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Article
Determine types and reasons of waste in Diyala pharmaceutical supply chain-Iraq

Authors: Waleed Al-Zaidi --- Ahmed Al-Zuhairi --- Asaad Al-Karawi
Journal: Tikrit Journal For Administration & Economics Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الادارية والاقتصادية ISSN: 18131719 Year: 2018 Volume: 1 Issue: 41 part 1 Pages: 258-274
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Reducing or removing all kind of wastes, which are defects, inventory, waiting, transportation and extra-processing, are the main aim for organizations in order to minimize cost, so, excluding any activity which cannot add value is required. The main aim of this study is to select the main reasons standing behind any kind of waste in Diyala pharmaceutical supply chain like damage, spoilage, surplus, shortage and expiry date in medicines and pharmaceutical supplies; and administration activities based on the questionnaire prepared for this purpose. The Diyala health sector is one of the Iraqi health sectors linked centrally with the Ministry of Health. The main tool for collecting data was secondary data on website and unstructured interviews with 15 drug store and pharmacy directors; also, a multi-choice questionnaire was distributed to 42 drug stores and pharmacies in Diyala health sector. The main results in this study, there are several reasons behind waste in the Diyala pharmaceutical supply chain. The expiration of medicines and medical materials is the first reason and the storage conditions are the second reason. There are difficulties in reporting surplus medicines and medical materials because of long administrative procedures. The main difficulties to report expired medicines and medical materials is because of fear of accountability.

Keywords

: lean --- waste --- pharmaceutical --- supply chain


Article
Effect of BA, NAA, Methyl Jasmonate and Mannitol on Callus Induction of Periwinkle Plant (Catharanthus roseus L. cv. Heatwave Mix) by In Vitro Culture
تأثير BA و NAA ومثيل الجاسمونيت والمانيتول على استحداث كالس نبات عين البزون Catharanthus roseus L. cv.Heatwave Mix خارج الجسم الحي

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Abstract

The study was conducted to examine the role of BA, NAA, Methyl jasmonate and Mannitol in callus Induction. The results showed the presence of significant differences between the treatments in the fresh and dry weight of callus after five weeks from culture. The 0.25 mg.L-1 BA treatment was significantly superior on control treatment in fresh and dry weight of callus, which reached 0.293 and 0.152 mg, respectively. Also, the two concentrations of NAA (0.5 and 1.0 mg.L-1) were significantly superior on control treatment in the same of two characteristics (0.218 and 0.272 mg fresh weight, and 0.099 and 0.152 mg dry weight, respectively). The treatment of interaction between BA and NAA (0.25+1.0 mg.L-1) has given the highest significant difference in fresh and dry weight reached 0.444 and 0.269 mg, respectively. While less fresh and dry weight when treatment was control treatment, which reached 0.0 mg. The 8000 mg.L-1 Mannitol treatment was significantly superior on control treatment in fresh and dry weight of callus, which reached 332.42 and 53.81 mg, respectively. Also, the 75 mg.L-1 concentration of Methyl jasmonate was significantly superior on control treatment in the same of two characteristics (347.19 and 55.67 mg fresh and dry weight). The treatment of interaction between Mannitol and Methyl jasmonate(8000 mg.L-1+ 75 mg.L-1) has given the highest significant difference in fresh and dry weight reached 451.25 and 69.17 mg, respectively. While less fresh and dry weight when treatment 0 mannitol + 25 mg.L-1 concentrations, which reached 211.99 and 25.38 mg, respectively.

أجريت دراسة لاختبار دور BA و NAA و الجاسمونيت مثيل والمانيتول في نمو وتضاعف الكالس. توضح النتائج وجود فروقات معنويه بين المعاملات المدروسة في الوزن الطري والجاف للكالس المستحث بعد خمسة أسابيع من الزراعة. أن تركيز 0.25 ملغم.لتر-1 بنزيل الأدنين قد تفوق معنويا على معاملة المقارنة في الوزن الطري والجاف للكالس بلغ 0.293 و 0.152 غم على التوالي. كما تفوق تركيزي نفثالين حامض الخليك (0.5 و 1.0 ملغم.لتر-1) معنويا على معاملة المقارنة في الوزن الطري والجاف للكالس (0.218 و 0.272 ملغم وزن طري و 0.099 و 0.152 ملغم وزن جاف على التوالي). أن معاملة التداخل بين البنزيل أدنين ونفثالين حامض الخليك (0.25+1.0 ملغم.لتر-1) أعطت فرقا عالي المعنوية في الوزن الطري والجاف للكالس بلغ 0.444 و 0.269 ملغم على التوالي. بينما أعطت معاملة المقارنة أقل معدل في الوزن الطري والجاف والذي بلغ 0.0 ملغم. أن المعاملة بالمانيتول تركيز 8000 ملغم.لتر-1 قد تفوقت معنويا على معاملة المقارنة في الوزن الطري والجاف للكالس الذي بلغ 332.42 و 53.81 ملغم على التوالي. كذلك وجد أن المعاملة بالجاسمونيت مثيل بتركيز 75 ملغم.لتر-1 أدى الى تفوق معنوي على معاملة المقارنة في نفس الصفتين المدروسة (347.19 و 55.67 ملغم على التوالي). أما معاملة التداخل بين المانيتول والجاسمونيت مثيل (8000+75 ملغم.لتر-1) فقد أعطت أعلى تفوق معنوي في الوزن الطري والجاف للكالس بلغ 451.25 و 69.17 ملغم على التوالي. بينما أقل وزن طري وجاف للكالس كان عند المعاملة (0.0+25) ملغم.لتر-1 مانيتول + مثيل جاسمونيت على التوالي والذي بلغ 211.99 و 25.38 ملغم على التوالي.

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