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Article
THE USE of DIRECT SOLAR ENERGY in ABSORPTION REFREGERATION EMPLOYING NH3 – H2O SYSTEM

Authors: Ahmed Deaa Nasiaf --- Adel A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 13-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This work was conducted to study the coefficient of performance for solar absorption refrigeration by using direct solar energy using aqueous ammonia 0.45 mass fraction (ammonia – water).The experiments were carried out in solar absorption system .The system consisted of solar collector generator (0.25 m × 0.25 m × 0.04m) and condenser cooled by a water bath followed by liquid receiver and evaporator. The results showed that the maximum generator temperature was (92° - 97°) during June 2009, and the minimum evaporator temperature was (5°C - 10°C) for aqua ammonia system.. It was, also, found that the coefficient of performance, cooling ratio and amount of cooling obtainable increased with increasing maximum generator temperature and pressure. While the minimum evaporator temperature and concentration decreased with increasing maximum generator temperature and pressure. The coefficient of performance was (0.1096 - 0.2396).


Article
Minimization of Toxic Ions in Waste Water Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technique

Authors: Heaven E. Mahmoud --- Adel A. Al - Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study, the removal of zinc from synthetic waste water using emulsion liquid membrane extraction technique was investigated. Synthetic surfactant solution is used as the emulsifying agent. Diphenylthiocarbazon (ditizone) was used as the extracting agent dissolved in carbon tetrachloride as the organic solvent and sulfuric acid is used as the stripping agent. The parameters that influence the extraction percentage of Zn+2 were studied. These are the ratio of volume of organic solvent to volume of aqueous feed (0.5-4), ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volume of aqueous feed (0.2-1.6), pH of the aqueous feed solution (5-10), mixing intensity (100-1000) rpm, concentration of extracting agent (20-400) ppm, surfactant concentration (0.2-2) wt.%, contact time (3-30) min, and concentration of strip phase (0.25-2) M . It was found that 87.4% of Zn+2 can be removed from the aqueous feed solution at the optimum operating conditions. Further studies were carried out on extraction percentages of other toxic metal ions (As+3, Hg+2, Pb+2, Cd+2) by using the same optimum conditions which were obtained for zinc ions except for the pH of the feed solutions. The pH values for best extraction percentages of arsenic, lead, and cadmium were (1, 10, 10) respectively. Maximum extraction percentage of (98.5, 95.5 and 93.8) was obtained for arsenic, lead, and cadmium respectively, while mercury was completely removed from the aqueous feed solution within the acidic pH range.


Article
A Study of Water Flux through Forward Osmosis Membrane Using BrineFresh Water System

Authors: Adel A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض --- Marwah M. Kamil مروة مازن
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2013 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 11-18
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work aims to improve the flux of forward osmosis with the use of Thin Film Composite membrane by reducing the effect of polarization on draw solution (brine solution) side.This study was conducted in two parts. The first is under the effect of polarization in which the flux and the water permeability coefficient (A) were calculated. In the second part of the study the experiments were repeated using a circulating pump at various speeds to make turbulence and reduce the effect of polarization on the brine solution side.A model capable of predicting water permeability coefficient has been derived, and this is given by the following equations:z = Z_0 + (C.R.T)/(9.8 ( d^2/D^(2 ) +1) ) [Exp. [- 9.8 ( d^2/D^(2 ) +1 ) (A.M )/ρ . t] -1]


Article
Extraction of Pelletierine from Punica granatum L.by Liquid Membrane Technique and Modelling

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Abstract

This work was conducted to study the extraction of pelletierine sulphate from Punica granatum L. roots by liquid membrane techniques. Pelletierine sulphate is used widely in medicine. The general behavior of extraction process indicates that pelletierine conversion increased with increasing the number of stages and the discs rotation speed but high rotation speed was not favored because of the increased risk of droplet formation during the operation. The pH of feed and acceptor solution was also important. The results exhibit that the highest pelletierine conversion was obtained when using two stages, (10 rpm) discs speed of stainless steel discs, (pH=9.5) of feed solution and (pH=2) of acceptor solution in n-decane. Assuming the existence of two thin reaction layers in the feed and stripping solutions, mathematical model was developed to describe the pelletierine transport. On the basic of the experimental data obtained under various conditions and the model proposed, it was found that the solute transfer into the liquid membrane is mainly diffusion-controlled.

يهدف هذا البحث الى دراسة استخلاص دواء الݒلترين سلفيت من جذور نبات الرمان بأستخدام تقنيات السائل الغشائي. الݒلترين يستخدم بصوره واسعه في الطب ,حيث يستخدم للقضاء على الديدان الشريطيه والديدان المعويه وكعلاج للاسهال و الدازنتري ,وكمضاد بكتيري. وبينت الدراسات الحديثه بأنه يستعمل كمضاد فطري عندما يمزج مع الاملاح الحديديه , وهذه المجموعه نفسها استعملت لاختبار تأثيره على نمو فيروس الايدز.السلوك العام لعملية الاستخلاص يشير الى ان تحول الݒلترين يزداد عند زيادة عدد المراحل وسرعة دوران الاقراص لكن السرع العاليه كانت غير مفضله بسبب تكون قطرات على الاقراص وبالتالي نقصان بالمساحه السطحيه للطبقات المتجدده. ولكن درجة الحامضيه للمحلول الداخل والمستلم كانت محكومه ضمن حد معين.اظهرت النتائج ان اعلى تحول للݒلترين تم الحصول عليه عند استخدام مرحلتين , سرعة دوران الأقراص (10 دوره / دقيقة) و درجة الحامضية للمحلول الداخل =9.5 , درجة الحامضيه للمحلول المستلم = 2 وبأستخدام الديكان كسائل غشائي .تم تطوير موديل رياضي لوصف عملية انتقال الݒلترين على افتراض وجود طبقتي تفاعل رقيقه في المحلول الداخل والمستلم . على اساس البيانات التجريبيه التي تم الحصول عليها والنموذج الرياضي المقترح وجد ان انتقال المذيب الى الغشاء السائل مسيطر عليه بشكل اساسي من قبل الانتشار.

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