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Article
Enhanced Aggregate-Asphalt Adhesion and Stability of Local Hot Mix Asphalt

Author: Alaa H. Abed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 10 Pages: 2044-2059
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A polymer modification is used to improve the fundamental properties ofasphalt binders as those properties relate to the performance of asphalt mixtures.Adhesion and cohesion are two important related properties of asphalt binders that can affect asphalt mixture performance. The first target of this study is to quantifythe effects of polymers on the adhesion and cohesion of the binders. Two types of stones are used in this study, limestone and sandstone. The pneumatic adhesion tensile tester (PATTI) is used to measure the pull-off tensile strength in Wisconsin University, it is found that the tensile strength between limestone and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) polymer increase 26% to 55% as using 2% and 4% of SBS respectively, while increase 54% to 76% when use 2% and 3.5% of Functionalized Polyethylene (PE) polymer respectively. For sandstone, 2% and4% of SBS causes increasing the strength 5% and 18% respectively, while these values becomes 29% and 51% for asphalt binder modified with 2% and 3.5% of PE respectively. The second objective of this paper is to find the effect of the fine aggregate and polymer on the stability of the local asphalt mixture. To achieve this target twoblends have been selected, the first blend is passing under restricted zone (Sshaped blend) and second blend passing through restricted zone (fine blend). The pressure distribution analyzer (PDA) which is developed to Gyratory Load-cell Plate assembly (GLPA) by asphalt research group in Wisconsin University to measure and evaluate the resistance of mixture to distortion, the (PDA) is placedin the gyratory compactor mold and provide load measure which is recorded simultaneously with deflection, the vertical load and the eccentricity of the load are measured using three load cells placed at the edge of the plate, the measurements are used to calculate the resistive effort (w) as a function of number of gyrations. Functionalized polyethylene (PE) polymer and styrene-butadienestyrene(SBS) are used to show effect of polymers on Construction Force Index(CFI) which is related to the amount of the work done for rising density of the mix to 92%. The results indicated that CFI is reduced by about 68% as using 3.5% of PE, while it is reduced about 42% when using 4% of SBS which give good indication for contractors to use polymers for reducing cost. Resistive effort results show that fine blend has higher stability than coarse (S-shape) blend,all the tests of local asphalt binders are done in the University of Wisconsin-Madison- USA.


Article
Effects Of Functionalized Polyethylene And Styrene ButadIene Styrene Polymers On Performance Grade Of Local Asphalt Binder

Author: Alaa H. Abed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 6 Pages: 735-742
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Rutting is one of the major distresses in pavement. The objective of this paper is to develop an improved asphalt binder grading system for Iraq based on the principal of Superpave system, and increasing performance grade of product asphalt binder in Iraq using polymers without raising the viscosity of the binder. Two types of polymers are used, Plastomers, Functionalized Polyethylene (PE) which is developed by asphalt research group in Wisconsin University in the USA, and Elastomers, Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) with and without cross linker. Mastercurve are drown for these modified binders, Rolling thin film aged, to show effects on rheological properties at high temperature for complex modulus (G*) and phase angle (δ). It concluded that 3.5% of Functionalized Polyethylene polymer (PE) is more effective than 4% of Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) to shift up performance grade of local asphalt binder two grades to be PG (76-16). Furthermore, the viscosity of binders increasing about 200% when using 4 % SBS, while no significant effect on viscosity when using 3.5 % of PE, therefore, there is no need to increase temperature of mixing and compaction which may be effect on polymers In addition G*/sinδ is increased by a ratios of 1.6 to 2.96 for 2%, 4% respectively of SBS-based modifier (RTFO aged) and 1.4 to 3 for 2%, 3.5% respectively of PE-based polymers modifier. It can be seen that PE reduce G*.sinδ about 10%, while SBS increase G*.sinδ about 30% and PE reduces the stiffness of asphalt binder about 15 % at low temperature which make PE more effective, there is no significant effects on m-value.

تخدد التبليط هو احد انواع الفشل الرئيسية في العراق، ان الهدف من هذا البحث هو تحسين درجة اداء الاسفلت العراقي اعتمادا على نظام التبليط الفائق، وزيادة درجة الاداء للاسفلت المنتج في العراق باستخدام البوليمرات بدون زيادة لزوجة الاسفلت. تم استخدام نوعين من البوليمرات، لدن،البولي اثلين الفعّال (PE) المطور من قبل مجموعة باحثين الأسفلت في جامعة وسكونسن في الولايات المتحدة الامريكية ومرن، الستايرين بيوتادين ستايرين (SBS) مع وبدون الكروس لنكر. مع رسم المنحني الرئيسي للاسفلت المعدل ذو التقادم الزمني القليل الذي يمثل خواص سيولة الاسفلت في درجات الحرارة العالية لمعامل القص المعقد (G*)ولزاوية الطور(δ) . وجد ان 3.5% من PE اكثر فعالية من 4% من SBS لزيادة درجة اداء الاسفلت درجتين ليكون (76-16)PG. استخدام SBS يؤدي الى زيادة لزوجة الاسفلت الى الضعف (200%) بينما ليس هناك تاثير لل PE على اللزوجة يذكر، لذلك ليس هناك حاجة لزيادة درجة حرارة الخلط والانضغاط والتي ممكن ان تؤثر على البوليمرات. G*/sinδ تزداد بمقدار 1.6 و 2.96 عند استخدام 2% و 4% من SBS على التوالي كأسفلت معدل ذو تقادم زمني قليل، وتزداد بمقدار 1.4 و 3 عند استخدام 2%و 3.5% من الاسفلت لمعدل بال PE على التوالي. G*.sinδ تقل بمقدار 10% عند استخدام PE وتزداد بمقدار 30% عند استخدام SBS. مقدار متانة الاسفلت تقل بمقدار 15% عند استخدام PE في درجات الحرارة المنخفضة والذي يجعل استخدام الPE اكثر فعالية، ليس هناك تاثير من استخدام البوليمر على ال قيمة M.


Article
Rheological Properties of Iraqi Asphalt Binders Measured Using Superpave System and Shell Software

Authors: Namir G. Ahmed --- Hamed M. Hamdou --- Alaa H. Abed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Pages: 783-799
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The performance grading system (superpave) has provided means to incorporate binder characteristics with pavement failure types. It’s a comprehensive system that relates climate, traffic conditions and aging with critical pavement distress. The objective of this paper is to develop an improved asphalt binder grading system for Iraq based on the principal of superpave. The country was divided into different zones according to the highest and lowest temperature ranges and traffic loading. The Performance graded binder proposed for each zone was compared with some States of USA that have same hot weather of Iraq by using Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP v3.1) software. Iraqi asphalt samples were tested using the Superpave technology in Wisconsin University and the results were compared with those estimated using Shell pavement design software packages (BANDS 2) at different loading time and frequency. In general, the performance grade of binders produced from the three refineries in Iraq (Daurah, Basrah and Baiji) is PG 64-16. The m- value (slope of log creep stiffness versus log frequency curve at specified temperature) determined by DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) and Shell software was compared.

إن نظام درجة الأداء (التبليط الفائق) يدمج بين صفات الإسفلت والأنواع الرئيسية لفشل الخرسانة الاسفلتية، لذلك يعتبر نظام شامل لربط الظروف المناخية والأحمال وعمر التبليط مع انواع الفشل الحرجة. إن الهدف الرئيسي من هذا البحث هو إيجاد وتحسين نظام الأداء للإسفلت العراقي مبنياً على مبادىء التبليط الفائق.تم تقسيم العراق الى عدة مناطق حسب اقصى واقل درجة حرارية وأحمال المرور. لقد تم مقارنة نظام الأداء المقترح مع بعض الولايات الأمريكية ذات امناخ الحار المشابه لحرارة مناخ العراق. لقد تم فحص الاسفلت العراقي في ولايات وسكونسن الامريكية اعتمادا على تكنلوجيا التلبط الفائق ومقارنة النتائج مع برنامج شركة شيل. وبصورة عامة نظام الأداء للأسفلت المنتج في مصافي الدورة والبصرة وبيجي هو 16- 64. ولقد تم مقارنة قيمت م (الميل بين لوغاريتم متانة الاسفلت ولوغاريتم التردد لدرجحة حرارة ثابتة) الناتجة من فحص الداينمك شير ريوميتر مع قيمة م الناتجة من برنامج شيل.


Article
PREVALENCE OF ENURESIS IN NASSIRIYAH CITY-THI QAR GOVERNORATE

Authors: Alaa H. Abed --- Omran S. Habib --- Moayyad N Majeed
Journal: The Medical Journal of Basrah University المجلة الطبية لجامعة البصرة ISSN: 02530759 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 42-45
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

ABSTRACTIn this paper we report the results pertaining to a cross sectional study carried out on 617 households in NassiryiahCity-Thi Qar governorate. The study aims at determining, among other things, the prevalence of enuresis amongchildren aged 5-15 years. A total of 942 children in the targeted age group were identified and 233 of them werereported to have enuresis. These figures gave an overall prevalence rate of enuresis at 24.7% with substantial decreasewith advancing age from 40.6% in children aged 5-6 years to 5.4% in children aged 13-15 years. The prevalence washigher among first born children (31.5%) as compared to those born afterwards (22.0%). The prevalence was alsohigher among children with positive family history (52.4%) as compared to those with negative family history(18.2%) but no difference was detected between sexes. The majority of cases of enuresis were of primary type(95.7%), nocturnal timing (97.0%) and of daily frequency (44.0%). The study came to the conclusion that enuresisis common in children in Nassiryiah city and deserves more care from the medical profession.

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Article
Significance of using a Superpave Gyratory Compactor to Simulate Field Compaction of Fine Grained Soil

Authors: Zeyad S. M. Khaled --- Alaa H. Abed --- Tabarek S. Nsayif
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 641-646
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Field compaction equipment used for fine grained soil usually applies a kneading action or vibration that produces shear forces which also reshape soil particles arrangement. A state that might not be completely simulated by laboratory Proctor tests. This study aims at investigating the significance of using the newer modified Texas superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) to simulate field compaction of fine grained soil due to its ability to apply loads in different angles generating shear forces on the compacted soil specimens. Two types of soil (A-4) and (A-7-6) were compacted using standard Proctor, modified Proctor and (SGC). The results were compared to dry field densities of the same soil in order to evaluate the most representative test. It was found that maximum dry densities of soil type (A-4) obtained using (SGC) under (200 kPa) and (600 kPa) were lower by (2.07%) and higher by (1.35%) than the maximum dry densities obtained using standard and modified Proctor tests respectively. It was also found that maximum dry densities of soil type (A-7-6) obtained using (SGC) under (300 kPa) and (600 kPa) were lower by (1.02%) and higher by (1.23%) than the maximum dry densities obtained using standard and modified Proctor tests respectively. The aforementioned confinement pressure values were applied in order to achieve dry densities similar to that obtained by Proctor tests. When comparing laboratory results to dry filed densities, it was found that (SGC) test results were slightly closer to them than Proctor tests results. Nevertheless, the difference between (SGC) and Proctor tests results seems to be insignificant for these types of soil compared to the higher effort needed to perform (SGC) tests.

إن معدات الرص الحقلي التي تستعمل لرص الترب ناعمة الحبيبات عادة ما تحدث عملية عجن أو اهتزاز لحبيبات التربة مسببة قوى قص من شأنها أعادة تنظيم حبيبات التربة. الأمر الذي قد لا يمكن محاكاته بشكل تام عند استعمال فحصي بروكتر مختبرياً. تهدف هذه الدراسة الى بحث جدوى استعمال جهاز تكساس الحديث المعدل للرص الدوار (SGC) لمحاكاة الرص الحقلي للتربة ناعمة الحبيبات لما له من قدرة على تسليط الأحمال بزوايا مختلفة مما يسلط قوى قص على عينات التربة عند رصها. وقد تم استعمال نوعين من الترب الناعمة نوع (A-4) ونوع (A-7-6) لإجراء فحص الرص المختبري باستعمال ثلاثة طرق هي بروكتر القياسي وبروكتر المعدل وجهاز الرص الدوار. ثم تم مقارنة النتائج مع نتائج الفحوصات الحقلية. لقد وجد ان الكثافة الجافة العظمى للتربة من نوع (A-4) التي تم الحصول عليها باستعمال (SGC) تحت ضغط (200 كيلو باسكال) تقل بنسبة (2.07٪) عن الكثافة الجافة العظمى التي تم الحصول عليها باستعمال فحص بروكتر القياسي، وتزيد تحت ضغط (600 كيلو باسكال) بنسبة (1.35٪) عن الكثافة الجافة العظمى التي تم الحصول عليها باستعمال فحص بروكتر المعدل. كما وجد أن الكثافة الجافة العظمى للتربة من نوع (A-7-6) التي تم الحصول عليها باستعمال (SGC) تحت ضغط (300 كيلو باسكال) تقل بنسبة (1.02٪) عن الكثافة الجافة العظمى باستعمال فحص بروكتر القياسي وتزيد تحت ضغط (600 كيلو باسكال) بنسبة (1.23٪) عن الكثافة الجافة العظمى المستحصلة باستعمال فحص بروكتر المعدل لنفس النوع من التربة. وقد تم تعيين قيم الضغط المذكورة آنفاً بحيث تحقق كثافة جافة مساوية لما هي عليه في فحصي بروكتر. وعند مقارنة النتائج المختبرية مع الكثافة الجافة الحقلية وجد ان نتائج (SGC) اقرب اليها قليلاً من نتائج فحوصات بروكتر. ومع ذلك فإن الفرق بين فحص الرص الدوار وفحصي بروكتر يبدو غير ذي جدوى لهذين النوعين من التربة قياساً بالجهد الأعلى المطلوب لاجراء الفحص الدوار.


Article
Assessment of Patients' Knowledge and Awareness about their Rights and Duties
تقييم معارف ووعي المرضى لحقوقهم وواجباتهم

Authors: Husam Al-Shammary --- Sabah A. Shami --- Alaa H. Abed --- Jasim N. Al-Asadi --- et al.
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 86-94
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: patient’s right is the one of the basic issues in health care. Implementation of patient's rights law is intended to secure good medical practice and can improve the doctor-patient relationship if both of them are aware of it.Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge and awareness of patients about their rights and duties.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted for the period from 1st December 2013 to 28th February 2014 among patients of both sexes aged 17 years and more attending 16 primary health care centers in Basra city using a self-administered questionnaire. The study included 886 out of 1010 patients invited to participate in the study giving a response rate of 87.7%.Data analysis was done using SPSS version 19. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions among the various groups and a P-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: Eight hundred and eighty six (886) patients were included in the study aged 17-71 years with a mean age of 39.3 ± 13.8 years. Of them, 537 patients (60.6%) were females and 349 patients (39.4%) were males. Most patients (77.2%) didn't know about the existence of patients’ list of rights, even though they were aware about some of their rights, 72.4% of them disagreed to be prevented from access to information related to their health status, and 76.6% of them were aware about the privacy of such information. Most of the patients (73.5%) disagreed to withhold some information relevant to their health conditions, and 83.2% of them agreed to notify the PHC Center if they change their residential address.Conclusion: There was a lack of patients' knowledge regarding the patients' rights. Recommendation: Extensive education of patients about their rights through mass media and legislation of such rights are recommended.

خلفية البحث: ان حق المريض احد المفاهيم الاساسية في مجال الرعاية الصحية. يهدف تنفيذ قانون حقوق المريض الى تأمين ممارسة طبية جيدة ويمكن أن يحسن العلاقة بين الطبيب والمريض إذا كان كل منهما على علم بذلك.الهدف: تقييم معارف ووعي المرضى لحقوقهم وواجباتهمالمنهجية: اجريت هذه الدراسة المقطعية العرضية على مراجعي 16 مركزا من مراكز الرعاية الصحية الاولية في مركز مدينة البصرة باستخدام الاستبانةأجريت الدراسة للفنرة من 1 كانون الاول 2013 ولغاية 28 شباط 2014 وشملت 886 مراجعا من كلا الجنسين من مجموع 1010 مراجعا تمت دعوتهم للمشاركة في البحث, وبهذا تكون نسبة الاستجابة 87.7% . تم استخدام برنامج SPSS لاجراء التحليل الاحصائي للنتائج المستخلصة,. تم تحلیل البیانات من خلال التحلیل الاحصائي الوصفي (التكرار، النسبة المئویة) والاحصاء الاستدلالي (الوسط والانحراف المعیاري ومربع كاي للمقارنة)النتائج: تراوحت أعمارالمشاركين بين 17 الى 71 سنة ومتوسط العمر39.3 ± 13.8 سنة,537 مريضا(60.6%) كانوا من الاناث و349 مريضا(39.4%) من الذكور. معظم المرضى ( 77.2٪) ليس لديهم معارف بوجود لائحة بحقوق المرضى, ورغم ذلك لوحظ أن لديهم وعيا جيدا لبعض حقوقهم حيث وجد أن 72.4٪ منهم لا يوافقون على منعهم من الوصول الى المعلومات الخاصة بحالتهم الصحية و 76.6٪ منهم ليهم وعي بضرورة احترام خصوصية هذه المعلومات.اظهرت الدراسة ايضا أن غالبية المرضى (73.5%) لا يوافقون على حجب بعض المعلومات المتعلقة بحالتهم الصحية عن الاطباء و83.2% يوافقون على اخبار المركز الصحي عند تغيير محل سكنهم.الاستنتاج: أظهرت النتائج ضعفا واضحا في معرفة المرضى لحقوقهم التوصيات: توصي الدراسة باجراء برامج تثقيفية من خلال وسائل الاعلام المختلفة لتعريف المرضى بحقوقهم مع ضرورة تشريع قانون حقوق المرضى.


Article
Evolving an appointment system in PHC centers in Basrah: Opinion of physicians and patients
انشاء نظام مواعيد في المراكز الصحية الاولية في البصره

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:Background: Despite the increasing interest in implementation of appointment system in many countries, patients, and physicians' views about such system is not examined in Basrah.Objectives: To study the views of both patients and physicians about introducing appointment system in primary care centers in Basrah.Methods: Six hundreds and eighty (680) patients and 115 physicians in 20 PHC centers were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data.Results: The majority of patients (79.6%) supported the idea of introducing the appointment system. Married women, employed, and highly educated patients and those who lived far from the PHC center were more in favour of introducing the appointment system. Likewise, the majority of physicians (95.7%) were also in favour of introducing the appointment system. The main disadvantages indicated by both patients and physicians was that it was not beneficial for patients with acute cases.Conclusions: Both patients and physicians showed positive attitude toward introducing appointment system in PHC centers in Basrah.

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