- الأدنى. ولغرض تقييم أداء هذا الدليل الجديد لجودة المياه ، أجريت أختبارات باستخدام المعايير العراقية لجودة مياه الشرب ومجموعة بيانات جودة المياه لعام 2017 لنهر دجلة داخل بغداد. وكشفت النتائج عن قدرة الدليل المقترح على تقييم جودة مياه نهر دجلة خلال فترة الدراسة ، وأن طريقة نظام أستدلال المنطق الضبابي كانت أداة عملية وبسيطة يمكن الاعتماد عليها لتقييم نوعية المياه لغرض الشرب في الأنهار العراقية.


Article
Mathematical Approximation for Modeling the Photonic Crystal Fibers

Author: Mashaan Attallah Mahmood
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2018 Volume: 29 Issue: 4 Pages: 117-121
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this research, a mathematical approximation for modeling PCFs is derived. The effective refractive index neff of the clad region obtained by this relation will be used to study the properties of the PCFs such as normalized frequency, effective area, group velocity dispersion and the nonlinear coefficient. All these properties are studied when the holes of the PCFs are filled with air, or with any material like chloroform. The merit of our mathematical approximation is that, neff can be easily and directly calculated, then the dispersion profile can be controlled by fine manipulating the (d/Λ) of circular or elliptical air holes in PCF cladding. The results show good agreement with published works. The MATLAB 2010 program is used in this study, which is the most successful program to get appropriate diagrams and results.


Article
The Relation of ABO Blood Groups with some Oral Diseases

Author: Sulafa K. Banoosh سلافة خير الدين بنوش
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-57
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The present study was designed to find the relation between the ABO blood groups and some oral diseases. Fifty healthy –looking students aged 18 to 23 years old were selected randomly included (18) female and (22) males. Blood samples were taken and examined for blood grouping by the slide method. Dental caries was recorded using DMFT (Decay. Missing and Filling) index teeth and periodontal parameters recorded by GI (gingival index) and PI (plaque index). All data were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 13. The statistical analysis for blood grouping and oral diseases including (dental caries and periodontal problems) showed no significant differences in mean 0.71, 0.57, 0.21 respectively (p>0.001). There are no relation between the ABO blood groups and some oral diseases.

Keywords

blood groups --- dental caries --- DMFT --- GI --- gingival index --- PI --- plaque index


Article
Using Arithmetic Weight Index for Study Quality Drinking Water of Al-Gharraf Stream
استخدام مؤشر الوزن الحسابي لدراسة جودة مياه الشرب في جدول الغراف

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Abstract

Water pollution is any physical or chemical change in water quality, directly or indirectly, adversely affects humans or makes water unsuitable for the required uses. This research is concerned with the study of the chemical and physical properties of water in the city of Nasiriya-Iraq and the quantity of pollution by applying the arithmetic weight index. The study was based on the concentrations of positive ions (Potassium 〖(k)〗^+, Sodium 〖(Na)〗^+, Calcium 〖(Ca)〗^+) and negative ions (Sulfate 〖 (SO4)〗^+, Chloride 〖(CL)〗^+) acidity (PH), Total Dissolved Solid (T.D.S), Alkalinity (ALK), Electrical Conductivity (E.C) Total suspended solids (T.S.S) and total hardness (TH), where the results of the analysis were compared with Iraqi standards adopted to show the validity of water drinking for the use of human. The results of the study were explained:1. The water of the study area is the basicity of the interaction where the pH ranged (7.85-8.8) (8.3-8.6) for two seasons. 2. All water in the study area is unsuitable for drinking according to the arithmetic weight index. 3. It is not good to apply the standard Iraqi drinking before treatment water.

تلوث المياه هو أي تغير فيزيائي أو كيميائي في نوعية المياه، بشكل مباشر أو غير مباشر، يؤثر سلبا على الكائن الحي أو يجعل المياه غير مناسبة للاستخدامات المطلوبة. هذا البحث مهتم بدراسة الخصائص الكيميائية والفيزيائية للمياه في مدينة الناصرية- العراق وكمية التلوث بتطبيق مؤشر الوزن الحسابي. الدراسة كانت معتمده على تراكيز الأيونات الموجبة (البوتاسيوم, الصوديوم، الكالسيوم) والأيونات السالبة (كبريتات، كلوريد) الاس الهيدروجيني، المواد الذائبة الكلية، القلوية، الموصلية الكهربائية, المواد العالقة الكلية والصلابة الكلية، حيث نتائج التحليل كانت مقارنه بالمعايير العراقية المعتمدة لبيان صلاحيه مياه للشرب للاستخدام البشري


Article
Diversity Measurement Indices of Diatom Communities in the Tigris River within Wasit Province, Iraq
قياس دلائل التنوع لمجتمع الدايتومات في نهر دجلة ضمن محافظة واسط، العراق

Authors: Shaimaa F. Ali شيماء فاتح علي --- Reidh A. Abdul-Jabar رياض عباس عبد الجبار --- F. M. Hassan فكرت مجيد حسن
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 117-122
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study was conducted to measure diatom species diversity in the lotic ecosystem across the Wasit Province for 12 months. The quantitative study of diatoms (phytoplankton) was investigated in the Tigris river. The density of algae was ranged from 60989 cell×103/l to 112780.82 cell×103/l in the five sites. These algae were belonging to 39 genera. The richness index values ranged from 1.53 at site 5 in January 2016 to 6.34 at site 1 and June2015. Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H´) was 2.33 in February 2016 and 3.72 in June 2015 both values at site 3, whereas Evenness index was 0.54 at site 5 in March2016 and 0.98 at site 1 in both August2015 and May2016. The lack of homogeneity of the appearance of species indicates the dominance of a few species with high densities, which is an indicator of the existence of environmental pressure. All studied indices showed that the Tigris River quality is suitable for the living aquatic life or may be slightly affected by the pollutants.

تناولت الدراسة قياس تنوع انواع الدايتومات في نهر دجلة ضمن محافظة واسط من حزيران 2015 حتى أيار 2016. و الهدف من الدراسة تشخيص الدايتومات وتوزيعها الرئيسي في النهر من بيانات نهر دجلة التي تم جمعها من خلال الدراسة الكمية للهائمات النباتية الدايتومية. وقد تراوح العدد الكلي للهائمات النباتية الدايتومية في هذه الدراسة بين (60989 - 112780.82) خلية × 103 / لتر من العدد الكلي للهائمات النباتية الدايتومية في المواقع الخمسة والتي تنتمي إلى 39 جنساً. تراوحت قيم دليل الغنى من 1.53 في الموقع 5 في كانون الثاني 2016 الى 6.34 في الموقع 1 في حزيران 2015. وتراوح مؤشر تنوع شانون- وينر بين 32.33 و3.72في شهري شباط 2016 وحزيران 2015 كلاهما سجلت في الموقع 3، بينما دليل تجانس ظهور الانواع تراوحت بين 0.54 في موقع 5 اثناء شهر آذار 2016 و0.98 في المواقع1 اثناء شهري آب 2015 وأيار 2016. فقدان تجانس ظهور الانواع دليل على سيادة انواع قليلة مع كثافة عالية، وهذه دلالة على وجود الضغط البيئي واظهرت جميع المؤشرات المدروسة بان نوعية المياه في نهر دجلة مناسبة للاحياء المائية او قد تكون متاثرة بشكل طفيف بالملوثات.


Article
Sirtuin1, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Newly Diagnosed Iraqi Diabetic Patients

Authors: Mahmood Abdulhameed Hazim --- Perry H. Saifullah --- Beydaa Ahmed Abd
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In Mammals Sirtuins (SIRTs) are members of the silent information regulator two family Sirtuin1 regulate a variety of cellular functions. It shows anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects against cellular damage.SIRT1 conserves the cells by the mitochondrial biogenesis organizing, cellular energy and oxido reduction state. Vascular tissues are protected by SIRT1 too. In diabetic patients mutation in exon1 of SIRT1 (L107P) in insulin-generating cells conducted in over production of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α.Assessment of SIRT1 protein levels in newly diagnosed Iraqi diabetic in regards to family history Age, gender, and duration of disease, and its correlation with biochemical parameter in the same group. Measurement of iNOS, TNF-α.This study involved totally 40 volunteers. This group were subdivided (20) volunteers as newly diagnosis (DMT1) duration disease ˂1 year, group1 was subdivided to 10 male and 10 female: (10 with family history and 10 without family history) and group two healthy volunteers. Group1 All DMT1 were under insulin treatment. Healthy Volunteers (20) included in this study as control groups. None Healthy Volunteers were alcoholic, smoke, or having a history of (CVD) cardiovascular disease, thyroid disease, and hormonal abnormalities problems were exempted from this study.In the present study SIRT1, TNF-alpha, iNOS were measured by enzyme linked immune absorbent assay (ELISA). Biochemical parameters fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI), urea, creatinine and lipid profile that were measured by spectrophotometer technique in patients and healthy volunteers groups.The Statistical Analysis System- SAS (2012) program was used to effect of difference factors in study parameters. Least significant difference –LSD test (ANOVA) was used to significant compare between means. Estimate of correlation coefficient between difference parameters in this study.The results showed that a highly significant increase in levels of FBG, Urea, creatinine and lipid profile except HDL was decrease levels, BMI was decrease in newly diagnosis DMT1 with healthy volunteers groups. A significant decrease in SIRT1 protein, and a highly significant increase in TNF-alpha and iNOS in newly diagnosis DMT1 with healthy volunteers groups. A highly negative significantly correlation coefficient between SIRT1 and F.G., TG., VLDL,TG/HDL, A.I. and negative significantly correlation duration, urea, creatinine,T.CH., LDL. And non-significant correlation with age, BMI, HDL, CH/HDL and LDL/HDL.. Effect of gender were insignificant of SIRT1. Effect of family history in patients. SIRT1 were all insignificant in patients with family history as with non-family history group. SIRT1 could decreases in the sera of DMT1 patients with family history, the decreased SIRT1 level reflect a mutation in SIRT1 gene, the decreases in SIRT1 on increases the incident of DMT1 complication

Keywords

SIRT1 --- DMT1 --- iNOS --- alfa-TN --- lipid profile --- body mass index.


Article
Suitability of Surface Water for Drinking purposes in Basrah City Using Water Quality Index (WQI)
ملاءمة المياه السطحية لأغراض الشرب في مدينة البصرة باستخدام مؤشر جودة المياه (WQI)

Author: Ayman Alak Hassan أيمن علك حسن
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة المدنية ISSN: 19927428 Year: 2018 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-95
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The water quality index (WQI) is applying for the integrating the water quality variables into a single number to indicate the overall quality of water. Rivers is one of the essential water resources, the protecting and preserving for the quality of this resource is important and imperative. An evaluation of water characteristics of the Shatt Al Arab River in Basrah city was performed in order to determine the quality of water for drinking usage. In this research, monitoring of variation in the characteristics of water was accomplished by collecting monthly water samples for three years. The water samples from the Shatt Al Arab River is analyzed for eight Physical and chemical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphate (SO4) and chloride (Cl) using standard methods. Utilizing the WQI discovered that the water quality of the studied river is ranked between very poor water type and not suitable water for drinking usage category. In the present investigation, the quality of water was revealed that the average of WQI value for the studied years was 318, 337.3 and 456.7, respectively.

يعمل مؤشر جودة المياه (WQI) على دمج متغيرات نوعية المياه في رقم واحد للإشارة إلى الجودة الإجمالية للمياه. الأنهار هي واحدة من الموارد المائية الأساسية، وحماية والحفاظ على نوعية هذا المورد هو أمر حتمي ومهم. تم إجراء تقييم لخصائص مياه نهر شط العرب في مدينة البصرة من أجل تحديد نوعية المياه المستخدمة للشرب. في هذا البحث تم رصد التباين في خصائص المياه عن طريق جمع عينات المياه الشهرية لمدة ثلاث سنوات. تم تحليل عينات المياه من نهر شط العرب لثماني معلمات فيزيائية وكيميائية مثل الرقم الهيدروجيني، المواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية، التوصيل الكهربائي ، العسرة الكلية ، الكالسيوم، المغنيسيوم ، الكبريتات ، والكلوريدات وذلك باستخدام الطرق القياسية للقياس والتحليل. وقد اكتشف استخدام مؤشر جودة المياه أن نوعية المياه في النهر المدروسة تصنف بين فئة الماء الرديء جدا وفئة الماء الغير مناسب الاستخدام للشرب. في هذا البحث، تم الكشف عن متوسط قيمة نوعية المياه و للسنوات المدروسة حيث كانت 318، 337.3 و 456.7، على التوالي.

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