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Article
Does Hepatitis C Virus Infection is a Relevant Factor for Thyroid Dysfunction?

Authors: Saad Muhmood Hussain --- Abdul-Razak Sh. Hasan
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 140-145
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Because hepatitis C virus can replicate in cells other than hepatocytes, more than 5% of infected patients develop during the course of the disease at least one extrahepatic manifestations.Objective: Determination of the seropositivity rate of anti-HCV antibody among patients with thyroid dysfunction in Diyala province.Materials and methods: The present study was conducted from September/2008 to October/2009. 122 patients who presented with abnormal thyroid function tests. 29 (23.3%) of them were males with mean age 35.4 ± 19.0 years and 93 (76.7% ) were females with mean age 37.5±11.5 years. Additionally, 117 normal healthy blood donors were included as control group, the mean age 32.3 ± 8.7 years. Anti-HCV antibody was detected by ELISA technique. Repeatedly positive sera were confirmed by immunoblot assay. Data were statistically analyzed.Results: The preliminary results showed that the anti-HCV seropositivity rate among patients was insignificantly higher than controls (1.6% and 0.8%) respectively. Male and female were equally infected (50%). The age of infected male was 56 years, while the age of infected female was 47 years. Conclusion: Hepatitis C virus infection is not a risk factor for the development of thyroid dysfunction.


Article
Seroprevalence of Anti-Rubella IGg Antibody Among Pregnant And Childbearing Women in Diyala Province-Iraq

Author: Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan عبد الرزاق شفيق حسن
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2011 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-32
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Background: In countries where the rate of susceptible women to rubella infection is higher than 10%, preconceptional or prenatal screening is important to reduce the burden of the disease. Objectives: determination of anti-rubella IgG seropositivity and susceptibility rates among pregnant and childbearing women in Baquba-Diyala province.Subjects and methods: A total of 184 women were enrolled in the present study which was conducted in Baquba-Diyala province during the period from April/2007 to September/2008. Ninety eight pregnant women were chosen from those attending the primary health care centers in Baquba. They include 46(46.9%) who had previous abortions with a mean age 27.2 ± 5.3 years, and 52(53.1%) without previous abortion with mean age 23.7± 5.1 years. Additionally, 86 non-pregnant childbearing women were enrolled as a control group. Of those, 39(45.3%) had previous abortion with mean age 33.5 ± 7.8 years, and 47 (54.6%) without previous abortion, the mean age 30.7±7.8 years. Certain demographic factors were collected by personal interview. Anti-rubella IgG specific antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 13 computer assisted program. P value of < 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The results revealed that the IgG seropositivity among pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 96.1% and 76% respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.04). The seropositivity among non-pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 85.1% and 100% respectively, with a statistically insignificant difference (p= 0.11). The overall susceptibility rate for rubella infection was 10.7%. There was insignificant effect of age, educational levels, residency, presence of pregnancy, and history of previous abortion on the seropositivity rate of IgG specific anti- rubella antibody.Conclusion: evaluation of the susceptibility of women in the reproductive age to rubella infection is essential to set a strategy for prevention of congenital rubella syndrome.Keywords: rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, susceptibility rate.


Article
Clinical and Fungal Study of Pityriasis Versicolor Infection among Patients with Skin Mycoses in Baquba
دراسة فطرية وسريريه عن إصابات النخالية المبرقشة بين المصابين بالفطريات الجلدية في بعقوبة

Author: Abdul-Razak Sh. Hasan د.عبدالرزاق شفيق حسن
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 30-33
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective: To explore the infection rate, clinical patterns, and laboratory investigations of pityriasis versicolor infection among patients with skin mycosis attending Baquba General Hospital.Materials & methods: This study was conducted in Baquba General Hospital and Public Health Laboratory for the period from October/2003 to Augest/2004. Skin scrapings were collected from 64 patients who were clinically diagnosed as having pityriasis versicolor infection. Direct microscopic examination and culture of specimens on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was done. Patient's information including age, sex, residence and previous family history were recorded. All data were statistically analyzed.Results: During the study period, of 248patientswith skin mycoses, 64 (25.8%) were clinically and microscopically diagnosed as having pityriasis versicolor infection. Clinically the white patchy lesion was higher than dark-brown lesion (67.2% vs. 32.8%). The site of infection was more frequently on the neck (40.6%). A significantly higher infection rate was found among males compared to females (73.4% vs. 26.6%). Additionally, the infection rate was significantly higher (45.3%) among the age group 22-31years compared to other age groups.Conclusion: About one quarter of skin mycoses are attributed to pityriasis versicolor infection.Key Words: Pityriasis Versicolor, Mycoses, Baquba

أهداف الدراسة: التحري عن نسبة الإصابة بالنخالية المبرقشة بين المصابين بالإمراض الفطرية الجلدية في مدينة بعقوبة وكذلك معرفة تأثير بعض العوامل على نسبة الاصابة.المواد وطرق العمل: أجريت هذه الدراسة على المرضى المراجعين لشعبة الإمراض الجلدية والزهرية في مستشفى بعقوبة العام للفترة من تشرين الأول/2003 إلى آب/2004 . جمعت القشطات الجلدية من64 مريضا شخصوا سريريا على إنهم مصابون بالنخاليةالمبرقشة0 الفحص ألمجهري المباشر اجري باستخدام محلول هيدروكسيد البوتاسيوم ( % 10 ) وصبغة lactophenol cotton blue ، كما تم زرع النماذج على وسط Sabouraud's dextroseagar، فضلا عن ذلك فقد دونت المعلومات التي تخص المرضى كالعمر والجنس والسكن والتاريخ العائلي. جميع البيانات حللت احصائي. النتائج: خلال مدة الدراسة ومن بين 248 مريضا مصابين بالإمراض الفطرية الجلدية، 64 (%25.8) مريضا شخصوا سريريا و مختبريا على إنهم مصابين بالنخالية المبرقشة. ظهرت الإصابة بشكل بقع بيضاء فاتحة أكثر بشكل معنوي من البقع البنية الداكنــــــة ( % 32.8 vs % 67.2 ). موقع الإصابة كان الأكثر في منطقة الرقبة ( %40.4 ) مقارنة بالأماكن الاخرى. نسبة الإصابة كانت اعل بشكل معنوي بين الذكور مقارنة بالإناث ( %26.5 vs %73.6 ). فضلا عن ذلك فان نسبة الإصابة كانت اعل بشكل معنوي بين المرضى الذين تراوحت أعمارهم من22 إلى 31 سنة (%45.3 ) مقارنة بالفئات العمرية الاخرى.الاستنتاج:شكلن الإصابة بالنخالية المبرقشة حوالي ربع الإصابات الجلدية الفطرية بين المرضى في مدينة بعقوبة.


Article
Seroprevalence and relevant factors of anti-hepatitis A virus antibody among general population in Baquba
الانتشار المصلي والعوامل ذات العلاقة للضدات النوعية للالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (A ) بين أفراد المجتمع في بعقوبة

Author: Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan د. عبد الرزاق شفيق
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-79
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background & Objective: Viral hepatitis is an important health concern in Iraq. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is spread through contamination of water and food. The majority of infections occur during childhood. Both clinical and subclinical infection develops long-life circulating antibodies. The present study carried out to determine the seroprevalence of anti- HAV antibody among general population in Baquba city and to explore the effect of certain relevant factors.Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted for the period from 30/September/2004 to 30/Augest/ 2005. 142 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals. Sera were separated and kept at -20 0C till examined. Furthermore, 81 blood samples collected from domesticated farm animals were also included. Detection of anti-HAV IgG was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Data were statistically analyzed.Results: The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG among apparently healthy individuals in Baquba was 73.2%.The infection rate was statistically higher in those < 15 years old (P<0.001) with an Odd ratio 7.6 times more compared to other age groups. Additionally, the infection rate among rural was significantly higher (P= 0.008) with an Odd ratio 3.5 times compared to urban. However, the effect of other factors was statistically insignificant. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG among cows, sheep and goats were 22.2%, 18.2%and 21.8% respectively.Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG among healthy population in Baquba was comparable to that in other endemic areas and that domesticated animals may act as reservoirs for disseminating the virus in the community.Key words: seroprevalence, HAV, Baquba.

الخلفية والأهداف :يعد التهاب الكبد الفيروسي شأنا صحيا مهما في العراق. ينتشر التهاب الفيروسي نمط (A) من خلال تلوث المياه والأطعمة. غالبية الإصابات تحدث خلال فترة الطفولة. الإصابات السريرية وتحت السريرية كلاهما يخلف ضدات دورانية طويلة الأمد. أجريت الدراسة الحالية لتحديد الانتشار المصلي للضدات النوعية لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (A ) بين أفراد المجتمع في بعقوبة ولمعرفة وتأثير بعض العوامل ذات العلاقة. المواد وطرق العمل: أجريت الدراسة الحالية للفترة من 30/أيلول/2004 ولغاية 30/آب/2005 . 142 من نماذج الدم جمعت من أشخاص أصحاء ظاهريا. نم فصل المصل وحفظ في درجة حرارة – 20 م0 لحين إجراء الفحص. فضلا عن ذلك فان 81 نموذجا من دم الحيوانات الحقلية الداجنة قد جمعت وأدخلت في الدراسة. فحص التحري عن الضدات النوعية لفيروس التهاب الكبد نمط ( A ) قد اجري بطريقة الاليزا. النتائج : أظهرت النتائج أن الانتشار المصلي للضدات النوعية لفيروس التهاب الكبد نمط (A ) بين الأشخاص الأصحاء في مدينة بعقوبة كان 73.2 %. إن نسب الإصابة كانت عالية بشكل معنوي لدى الأشخاص ممن هم دون سنة 15 من العمر ( P< 0.001) وكان عامل الخطورة (7.6) مرة أكثر مقارنة بالفئات العمري الأخرى. إضافة إلى ذلك فان نسبة الإصابة لدى الأشخاص الذين يقطنون المناطق الريفية كان أعلى بشكل معنوي (P=0.008) وبمعدل خطورة بلغ (3.5 ) مرة أكثر من الذين يقطنون المناطق الحضرية. على أي حال فان تأثير العوامل الأخرى لم يكن معنويا. الانتشار المصلى للضدات النوعية لفيروس التهاب الكبد نمط (A ) بين الأبقار ، الأغنام والماعز كان على التوالي %21.8, % 18.2, % 22.2.الاستنتاج : إن الانتشار المصلي للضدات النوعية لفيروس التهاب الكبد نمط ( A) بين الأشخاص الأصحاء في مدينة بعقوبة هو مقارب لما هو عليه في المناطق المستوطنة بالمرض، وان الحيوانات الحقلية الداجنة قد تلعب دورا في انتشار الفيروس في المجتمع.

Keywords

seroprevalence --- HAV --- Baquba.


Article
The Prevalence of Rotavirus Infection in Baquba - Diyala Province
معدل الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي في مدينة بعقوبة- محافظة ديالى

Author: Abdul-Razak Sh. Hasan د.عبدالرزاق شفيق حسن
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 200-204
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Rotavirus infection is the leading single cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. More than 500,000 children under 5 years of age die from rotavirus infection each year, and almost 2 million more become severely ill.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection among patients with diarrhea in Baquba- Diyala province, and to explore the effect of certain relevant factors.Materials and methods: The present study was extended from 1/July/2007 to 1/September/ 2008 in Baquba city. A total of 300 fecal specimens were collected from patients suffering from acute diarrhea. The patients include 136 (45.3%) females with mean age (7.8 ± 4.7) years, and 164 males with mean age (5.3± 3.4) years. Demographic information regarding the patient's age, sex, residence, type of water supply, and type of feeding (for those below 2 years of age) were collected through a special questionnaire prepared for this study. BioRad-Rota kit is a highly sensitive agglutination test was used for detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens. All data were statistically analyzed.Results: The results showed that the overall infection rate by rotavirus among patients was 20.3%, and the highest infection rate was among those below 5 years of age. Rotavirus infection among adult patients was also recorded. Females had an insignificantly higher infection rate compared to males (22.1% vs. 18.9%). Patients consuming river's water had significantly higher infection rate compared to those used municipal or tank water (34.5%, 14.1% and 18.5%) respectively. Patients (below 2 years) feed artificially had higher infection rate compared to those on breast or mixed feeding (28.2%, 19.1% and 18.8%) respectively. Although, the rotavirus infections were recorded around the year, the highest infection rate was during spring and winter seasons (22.5% vs. 21.4%).Conclusion: Rotavirus infection as a cause of acute diarrhea was common in Baquba, and particularly affects children below 5 years of age. Keywords: Rotavirus, acute diarrhea, gastroenteritis

تمهيد: يعتبر الفيروس العجلي المسبب الرئيسي الوحيد لحالات الإسهال الشديدة لدى الرضع والأطفال يبلغ عدد الوفيات لدى الأطفال تحت سن الخامسة من العمر من جراء الإصابة بهذا الفيروس أكثر من نصف مليون حالة وفاة سنويا، فضلا عن حوالي مليوني حالة من حالات الإسهال الخطيرة.أهداف الدراسة: لتحديد مدى انتشار الاصابة بفيروس العجلي بين المرضى المصابون بالاسهال في مدينة بعقوبة- محافظة ديالى، وكذلك لمعرفة تاثير بعض العوامل ذات العلاقة بنسب الاصابة.المواد وطرق العمل: أجريت هذه الدراسة في مدينة بعقوبة للفترة من الاول من تموز/2007 الى الاول من ايلول/2008 ، جمعت نماذج البراز من 300 مريضا يعانون من الاسهال الحاد، شملت مجموعة المرضى 136 (45,3%) اناثا بمعدل عمر (7,8 ± 4,7) سنة، و 164 ( 54,7%) ذكور وبمعدل عمر (5,3 ± 3,4) سنة، جمعت المعلومات التي تخص المرضى كالعمر، الجنس، السكن، مصدر مياه الشرب، نوعية التغذية ( لمن هم دون السنتين من العمر) من خلال استمارة خاصة اعدت لهذه الدراسة0 استخدم فحص التلازن عالي الحساسية من شركة (Bio-Rad Rota Kit) للكشف عن الفيروس في نماذج البراز، جميع النتائج حللت احصائيا. النتائج: أظهرت النتائج ان نسبة الاصابة الكلية بالفيروس العجلي بين عينة الدراسة كانت 20,3%، وكانت الفئة العمرية دون الخمس سنوات من العمر الاكثر تعرضا للاصابة، سجلت الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي بين البالغين والكبار ايضا، كانت نسبة لاصابة بين الاناث اعلى بشكل غير معنوي مقارنة بالذكور (22,1% مقابل 18,9%)، كانت نسب الاصابة لدى المرضى الذين يستخدمون مياه الانهر للشرب اعلى بشكل معنوي مقارنة باولائك الذين يستخدمون مياه الاسالة او مياة الصهاريج (34,5%، 14,1% و 18,5%) على التوالي، بالرغم من ان الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي قد سجلت على مدار السنة، فان اعلى نسب الاصابة كانت في فصلي الربيع والشتاء ( 22,5% مقابل 21,4%).الاستنتاج: ان الاسهال الشديد بسبب الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي شائع في مدينة بعقوبة، وان الفئة العمرية دون الخمسة سنوات من العمر هي الاكثر تضررا.


Article
Seroppositivity of anti-rubella antibodies among premarriagegirls in Diyala province

Authors: Adnan A. Neima --- Abbas A. Al-Duliami , --- Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 259-267
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Rubella is the mildest of common viral exanthems. However, infection during early
pregnancy may result in serious abnormalities of the fetus including congenital malformation
and mental retardation. The objectives of the present study are to determine the seropositivity
rate of anti-rubella IgG and IgM antibodies among premarriage girls in Diyala province.
A total of 358 subjects were included in the present study. The study was extended
from 7/April/2007 to 30/September/2008. 186 (51.9%) were females with mean age 16.7±
2.1 years, and 172(48.1%) were males with mean age 24.5 ±5.5 years. Those subjects were
randomly selected from those attending the Public Health Laboratory in Baquba for
premarriage investigations. Further information regarding age, residence, educational levels
was taken by personal interview. Detection of anti-rubella antibodies was done by enzymelinked
immunosorbant assays (ELISA) using (Biokit, Spain).Data were statistically analyzed
using SPSS version 13 computer assisted processing. P value <0.05 was considered
significant.
The results showed that all males and females were negative for anti-rubella IgM
antibody. However, 168 (97.7%) of males and 170(91.4%) of females were positive for antirubella
IgG antibody. Therefore, the rate of non-immune females was higher than that of
males (8.6% vs 2.3%). In conclusion premarital screening for anti-rubella IgG and vaccination
of non-immune girls could minimize the risk of rubella infection during pregnancy and childbearing
period.
Key words: Rubella, Congenital rubella syndrome, premarriage girls


Article
Virulence factors of enterococci species isolated from nosocomial and community acquired infections

Authors: Abbas A. Al-Duliami --- Nadhum G. Nauman --- Afak R. Salman --- Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 174-182
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Several virulence and pathogenicity factors have been described from enterococci thatenhances their ability to colonize patient's tissues, increase resistance to antibiotics, andaggravate the infection outcome. The present study aimed to investigate virulence andpathogenicity factors among enterococci species isolated from nosocomial and communityacquired infection in Diyala. The study was conducted in Baquba General Hospital and Al-Batool Hospital for Maternity and children during the period from 1st. September/2005 to 30th.September /2006. A total of 343 specimens were collected from 213 inpatients and 130outpatients. 200 (58.3%) were females and 143 (41.7%) were males. The mean age of patientswas (32.8 ± 17.2) years. 44 isolates of enterococcal species were recovered from differentclinical specimens and identified according to standard bacteriological and biochemicalcriteria. The presence of certain virulence and pathogenicity factors, namely; gelatinase andhemolysin production, biofilms formation, agglutination of erythrocytes, presence of capsule,and adherence to epithelial cells were detected. Data were statistically analyzed.The results showed that all isolates of E. gallinarium and E. avium were biofilmformer compared to 76.7% and 70% of E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. Furthermore,all isolates of E. gallinarium and 76.7% of E. faecalis were β-lactamase producer.Additionally, all isolates of E. avium and 76.7% of E. faecalis were agglutinated RBCs. Thepresence of capsule was highest among E. faecalis isolates (26.7%). The results also revealedthat all E. galinarium and E. avium isolates were non-hemolytic. Furthermore, among 12isolates which express β- hemolysis, 10 (33.3%) and 2 (20%) were E. faecalis and E. faeciumrespectively. α-hemolysis were found among 10 (26.7%) isolates of E. faecalis and 2 (20%)isolates of E. faecium. It can be concluded that Local isolates of enterococci species recoveredfrom different clinical specimens are multi-virulence bacteria.


Article
Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in Diyala province during 2003-2008
أظهرت الدراسة ان اعلى انتشار لفايروس الكبد البائي كان خلال العام 2004 ( 5,5 لكل 100 حالة ) ، كذلك وجد ان اعلى انتشار لفايروس الكبد الجيمي كان خلال نفس العام ( 2،5 لكل حالة 1000 ) . وكان اعلى انتشار لكلا النوعين خلال شهر نيسان من نفس العام ، وظهر فرق معنوي عالي بالنسبة لالتهاب الكبد الفايروسي البائي بين الاعمار ( 20 – 29 ) ، في حين كان الفرق المعنوي العالي بالنسبة الى النوع الجيمي للاعمار (30- 39 ) . ك1لك اظهر الذكور فرق معنوي عالي عند مقارنتهم بالأناث .

Authors: Abbas A. Al-Duliami --- Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan --- Azher S. Al-Jebori
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 292-302
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are largely depend on the rate of chronic carrier in the community and the predominant route of infection.Objectives: to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection in Diyala province during the period from 2003 to 2008.Materials and methods: This study was conducted for the period from 1/February/2003 to 30/April/2008. Data were extracted from records of the virology unit in the Public Health Laboratory in Baquba. Data were translated to computerized data base and statistically analyzed.Results: The highest annual prevalence rate of HBV infection was found in 2004 (5.5/1000 tested samples) and highest annual prevalence rate of HCV infection was found in 2004 (2.5/1000 tested samples). The HBV and HCV positive cases were peaked in April months. The HBV positive cases were significantly higher among the age group (20-29) years (p <0.001). The HCV positive cases were significantly higher among the age group (30-39) years (p < 0.001). There is no association between HBV and HCV positivity rates and the district of residence. The HBV and HCV positivity rates were significantly higher (p= 0.009) in males compared to females.Conclusion: Although the annual seroprevalence of HBV is slightly decline, the annual seroprevalence of HCV is increased. Strengthening of surveillance system is recommended.

أظهرت الدراسة ان اعلى انتشار لفايروس الكبد البائي كان خلال العام 2004 ( 5,5 لكل 100 حالة ) ، كذلك وجد ان اعلى انتشار لفايروس الكبد الجيمي كان خلال نفس العام ( 2،5 لكل حالة 1000 ) . وكان اعلى انتشار لكلا النوعين خلال شهر نيسان من نفس العام ، وظهر فرق معنوي عالي بالنسبة لالتهاب الكبد الفايروسي البائي بين الاعمار ( 20 – 29 ) ، في حين كان الفرق المعنوي العالي بالنسبة الى النوع الجيمي للاعمار (30- 39 ) . ك1لك اظهر الذكور فرق معنوي عالي عند مقارنتهم بالأناث .


Article
The validity of Kala-azar rapid detection test in the laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Baquba

Authors: Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan --- Zainab H. Al-Azawi --- Ammar Riyadh Qasem
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 47-53
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. The diseasecaused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. It is the second-largest parasitic killerin the world, being responsible for an estimated 500,000 cases each year worldwide.Objectives: To explore the validity of rapid detection test for the laboratory diagnosis ofvisceral leishmaniasis against the conventional blood smear technique.Patients, materials and methods: The present study was carried out at Al-Batoul TeachingHospital during the period from January to July 2009. A total of 75 patients with VL wereincluded. 28 (37.3%) of them were female and 47(62.7%) were male. The age range was 1month- 8 years. Additionally, 30 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled as controlgroups. 13(43.3%) of them were female and 17(56.7%) were male. Venous blood samplewere collected from each subject; sera were separated and kept frozen till use. All sera weretested for anti-rK39 IgG antibodies using the InBios Kala-azar detect rapid test (Seattle, WA)according to the manufacturer's protocol.Results: The results showed that out of 75 patients, 10 (13.3%) and 9 (12%) were positive forkala-azar by microscopical blood film examination and kala-azar rapid screening testrespectively. The distribution of positive cases according to the gender revaled hat theinfection rate among males was higher than in females, and the most affected age was 1-4years.Conclusion: The validity of kala-azar rapid setection test was comparable to that ofmicroscxopical examination for detection of kala-azar cases among clinically suspectedpatients.


Article
Association of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
الترابط بين مستضدات خلايا الدم البيضاء البشرية والإصابة بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (C )

Authors: Karim Sadun Ali Al-Ajeeli كريم سعدون العجيلي --- Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan عبد الرزاق شفيق حسن
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 53-59
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Back ground: Several previous reports on the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and certain human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have yielded controversial results.Objectives: This study was conducted to explore the association of HCV infection and certain HLA in patients from Al-Ramadi Province.Subjects and methods: Thirty two patients with chronic HCV infection as well as 64 apparently healthy individuals and 30 patients with clinically evident acute viral hepatitis, but HCV negative were enrolled in the present study which was conducted in Al-Ramadi city for the period from August/2004 to May/2006. HCV infection was diagnosed by detecting the anti-HCV antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Immunoblot assay. Determination of HLAs was done by Microlymphocytotoxicity technique.Results: The results revealed that the presence of HLA-DR5 (Odd ratio 2.7, P 0.022) and HLA-DQ2 (Odd ratio 3.1, P= 0.008), and the absence of HLA-DR7 (Inverse Odd ratio 3.2, P = 0.04) and HLA-DQ1 (Inverse Odd ratio 2.8, P= 0.012) were associated with significantly increased risk for HCV infection as compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, the presence of HLA-DR5 (Odd ratio 6.5, P= 0.005) and HLA-DQ2 (Odd ratio 5.1, P= 0.002), and the absence of HLA-DR7 (Inverse Odd ratio 4.8, P= 0.018) were significantly associated with increased risk for HCV infection.Conclusion: Genetic predisposition may play a role in hepatitis C virus infection in patients from Al-Ramadi city.

تمهيد:الكثير من الدراسات حول العلاقة بين الاصابة بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط ( C) وبعض مستضدات خلايا الدم البيضاء البشرية اعطت نتائج متباينة. اهداف الدراسة:اجريت هذه الدراسة لاستكشاف العلاقة بين التهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (C ) و بعض مستضدات خلايا الدم البيضاء البشرية بين المرضى في مدينة الرمادي.مجاميع الدراسة وطرائق العمل: اثنان وثلاثون مريضا بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمــط (C ) المزمن وكذلك أربعة وستون شخصا من الأصحاء ظاهريا وثلاثون مريضا بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي من غير فيروس التهاب الكبد نمط (C ) قد تم شمولهم بهذه الدراسة التي أجريت في مدينة الرمادي للفترة آب 2004 إلى مايس 2006 . تم تشخيص التهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (C) بالكشف عن الضدات النوعية للفيروس بتقنية الاليزا والفحص ألتوكيدي بتقنية التراص الناعي . تحديد مستضدات خلايا الدم البيضاء البشرية اجري بتقنية Microlymphocytotoxicity . النتائج:أظهرت النتائج أن وجود المستضد HLA-DR5 (Odd ratio 2.2, P=0.022 ) المستضد HLA-DQ2 (Odd ratio 3.1, P=0.008 ) وعدم وجــود المستضدHLA-DR7 ( Inverse odd ratio 3.2, P= 0.04) والمستضد HLA-DQ1 (Inverse odd ratio 2.8, P= 0.012 ) مترابط مع زيادة معنوية في معدل الخطورة للإصابة بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (C ) مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة للأشخاص الأصحاء. من جانب آخر، فان وجود المستضد HLA-DR5 (Odd ratio 6.5, P= 0.005 ) و المستضد HLA-DQ2 ( Odd ratio 5.1, P=0.002 ) وعدم وجود المستضد HLA-DR7 (Inverse odd ratio 4.8, P= 0.018 ) مترابط مع زيادة معنوية في معدل الخطورة للإصابة بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (C ) مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة للمرضى. الاستنتاج: العوامل الوراثية يمكن أن تلعب دورا في الإصابة بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (C ) في مدينة الرمادي.

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