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Article
EFFECTS OF METFORMIN ON HORMONAL PROFILE AND SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS IN OBESE INFERTILE MALE

Author: Ahmed R. Abu Raghif احمد رحمه ابو رغيف
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 295-301
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Overweight and obese men have an up to 50% higher rate of sub-fertility when compared with normal weight men. Possible management options include weight reduction by dieting or surgery and medical treatment to correct specific endocrine abnormalities, but as yet none has been proven to be effective.Objective:To verify the impact of decreasing body mass index by giving metformin on hormonal profile and seminal fluid analysis in obese infertile male.Methods:Eighteen obese patients whose body mass index was 30-40 kg/m2 and with mean age of 29 years (range: 22-42 years) with idiopathic asthenozoospermia were enrolled in the study. Standard semen analysis according to WHO and hormones assay which include: follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiole were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks of therapy. The enrolled patients were asked to take metformin 850 mg twice daily orally for 12 weeks.Results:A significant decrease (p<0.001) in sperm count and sperm activity after 12 weeks of treatment with metformin. While there is no significant differences with respect to other spermiological parameters. A statistically significant decrease in the level of serum prolactin after 12 weeks of treatment with metformin whereas no significant differences with respect to the level of other hormones.Conclusions:Although metformin has the capacity to decrease the level of prolactin, it decreases the number and activity of sperms. Further studies are recommended to investigate whether there is any association between infertility in human males and chronic metformin useKeywords: Metformin, infertility, male, prolactin, overweight, obese.

Keywords

Metformin --- infertility --- male --- prolactin --- overweight --- obese.


Article
EFFECTS OF METFORMIN ALONE, METFORMIN WITH FLAXSEEDS OIL ON SERUM 1,5 ANHYDROGLUCITOL, ADIPONECTIN AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Authors: Shatha H. Mohammad شذى هاني محمد --- Ahmed R. Abu-Raghif احمد رحمه ابو رغيف --- Nabeel N. Fadhil نبيل نجيب فاضل
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 67-74
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Adiponectin is an amino acid collagen-like protein that is secreted by adipocytes to acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. 1,5 anhydroglucitol, is 1-deoxy form of glucose, is a validated marker of short-term glycemic control. Flaxseed oil is a colorless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linumusitatissimum, L).Objectives:To investigate the effects of metformin alone, metformin with flaxseed oil on fasting serum 1,5 anhydroglucitol, adiponectin and insulin resistance.Methods:Newly diagnosed (≤ 1year) male and female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 25 to 70 years were enrolled and divided into two groups; group 1 consisted of 32 patients, treated by oral metformim alone over a period of 12 weeks an group 2 consisted of 30 patients treated by oral metformim with flaxseed oil. Fasting serum 1,5 anhydroglucitol, adiponectin, fasting plasma glucose and fasting serum insulin were estimated. All parameters were measured initially, before any intervention, and later on at two steps, the 6th and the 12th week of the study. Results:After 12 weeks of treatment with metformin alone, metformin with flaxseed oil there was significant improvement in both 1,5 anhydroglucitol (p = 0.010 and 0.013, respectively) and adiponectin (p = 0.041 and 0.037, respectively). For insulin resistance, p value with metformin, metformin with flaxeed oil was 0.105 and 0.110, respectively. Both results showed an apparent improvement only which was statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Metformin, metformin with flaxseed oil associated with statistically significant improvement in 1,5 anhydroglucitol and adiponectin. Insulin resistance in both treatment groups showed only insignificant apparent improvement. Metformin with flaxseed oil group was more effective in insulin resistance improvement and elevation of adiponectin hormone.Key words: Adiponectin, 1,5 anhydroglucitol, Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance.


Article
THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FELODIPINE ON METHOTREXATE-INDUCED HEPATIC TOXICITY IN RABBITS

Authors: Noor H. Swayeh نور حسون صويح --- Ahmed R. Abu-Raghif احمد رحمه ابو رغيف --- Ban J. Qasim بان جمعة قاسم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 166-173
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Methotrexate is folic acid antagonist, used in the therapy of various types of diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation have the major role in methotrexate toxicity.Objective:To study the protective effects of felodipine against methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits.Methods:Twenty four rabbits divided randomly into three groups. Group I was left without treatment, group II received a dose of 20 mg/kg methotrexate (MTX) intraperitoneally from 3rd day for three successive days and group III received a dose of 0.5 mg/kg felodipine orally for 7 days in addition to MTX therapy similar to group (2). On 8th day the following parameters (liver enzymes, liver tissue homogenate of glutathione, malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α) were monitored. As well as assessment of histological changes on liver tissue sections after scarification.Results:Administration of felodipine significantly decreased the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. It also elevated glutathione levels significantly, with improvement of histological features related to MTX exposure in group III compared with group II.Conclusion: Felodipine can protect hepatic tissue against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity.Keywords: Hepatotoxicity, Methotrexate, Felodipine, Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha.


Article
A STUDY ON HEAVY METALS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS

Authors: Rafah A Samir رافي سامر --- Ahmed R Abu-Raghif احمد رحمه ابو رغيف --- Abdul-Kareem H Abd عبد الكريم حميد عبد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 357-363
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundThe trace heavy metals such as Cobalt, Zinc, Copper and Nickel play important roles in bacteria; they regulate a wide array of metabolic function as coenzyme or cofactors. However, some metals like arsenic, mercury and cadmium, are not essential for growth and extremely toxic. Understanding of metal resistance in Staphylococci in association with antibiotics resistance has progressed rapidly in the last years with well-established cadmium, mercury, antimony and arsenic resistance system encoded by plasmids. ObjectiveTo evaluate antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.MethodsThirty S. aureus isolates were collected from different clinical specimens. The minimum inhibitory concentration of thirty S. aureus isolates was determined for four types of antibiotics, which were tetracycline, gentamicin, cefotaxime and penicillin-G. Resistance of S. aureus isolates to heavy metals ions (Cobalt, Zinc, Mercury and Cadmium) were tested. Ethidium bromide was used as a curing agent with freshly growing S. aureus to study resistance features link with antibiotic and heavy metal resistance.ResultsThe minimum inhibitory concentration of thirty S. aureus 83.3% of the isolates were resisting tetracycline 80% of the isolates were resisting gentamicin 93.3% of the isolates were resisting cefotaxime, and 80% of the isolates were resisting penicillin-G. While, 93.3% of isolates found to be resistant for Cobalt ions, 86.6% resisted Zinc ions, 86.6% resisted Mercury ions. While, 83.3% of isolates resisted Cadmium ions. Using Ethidium bromide as a curing agent showed two groups of cured colonies.ConclusionsThere is strong relationship between multiple antibiotic resistances and multiple heavy metal resistance In addition; there may be two to three types of plasmids depending on results obtained from curing experiment.Key wardsHeavy metals, S aureus, antibiotics, resistance.


Article
THE EFFECT OF EDTA WITH SINGLE OR COMBINATION OF ANTIBIOTICS ON PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ISOLATES IN VITRO

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Abstract

Back ground: P. aeruginosa is one of the most common causes of infection in burns and wounds and it is the major cause of death in burn patients. This organism is frequently feared because it causes severe hospital-acquired infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts, and is often antibiotic resistant; complicating the choice of therapy. Thus, there is continuous need for enhancing the antibacterial efficacy of antibiotics against P aeroginosa.ObjectiveThis study was conducted to determine the MIC of antibiotics used in combination for resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and measure the effect of EDTA in increasing the inhibition effect of these antibiotics.Methods: P. aeruginosa was identified microscopically and biochemically. The swab samples from burns and wounds were collected from patients of AL-YarmooK, Baghdad and Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospitals. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to evaluate antibiotics effectiveness, while fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) was used to evaluate the effect of antibiotics combination on pathogenic bacteria (P.aeruginosa). Disk diffusion assay were used to determine the inhibition zone of antibiotic disk (with and without EDTA) against P. aeruginosa.ResultsTen isolates were selected according to their pattern of resistance as those showing multi-drug resistance and tested to specify their minimum inhibitory concentration for (amikacin, gentamicin, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin). Amikacin had the lowest MIC compared with others. Among combinations, the combination of ß-lactam antibiotics with amikacin was found to be the most effective combination. Results showed that EDTA increases the effect of antibiotic against P. aeruginosa isolates especially when it was combined with aminoglycoside antibiotics.ConclusionAmikacin is the most effective agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa especially when combined with ceftazidime, more over; EDTA increases the activity of antibiotic against pseudomonas aeruginosa especially when combined with aminoglycoside antibiotics.KeywordsP aeruginosa, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC), Ethylenediaminetetraactic acid (EDTA).


Article
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FENUGREEK ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST PSEUDOMONAS AEROGINOSA: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES

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Background:Multiple drugs resistance has increased due to the random use of available antimicrobial drugs in treatment of infectious diseases.Objective:To investigate probable antibacterial effects of fenugreek essential oil extract against Pseudomonas aeruginosaMethods:Twenty eight isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from skin infected patients in Al- Yarmook teaching hospital in Baghdad. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of 14 antibiotics were performed using Vitek2 compact system. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method with minor modifications. The broth micro dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration. Then animal experiment was performed in five groups of mice (n=7, for each) as following: control, induction, treated with fenugreek alone, treated with Gentamycin alone, treated with combination of fenugreek and Gentamycin. Then histopathological examination was done after seven days of the treatment.Results:P. aeruginosa isolates are highly resistance to trimethoprime/ sulfamethaxazole, while sensitive to amikacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration of fenugreek essential oil for highly resistance P. aeruginosa isolates (n=10) as followed: 6 isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration = 1.2gm/100µl, and 4 isolates with MIC= 0.6gm/100µl. Minimum inhibitory concentration of gentamycin was equal to>=16.Conclusion: Fenugreek essential oil has higher antibacterial effect alone and in combination with gentamycin than gentamycin alone.Keywords:Antibacterial activity, Fenugreek, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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