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Article
The Effect of Extraction Temperature and Solvent to Oil Ratio on Viscosity Index of Mixed-medium Lubricating Oil Fraction by Using Solvents Extraction

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Abstract

In this study two types of extraction solvents were used to extract the undesirable polyaromatics, the first solvent was furfural which was used today in the Iraqi refineries and the second was NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone).The studied effecting variables of extraction are extraction temperature ranged from 70 to 110°C and solvent to oil ratio in the range from 1:1 to 4:1.The results of this investigation show that the viscosity index of mixed-medium lubricating oil fraction increases with increasing extraction temperature and reaches 107.82 for NMP extraction at extraction temperature 110°C and solvent to oil ratio 4:1, while the viscosity index reaches to 101 for furfural extraction at the same extraction temperature and same solvent to oil ratio. The increase in solvent to oil ratio has a higher effect on increasing the viscosity index of lubricating oil fraction compared with extraction temperature in furfural and NMP extraction.Further more, the results show that the percentage yield of raffinate was decreased as the extraction temperature and solvent to oil ratio increases for furfural and NMP extraction.

تم استخدام نوعين من المذيبات لاستخلاص المواد غير المرغوبة هذه المذيبات هي الفورفورال والمستخدم حالياً في المصافي العراقية والمذيب الاخر (N-Methyl,2,pyrrolidone) NMP.المتغيرات المؤثرة على عملية الاستخلاص والتي تم دراستها هي درجة حرارة الاستخلاص وتتراوح من 70 الى 110 °م لكل من عمليتي الاستخلاص بالفورفورال و NMP والمتغير الاخر هو نسبة المذيب الى الزيت وتتراوح بين 1:1 الى 4:1 لعملية الاستخلاص بالفورفورال وتتراوح بين 1:1 الى 4:1 لعملية الاستخلاص ب NMP.اظهرت نتائج البحث ان معامل اللزوجة للرافنيت الناتج من عملية استخلاص المقطع الزيتي يزداد بزيادة درجة حرارة الاستخلاص وزيادة نسبة المذيب الى الزيت ليرفع من (49) للمقطع الزيتي الخام ليصل الى (107) لعملية الاستخلاص ب NMP عند درجة حرارة الاستخلاص 110 °م ونسبة المذيب الى الزيت 4:1 بينما يصل الى (101) لعملية الاستخلاص بالفورفورال عند نفس الظروف من درجة حرارة الاستخلاص ونسبة المذيب الى الزيت ,وهذا يعني انه يمكن الحصول على معامل لزوجة اعلى عند استخدام NMP بدلاً من الفورفورال كمذيب في عملية الاستخلاص تحت نفس الظروف من درجة حرارة الاستخلاص ونسبة المذيب.الزيادة في نسبة المذيب الى الزيت اكثر تأثيراً على زيادة معامل اللزوجة لمقطع زيت التزييت مقارنة مع درجة حرارة الاستخلاص باستخدام مذيب الفورفورال ا وال NMP بالاستخلاص.اكثر تفصيلاً ,اظهرت النتائج ان نسبة الانتاجية للرافينيت قد قلت مع زيادة درجة حرارة الاستخلاص ونسبة المذيب الى الزيت باستخدام مذيب الفورفورال ا وال NMP بالاستخلاص.

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Article
The Effect of Operating Conditions of Urea Dewaxing on the Pour Point of Light Lubricating Oil.

Authors: Noor S.Akram --- Abdul-Halim A.Mohammed عبد الحليم عبد الكريم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-63
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted for dewaxing of lubricating oil fraction by urea to reduce the pour point.In this study mixture of 45 % methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 55 % toluene was used as a solvent. The studied variables are mixing time (10-70 min), solvent to oil volume ratio (0.5:1- 2:1), urea to wax weight ratio (2- 6) and constant mixing speed 1500 rpm. By analysis of the experimental results, the best operating conditions achieved are mixing time 40 min, solvent/oil 2:1 volume ratio, and urea/wax 4:1 weight ratio. At these conditions the pour point of the lubricating oil decreases from 24 ° C to -13 °C.

Keywords

urea dewaxing --- adduct --- solvents --- pour point.


Article
Preparation and Formation of Zeolite 5A from Local Kaolin Clay for Drying and Desuphurization of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

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Abstract

This work deals with preparation of zeolite 5A from Dewekhala kaolin clay in Al-Anbar region for drying and desulphurization of liquefied petroleum gas. The preparation of zeolite 5A includes treating kaolin clay with dilute hydrochloric acid 1N, treating metakaolin with NaOH solution to prepare 4A zeolite, ion exchange, and formation. For preparation of zeolite 4A, metakaolin treated at different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 90, and 100 °C) with different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution (1, 2, 3, and 4 N) for 2 hours. The zeolite samples give the best relative crystallinity of zeolite prepared at 80 °C with NaOH concentration 3N (199%), and at 90 and 100°C with NaOH concentration solution 2N (184% and 189%, respectively). Zeolite 5A was prepared by ion exchange of zeolite 4A prepared at 90°C and 2N NaOH concentration with 1.5 N calcium chloride solution at 90 °C and 5 hours, the ion exchange percentage was 66.6%. The formation experiments included mixing the prepared powder of 5A zeolite with different percentages of kaolin clay, citric acid and tartaric acid to form an irregular shape of zeolite granules. Tartaric acid binder gives higher bulk crushing strength than that obtained by using citric acid binder with no significant difference in the surface area. 7.5 weight% tartaric acid binder has the higher bulk crushing strength 206 newton with surface area 267.4 m2/g. Kaolin clay binder with 15 weight% gives the highest surface area 356 m2/g with bulk crushing strength 123 newton, it was chose as the best binder for zeolite 5A. The prepared granules of 5A zeolite were used for the adsorption experiments of H2O, and H2S contaminants from LPG. Different flow rates of LPG (3, 4, and 5 liter/minute) were studied. It was found that H2O is the strongly adsorbed component and H2S is the weakly adsorbed component. The best flow rate in this work for H2O, and H2S adsorption is 5 liter/minute of LPG. The adsorption capacity for H2O was 7.547 g/g and for H2S was 1.734 g/g.


Article
Naphtha desulfurization by prepare Cu-Ni-zeolite adsorbent

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Abstract

For desulfurization of naphtha, NaY zeolite was prepared from Dewekhala kaolin clay (Al-Anbar region). For the prepared zeolite adsorbent, x-ray diffraction, sodium content, silica to alumina ratio, surface area, bulk density and crushing strength were determined. From the x-ray diffraction of the prepared NaY zeolite and by a comparison with the standard NaY zeolite, it was found that the prepared adsorbent in this work has approximately the same crystal structure as the standard. Adsorption process was done in a laboratory unit at 25 ᵒC and 4.1 h-1 LHSV. The experimental results show that the promoted adsorbent gives higher percentage of sulfur removal (82.15%) after 10 minute and reaching 40.15% after 120 minute. The adsorption capacity is equal 0.167 mmole "S"/ g after 10 minute while it reached up to 0.77 and 0.98 mmole "S"/g at 50 and 120 minute, respectively

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