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Article
ESTIMATION OF MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS IN A PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN USING BATCH MODE

Authors: Mohammed D. Selman --- Adil A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2011 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This research adopts the estimation of mass transfer coefficient in batch packed bed distillation column as function of physical properties, liquid to vapour molar rates ratio (L / V), relative volatility (α), ratio of vapour and liquid diffusivities (DV / DL), ratio of vapour and liquid densities (ρV / ρL), ratio of vapour and liquid viscosities (µV/ µL). The experiments are done using binary systems, (Ethanol Water), (Methanol Water), (Methanol Ethanol), (Benzene Hexane), (Benzene Toluene). Statistical program (multiple regression analysis) is used for estimating the overall mass transfer coefficient of vapour and liquid phases (KOV and KOL) in a correlation which represented the data fairly well.KOV = 3.3 * 10-10 α-0.7 (DV / DL) 0.65 (L / V) 3.5 (ρV / ρL) 1.25 (μV / μL) -5.0KOL = 2.8 * 10-6 α-0.95 (DV / DL) 0.03 (L / V) 1.15 (ρV / ρL )0.077 (μV / μL) -0.9 In this research a method where the resistances to mass transfer in both phases are accounted for separately through the use of HTU-NTU model for each phase Z=HTUOV.NTUOV and Z=HTUOL.NTUOL Results show that both overall vapour and liquid mass transfer coefficient are increased with liquid to vapour molar rates ratio, vapour to liquid diffusivities ratio and vapor to liquid densities ratio, but decreased with increasing the relative volatility and vapour to liquid viscosities ratio.


Article
Differences Between Sodium Metasilicate and Silicic Acid as Silica Source for Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Synthesis by Sol- Gel Method

Authors: Yousif Jawad --- Adil A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 13-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Zeolite Y nanoparticles were synthesized by sal — gel method Different samples using two silica sources were prepared.Sodium metasilicate (Na2Si03) (48% silica) and silicic acid silica (H2SIO3) (75% silica) were employed as sihca source and aluminum nitrate (Al(N03)3.9H20) was the aluminum source with tetrapropylammonium hydroxide(TPA Of- as templating agent.The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray dW?action, showed the requirement different aging time for complete crystallization to be achieved. Transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM) images, showed the particles were in the same range of 30 — 75 nm PT-JR spectroscopy, showed the synthesized samples having the zeolite Y crystal properties. The initial mixing silica to alumina raao (5i02/A was 10, but, sodium metasilicate sample was of 2.55 final ratio, while silicic acid sample have 18.41 and the surface area as tested by BET was of 55587 m2/g from sodium metasilicate sample and 276.3 m2/gfrom silicic acid sample.


Article
Prediction of the Point Efficiency of Sieve Tray Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Firas N. Hassan --- Adil. A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 57-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An application of neural network technique was introduced in modeling the point efficiency of sieve tray, based on a data bank of around33l data points collected from the open literature.Two models proposed,using back-propagationalgorithm, the first model network consists: volumetric liquid flow rate (QL), F foctor for gas (FS), liquid density (pL),gas density (pg), liquid viscosity (pL), gas viscosity (pg), hole diameter (dH), weir height (hw), pressure (P) and surfacetension between liquid phase and gas phase (o). In the second network, there are six parameters as dimensionless group: Flowfactor (F), Reynolds numberfor liquid (ReL), Reynolds numberfor gas through hole (Reg), ratio of weir height to hole diqmeter (hw/dH), ratio of pressure of process to atmosphere pressure (P/Pa), Weber number (lTe).Statistical analysis showed that the proposed models have an average absolute relative enor (AARE) of 9.3% and standard deviation (SD) of 9.7%forfirst model, AARE of 9.35% and SD of 10.5%for second model and AARE of 9.8%and SD of 7.5%for the third model.


Article
Separation of Hexane-Benzene Mixtures by Emulsion Liquid Membrane.

Authors: Muhammad D. Al Zaidi --- Adil A. Al Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effect of operating parameters on the batch scale separation of hydrocarbon mixture (benzene and hexane) usingemulsion liquid membrane technique is reported. Sparkleen detergent was used as surfactant and heavy mineral oil assolvent to receive the permeates.From the experimental results, the parameters that influenced the permeation are, composition of feed, contact timewith solvent, ratio of volume of solvent to volume of hydrocarbon feed, ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volumeof hydrocarbon feed, surfactant concentration, mixing intensity and glycerol as polar additive in the surfactant solutionto eliminate drop breakup.The best conditions for the separation in this study were found to be: composition of feed (mole fraction ofbenzene=0.5245), contact time of 10min. , ratio of volumes of solvent to feed equal 3.5 , ratio of volumes of surfactantsolution to feed of 0.4, surfactant concentration of 1wt%, mixing intensity equal 1000rpm and 70% by weight of polaradditive. These conditions gave a separation factor of (8.0).


Article
Simulation of Wiped Film Evaporator

Authors: Jamal A.L. Al-Ani --- Emad F. Mansour --- Adil A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-50
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady state operation of wiped film evaporators for the concentration of glycerol-water solution. In this model, various assumptions were made to facilitate the mathematical model of the wiped film evaporator. The fundamental phenomena described were: sensible heating of the solution and vaporization of water. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Randomly selected experiments were carried out in a small scale wiped film evaporator from ALVAL COMPANY, using different concentrations of the glycerol solution (10, 30 and 50 Wt. %) for different feed rates (30, 50, 80, 100 and 120 l/h) and two values of steam jacket pressure (2 and 4 atm) to compare between experimental and simulation results. The statistical analysis gave correlation coefficient of 0.9972, average absolute error of 2.2527 % and F-test of 0.9639 which showed the high accuracy of the simulation work.


Article
COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE MIXING ZONE IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF RAMJET

Authors: Sa’ad A. Fa’ek --- Adil A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 27-32
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A theoretical analysis of mixing in the secondary combustion chamber of ramjet is presented. Theoretical investigations were initiated to insight into the flow field of the mixing zone of the ramjet combustor and a computer program to calculate axisymmetric, reacting and inert flow was developed. The mathematical model of the mixing zone of ramjet comprises differential equations for: continuity, momentum, stagnation enthalpy, concentration, turbulence energy and its dissipation rate. The simultaneous solution of these equations by means of a finite-difference solution algorithm yields the values of the variable at all internal grid nodes. The results showed that increasing air mass flow (0.32 to 0.64 kg/s) increases the development of velocity profile due to the high turbulence generated resulting in very fast mixing and homogenous flow. And the occurrence of chemical reaction causes higher local temperature and composition resulting in faster development of the velocity profile


Article
Extraction of medicinal compounds from botanicals using bulk liquid membrane in rotating film contactor: Recovery of vinblastine from catharanthus roseus.

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Abstract

The interest of application of liquid membrane (pertraction) processes for recovery of medicinal compounds from dilute ammoniacal leach solutions is demonstrated. Selectivity of the liquid membrane ensures a preferential transport of the desired solute from the native extract into the strip solution, vinblastine was successfully extracted from basic media (pH 9.2) and stripped by acidic media of sulfuric acid (pH= 1.3) applying continuous pertraction in a rotating discs contactor and using n-decane as liquid membrane. Transport of vinblastine in three-liquid-phase system was studied and performed by means of a kinetic model involving two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions. The kinetic parameters (apparent rate constants of the vinblastine extraction and re-extraction reactions (K1, K2), the maximum fraction of the vinblastine in the liquid membrane (XS.Max) and the time when this maximum is reached (TMax)) were calculated. Solute transfer into the LM is mainly diffusion-controlled.


Article
Study of Dynamic Sorption in Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle
دراسة ديناميكية الامتزاز في دورة التبريد الآمتزازية

Authors: Farkad A. Lattieff فرقد علي لطيف --- Mohammed A. Atiya محمد عبد عطية --- Adil A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 7 Pages: 158-173
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This paper shows the characteristics of temperature and adsorbed (water vapor) mass rate distribution in the adsorber unit which is the key part to any adsorption refrigeration system. The temperature profiles of adsorption/desorption phases (Dynamic Sorption) are measured experimentally under the operating conditions of 90oC hot water temperature, 30oC cooling water temperature, 35oC adsorption temperature and cycle time of 40 min. Based on the temperature profiles, The mass transfer equations for the annulus adsorbent bed are solved to obtain the distribution of adsorption velocity and adsorbate concentration using non-equilibrium model. The relation between the adsorption velocity with time is investigated during the process of adsorption. The practical cycles of adsorption and desorption were stated dependent on the variables obtained from the experiment and equations calculations. The results show that the adsorption velocity is diminished after a period of 20 min. The maximum value of the adsorbed water vapor concentration on silica gel is 0.12 kg water/kg adsorbent (adsorption phase) and the minimum value of the water content into silica gel is 0.04 kg water/kg adsorbent (desorption phase) producing a dynamic sorption of ∆x=0.08 kg water/kg adsorbent.

يعرض هذا البحث خصائص توزيع الحرارة وجريان الكتلة للمادة الممتزة (بخار الماء) في وحدة الآمتزاز والتي تمثل الجزء المفتاح لآي منظومة تبريد أمتزازية. إن شكل التوزيع الحراري لأطوار الآمتزاز والانبعاث (ديناميكية الامتصاص) تم قياسه عمليا" تحت ظروف تشغيلية من درجة حرارة 90o م للماء الساخن ودرجة حرارة 30o م للماء البارد ودرجة حرارة 35o م للامتزاز وزمن دورة 40 دقيقة. اعتمادا على شكل التوزيع الحراري فأن معادلات انتقال المادة لحشوة الحبيبات الدائرية قد حلت للحصول على توزيع سرعة الامتزاز وتركيز المادة الممتزة باستعمال موديل اللاتوازن. كذلك العلاقة بين تغير سرعة الامتزاز مع الزمن قد تم التحقق منها إثناء عملية الامتزاز. تم تحديد الدورة العملية للامتزاز والانبعاث بالاعتماد على على المتغيرات التي تم الحصول عليها من التجربة وحسابات المعادلات.النتائج بينت ان سرعة الامتزاز تتلاشى بعد مرور 20 دقيقة . كانت أعلى قيمة لتركيز بخار الماء الممتز في السليكا جل 0,12 كغم ماء/كغم مازه ( إثناء الامتزاز) وأوطأ قيمة كانت 0,04 كغم ماء/كغم مازه في السليكا جل ( إثناء الانبعاث) مولدة" ديناميكية امتزاز 0,08 كغم ماء/كغم مازه.

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