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Adsorption of BTX Aromatic from Reformate by 13X Molecular Sieve

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Abstract

This work deals with separation of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) from reformate. The separation was examined using adsorption by molecular sieve zeolite 13X in a fixed bed process. The concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in the influent and effluent streams was measured using gas chromatography. The effect of flow rate and bed length of adsorbent on the adsorption of multicomponent hydrocarbons and adsorption capacity of molecular sieve was studied. The tendency of aromatic hydrocarbons adsorption from reformate is in the order: benzene >toluene>xylenes.

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Article
FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING OF PETROLEUM FRACTION (VACUUM GAS OIL) TO PRODUCE GASOLINE

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Abstract

In this work, fluid catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil to produce gasoline over prepared faujasite type Y zeolite was investigated using experimental laboratory plant scale of fluidized bed reactor. The catalytic activity of prepared faujasite type NaY, NaNH4Y and NaHY zeolites was investigated. The cracking process was carried out in the temperature range 440 to 500 oC, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) range 10 to 25 h-1 ,and atmospheric pressure . The catalytic activities of the prepared faujasite type NaY , NaNH4Y and NaHY zeolites were determined in terms of vacuum gas oil (VGO) conversion, and gasoline yield . The conversion at 500oC and WHSV10 hr-1 by using faujasite type NaY, NaNH4Y and NaHY zeolite were 50.2%, 64.1% and 69.5wt% respectively. The gasoline yield using the same operating conditions were 24.8%, 30.5% and 36.8wt% respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of produced gasoline shows that the paraffin, olefin, and aromatic content change considerably with the end point temperature of gasoline fraction.

تم استخدام التكسير الحفازي المائع لزيت الغاز الذي حصل عليه من التقطير الفراغي لمتبقي التقطير الجوي في وحدة الزيوت في مصفى الدورة باستخدم العامل المساعد فايوجاسيت نوع Y زيولايت المحضر . درست الفعالية الحفازية للفيوجيسايت بصيغة الصوديوم NaY , و صيغة الامونيومNaNH4Y و صيغة الهيدروجين NaHY زيولايت باستخدام وحدة تجريبية بحدود درجات الحرارة بين 440 – 500 oC وسرعة فراغية بين 10 – 25 سا-1 .تم تعيين الفعالية الحفازية للفيوجيسايت بصيغة الصوديوم NaY , و صيغة الامونيومNaNH4Y و صيغة الهيدروجين NaHY زيولايت بصيغة تحويل المتفاعلات الى مختلف النواتج ونسبة الكازولين الناتج .لقد كانت نسبة تحويل المتفاعلات الى نواتج عند درجة حرارة 500 oC وسرعة فراغية 10 سا-1 50.2% و 64.1% و 69.5% على التوالي. وان انتاجية الكازولين لنفس الظروف التشغيلية كانت24.8% و 30.5% و 36.8% على التوالي .بينت تحليل الغازالكروماتوغرافي Gas Chromatography للكازولين المنتج بان نسبة البرافينات ,الاوليفينات والاروماتيات تتغير تبعا لتغير درجة حرارة نهاية التقطير لمقطع الكازولين .


Article
The Effect of Solvent Extraction of Light Lubricating Oilon Viscosity Index and Chemical Composition

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted for the improvement of viscosity index of light lubricating oil fraction (40 stock) obtained from vacuum distillation unit of lube oil plant of Daura Refinery, using solvent extraction process.In this study furfural solvent was used to extract the undesirable materials which reduce the viscosity index of raw lubricating oil fraction.The studied effecting variables of extraction were extraction temperature range from 70 to 110°C, and solvent to oil ratio range from 1:1 to 4:1 (wt/wt).The n-d-M method was used for calculation of carbon distribution and structural group analysis of the raffinate produced from furfural extraction.Also the three component phase diagram for a mixed-base oil and furfural at different temperature was drawn.The results of this investigation show that the viscosity index of lubricating oil fraction increases with increasing extraction temperature and increasing the solvent to oil ratio and reaches 115.6 at extraction temperature 110°C and solvent to oil ratio 4:1.Further more, the results show that the viscosity, refractive index, density, sulfur content and percentage yield of produced raffinate were decreased as the extraction temperature or solvent to oil ratio increases for extraction process.


Article
The Effect of TCE Addition on the Performance of Catalytic Isomerization of n-Hexane

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Abstract

n-Hexane conversion enhancement was studied by adding TCE (Trichloro-ethylene) on feed stream using 0.3%Pt/HY zeolite catalyst. All experiments were achieved at atmospheric pressure and on a continuous laboratory unit with a fixed bed reactor at a temperature range 240-270◦C, LHSV 1-3h-1, H2/nC6 mole ratio 1-4.By adding 435 ppm of TCE, 49.5 mole% conversion was achieved at LHSV 1h-1, temperature of 270ºC and H2/nC6 mole ratio of 4, while the conversion was 18.3 mol% on the same catalyst without adding TCE at the same conditions. The activation energy decreased from 98.18 for pure Pt/HY zeolite to 82.83 kJ/mole by adding TCE. Beside enhancement the activity, selectivity and product distribution enhanced by providing DMB (Dimethyl butane) which have higher octane number as compared with 0.3%Pt/HY zeolite. Indeed the increase of the 2.2-DMB/2,3DMB ratio with n-hexane conversion is more pronounced with TCE than with pure Pt/HY zeolite.

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Article
Characterization and Cracking Activity of Zeolite Prepared from Local Kaolin

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Abstract

The synthesis of zeolite NaX from locally available kaolin has been studied. The operating conditions for zeolite NaX production from kaolin with good crystallinity were as follows; a gel formation step of metakaolin in alkaline medium in presence of additional silica to crystallize the zeolite was achieved at 60 oC for 1 hr,and with stirring. In ageing step of the reactants at room temperature for 5 days and crystallization step at 87±2 oC for 24 hr. The catalytic activity of catalyst prepared from local kaolin was studied by using cumene cracking as a model for catalytic cracking and compared with standard HY zeolite and HX zeolite catalysts. The activity test was carried out in a laboratory continuous flow unit with fixed bed reactor at duration time in the range 10-240 minutes, temperature 823 K, and LHSV 1 h-1. The prepared and the standard catalysts were characterized by atomic absorption, X-Ray Diffraction Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, surface area and pore volume.

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Article
Kinetic Study of Catalytic Hexane Isomerization

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The isomerization of n-hexane on platinum loaded acidic zeolite was studied at atmospheric pressure, H2/nC6 molar ratios of 1-4 and temperature range of 240-270ºC. The measured kinetic data were fitted to an equation based on the bifunctional mechanism and by using independently obtained dehydrogenation and adsorption data. The activation energies of protonation (ΔHpro) and the elementary isomerization step (Eact,iso) and as well as the corresponding preexponential factor were simultaneously determined. The observed values of both ΔHpro and Eact,iso are in agreement with the results of quantum-chemical calculations.

تم تحضير العامل المساعد 0.3wt%Pt/HY-zeolite بطريقة التحميل الرطب واستخدمت لازمرة الهكسان الاعتيادي.اجريت التجارب المختبرية بضغط جوي في منظومة ريادية تحتوي على مفاعل ذو الحشوة الثابتة وبدرجات حرارية تراوحت بين 240-270 °م وسرع فراغية 1-3 سا-1 والنسب المولية للهيدروجين الى الهكسان الاعتيادي 1-4.تم اشتقاق المعادلة العامة لسرعة التفاعل بالاعتماد على ميكانيكية ثنائية الدالة .استخدمت البيانات المتوفرة في الادبيات لحساب ثوابت التوازن لعملية الامتصاص وازالة الهيدروجين.ان قيمة طاقة التنشيط لتفاعل الازمرة هي 119.7 كيلو جول/مول في حين قيمة انثالبية تفاعل توليد البروتونات -79 كيلو جول/مول.

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Article
Effect of Promoters on the Catalytic Activity of the Iosmerization Catalyst

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The crystalline zeolite, namely faujasite type Y with SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio of 5 was used as raw material for preparation of isomerization catalysts. A 0.5 wt % Pt/HY-zeolite catalyst was prepared by impregnation of the decationized HY-zeolite with chloroplatinic acid. The dectionized HY-zeolite was treated with HCl, HNO3 and HI promoters using different normalities and with different concentrations of Sn, Ni and Ti promoters by impregnation method to obtain acidic and metallic promoters' catalysts, respectively. A 0.5 wt% of Pt was added to above catalysts using impregnation method. Isomerization of n-hexane was carried out at different prepared catalysts. The isomerization temperature varied from 250–325° C over weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) 1.6 h-1. The pressure and hydrogen to feed mole ratio were kept constant at 1bar and 2 mol/mol, respectively.The comparison between the above prepared catalysts shows that the total isomer yield during the process with Sn-Pt /HY- zeolite catalyst was higher than the other catalysts and, reached to 63.95% vol. A 0.5 wt% of W and Zr was added to Sn-Pt/HY-zeolite catalyst by impregnation method to obtain W and Zr co-metal promoters catalysts. Isomerization of n-hexane was investigated using W and Zr co-metal promoters catalyst at the same operating conditions and the yield of isomers reached to 81.14% vol.and 79.07%vol.,respectively.


Article
Prediction of The Chemical Composition and Physical properties of Aged Asphalt Cement

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Abstract

In the present work a modification was made on three equations to represent the experiment data which results for Iraqi petroleum and natural asphalt. The equations have been developed for estimating the chemical composition and physical properties of asphalt cement at different temperature and aging time. The standard deviations of all equations were calculated. The modified correlation related to the aging time and temperature with penetration index and durability index of aged petroleum and natural asphalts were developed. The first equation represents the relationship between the durability index with aging time and temperature. The second equation represents the relationship between the penetration index with aging time and temperature. The third equation represents the relationship between the durability index with penetration index. The values of penetration index and durability index for all aged samples were compared with predicted values. These correlations give a percent of error in the range of 1.2 to 7.4%.


Article
The Effect of Promoters on the Activity of Prepared Zeolite Catalyst in FCC Process

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Abstract

Faujasite type NaY zeolite catalyst was prepared from locally available kaolin, then the prepared NaY zeolite have been modified by exchanging of sodium ion with ammonium to produce NH4Y zeolite. NH4Y zeolite was converted to HY zeolite by ion exchanging with oxalic acid. Zinc and nickel promoters have been added to the prepared HY zeolite catalyst, and the effect of these promoters on the catalytic activity of the prepared HY catalyst was studied in fluid catalytic cracking process using light gas oil as a feedstock. The experimental results show that the promoted catalyst gives higher gas oil conversion and gasoline yield than HY zeolite catalyst at the same reaction temperature and WHSV. It was also found that the promoted catalyst gives gasoline with lesser olefin content and higher aromatics compared with the gasoline produced by HY catalyst.


Article
Treatment of Slack Wax by Thermal Cracking Process

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This work deals with thermal cracking of slack wax which produced as a byproduct from solvent dewaxing process of medium lubricating oil fraction in AL-Dura refinery. The thermal cracking process was carried out at a temperature ranges 480-540 ºC and atmospheric pressure. The liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) for thermal cracking was varied between 1.0-2.5 〖hr〗^(-1 ). It was found that the conversion increases (61 - 83) with increasing of reaction temperature (480 - 540) and decreases (83 - 63) with increasing of liquid hourly space velocity (1.0 - 2.5). The maximum gasoline yield obtained by thermal cracking process (48.52 wt. % of feed) was obtained at 500 ºC and liquid hour space velocity 1.0 〖hr〗^(-1). The obtaining liquid product at the best operating condition 500 ºC and LHSV 1.0 〖hr〗^(-1) was fractionated into wide range fractions. Based on the determination of some properties for the distilled fractions and comparison these properties with that required by standard requirements, it is possible to use the fractions of cracking products as a component for production of automobile gasoline, domestic kerosene, light diesel fuel and basic lubricating oils.

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