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the reality of beekeeping in Iraq and ways of developing them
واقع تربية النحل في العراق وسبل تطويرها

Author: عمر مجيد حميد محمد
Journal: journal of Economics And Administrative Sciences مجلة العلوم الاقتصادية والإدارية ISSN: 2227 703X / 2518 5764 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 61 Pages: 183-198
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ﺺ ﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ (ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺴﺒل ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ) ﻜﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺒﺤﺜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻉ ﺇﻨﺘـﺎﺠﻲ ﻤﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ، ﻭﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻉ ﺍﻹﻨﺘـﺎﺠﻲ (ﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤـل ) ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺘـﻪ ﻭﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ ﺃﺼـﻨﺎﻓﻪ ﻭﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻪ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ (ﻋﻨﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻨﻘـل ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻕ ﻭﺤﺒﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﻊ )، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻗﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ ﻭﻴﺭﻓـﻊ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻌـﺩل ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻨﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﺩﻭﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﻤـﻥ ﺜـﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘـﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺎ ﺘﻨﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺴل ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴ ﻌﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋـﺔ ﻭﻤﻔﻴـﺩﺓ ﻤﺜل (ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ، ﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻠﺔ ، ﻁﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ، ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ، ﺤﺒﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺡ )، ﺇﺫ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ (53) ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ (2007) ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻫﻲ (ﺍﻟﻌﺴل ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ، ﻁﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل، ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ). ﻭﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺩﻋﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ، ﻟﺫﺍ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﺘﻨـﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ، ﺇﺫ ﺸﻤ ل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺴﻊ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ، ﻭﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺼـﻑ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﺤـﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋـﻥ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ، ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻓﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ، ﻭﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ ﻭﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺁﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ، ﺇﺫ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺠـﺯﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺎﻨﻪ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ.

This study was (the reality of beekeeping in Iraq and ways of developing them) as a research project in the branch of production is important branches of the productivity of the agricultural sector in Iraq, and the importance of this section, productive (beekeeping) for the agricultural sector in his contribution to increase the vegetable production and improve the quality and the various Classes of types, through its active role in the pollination of plants and indirectly (when the bees to move between plants to collect nectar and pollen grains), which contributes to reduce the losses in plant production and raise the rate of productivity per donum of various agricultural crops.
On the other hand play a beekeeping a significant role in contributing to agricultural production, and then GDP through what is produced along with natural honey products are many and varied and useful such as (the royal food, stinging bee, bees boxes, wax natural, pollen), as show that beekeeping in Iraq contributed approximately (53) billion dinars in the GDP for the year (2007) for only three products are (natural honey, bees boxes, wax natural).
To learn the benefits of beekeeping numerous and large and how to use them in Iraq in order to develop the agricultural sector and support the agricultural development process in which, therefore, been divided this research into four main parts deal with the first, the importance of beekeeping in Iraq, it included nine benefits and important benefits to beekeeping, and the second description and analysis of the characteristics and attributes of beekeeping in Iraq, based on the available statistical data on beekeeping in Iraq, while the third addressed the constraints of beekeeping in Iraq, and included on the environmental constraints and obstacles to support and constraints of pests and diseases of bees and marketing constraints and constraints of human, while addressing Part fourth and the latter the most important actions to be taken for the development of beekeeping in Iraq, as was emphasized in this section are all that would develop and the development of beekeeping in Iraq and increase productivity.

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