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Article
Anthropometric, hormonal and biochemical Indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome

Authors: Anam R. Al-Salihi --- Farqad B Hamdan --- Manal T Mutib
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Pages: 15-20
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common, yet complex, endocrine disorder with principal features of anovulation, amenorrhea, ovulation-related infertility, polycystic ovaries, and obesity. Number of metabolic aberrations is now well recognized as a growing public health problem in PCOS as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia.Objective:To investigate and analyze the anthropometric, hormonal profileandmetabolicabnormalitiesofobeseand non-obese women with this disorder.Materials and Methods:Sixty-fivehealthyIraqiwomenservesasthecontrolgroupandeighty-fourinfertilewomendividedinto two subgroups depending on the BMI (< and ≥30 kg/m2) were studied. BMI, waist to hip ratio and waist to thigh ratio were measured. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, testosterone, fasting blood glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test, and total lipid profilewere measured.Results:BMI, waist/hip, waist/thigh ratio were significantlyhigherinPCOSthancontrolwomen.LowerFSHlevel, higher LH and E2 levels, LH/FSH ratio, and lower E2/testosterone ratio was found in obese and non-obese PCOS. Higher blood sugar level, high cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and lower HDL levels in PCOS compared to control women.Conclusion:Obesity is a common findingofwomenwithPCOS,butitisnotpartofthediagnosticcriteria.Womenwith PCOS usually have the so-called central obesity (Visceral adiposity), and therefore tend to have an increased waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist to thigh ratio, regardless of the weight factor (i.e., in obese and non-obese). PCOS patients exhibited abnormal hormonal status and biochemical indices also regardless of obesity.

Keywords

PCOS --- obesity --- hormones --- GTT --- lipid profile


Article
Sexual Differentiation of the Spinal Nucleus of Bulbo-Cavernosus Muscle (Onuf's Nucleus)

Authors: Sarmad I. Al-Marsoummi --- Anam R. Al-Salihi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 20-23
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: The brain seems to be inherently feminine. Masculine characteristics of the structure and functions are imposed on developing CNS by the action of testicular hormones during a critical embryonic period. Testosterone is a prohoromone responsible for sexually dimorphic characteristics of the brain. A number of structural sex differences in the human brain have been reported, but their functional significance are less well established. Brain function in men appears to be more lateralized than women and this may be the reason that women are more likely than men to recover speech, after a stroke that damages cortical speech areas. Objective: this study examines the effects of testosterone on sexually dimorphic nucleus of the rat spinal cord i.e. the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus muscle, which innervates two sexually dimorphic, androgen-sensitive perineal muscles that are active during copulation, the bulbocavernosus and levator ani. Methods: the study was performed on litters of albino rats. Their pregnant mothers received on embryonic days (E16- E20) subcutaneous injection of 2mg of testosterone propionate. The spinal nucleus of bulbocavernosus was examined in control group, female litters with and without prenatal testosterone injection. Results: It was demonstrated that perinatal injection of testosterone prevented the involution of spinal nucleus of bulbocavernosus in the female rats. Conclusions: It is concluded that androgens have a sparing effect on the motor neurons of this nucleus that prevent the developmental cell death of neuronal cells. The mechanism of the effects of androgen are discussed, whether it is through direct effect of androgen on motor neurons themselves, or indirect effect as a result of the androgen action on the target androgen-sensitive perineal muscles.


Article
The Effect of Pregabalin (Lyrica) on the Spermatogenic Cells in Rat

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Zubaidi --- Anam R. Al-Salihi --- Saad S. Al-Dujaily
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-13
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Pregabalin is an anti-convulsent drug that is indicated in epilepsy, neuropathic pain and anxiety. This study evaluates its effect on spermatogenesis in male rats through histological and physiological examination of the seminiferous tubules.Two doses of Pregabalin were employed, 300, 600 mg/Kg B.Wt. given orally and daily to groups of 30 male albino rats ( Rattaus rattus) for 35 days. The changes in the testes were evaluated by paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin.The results showed relative preponderance of primitive germ cells over other stages of more mature spermatogenic cells. There was reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubule. These findings were more prominent with increase of the dose of Pregabalin.The above results were discussed in dose related context indicating that the current therapeutic dose of Pregabalin seems to not be within the range of dosage of Pregabalin that adversely affects spermatogenesis.


Article
Study of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Profile in the Seminal Fluid of Oligozoospermia Men

Authors: Osama A Hachim --- Anam R. AL-Salihi --- Sabah N. AL-Alwachi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 30-35
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Oligozoospermia is one of male infertility type which related with sperm lowering count in seminal fluid under limited reference. There are many factors leads to oligozoospermia like, congenital defects, endocrinal disorders, genetic abnormalities, immunological factors , life style , or in some cases unknown reasons. Immune and some non-immune cells produce immuno-chemical messengers proteins called (Interleukins) work as alerts proteins and contribute in immune body defend. These mediators found in all body fluids, also found in seminal fluid,and it’s presence of certain concentrations reflects the state of health of the body.Objective:Measure the level of interleukin-6 in fertile (normospermia) and infertile (Oligozoospermia).Materials and Methods:Microscopically and macroscopically ejaculates analysis according to WHO (2010) criteria for eighty -seven ejaculate from normospermia and oligozoospermia patients with age rang (21-47)yrs. , in duration of ( Nov- 2013 to Mar- 2014), study divide in to three groups according to the concentration ranges in to (normospermia > 15X 106 cells/ml), (Mild to Moderate Oligozoospermia 15-5 X106cells/ml) , (Severe Oligozoospermia< 5X106). Then store all samples in(-20) , IL-6 was detected through the (ELISA) specific way and kit .Results:Interleukin-6level is less in normospermia group than Oligozoospermia groups at (P<0.05), IL-6 level not correlated with sperm count, except weak correlation in severe group at (P≤ 0.05) and (t α=0.05).Conclusions:There are no correlation between IL-6 level and sperm cells concentration but the variation of interleukin-6 level among the groups indicate that some sperms parameters influence on interleukin-6 levels among the groups like sperm motility or morphology and also that the causative factors which lead to oligozoospermia also effect on IL-6 level and effect on spermatogenesis


Article
Effect of Vitrification Technique and Different Biochemical Materials on In Vitro Maturation Outcomes

Authors: Muhammad –Baqir M-R Fakhrildin --- Anam R. Al-Salihi --- Hayder Abdullah K. Al-Sarray
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-53
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:In vitro maturation (IVM) is a culture technology that enables the immature oocytes to reach metaphase II (MII). Vitrification of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation can offer advantages, such as to avoid the use of large doses gonadotropins and also be an alternative approach to the use of endocrine stimulation to obtain pre-ovulatory oocytes in all cycles.Objective:The objective of the study is to determine the effect of vitrification technique and several biochemical materials on outcomes of in vitro maturation.Materials and Methods:Normal and viable immature oocytes divided into two major groups including: control group and vitrification technique group. Post-thawing, each major group subdivided into four in vitro maturation (IVM) groups using SMART medium with special additives involving: (G1) group: contained gonadotropins (Gn) only, (G2) group: supplemented with Gn and sucrose (4%), (G3) group: consisted of Gn, sucrose (4%) and follicular fluid (FF) (5%), and (G4) group: contained Gn, sucrose (4%) and FF (10%).Then, assessed the results of in vitro maturation.Results:The results of in vitro maturation for control group shows non significant differences (P>0.05) among all groups. While, a significant increase (P<0.05) in percentage of IVM was achieved when compared G3 and G4 groups with G1 and G2 groups in vitrification technique. Therefore, comparison the results of IVM between control group vitrification technique group appeared a significant difference (P<0.05) in G1 groups and also between G2 groups. However, non significant difference (P>0.05) was appeared between G3 groups and also between G4 groups when comparing between control group and vitrification technique group.Conclusions:Vitrification of immature oocytes were appeared as a promise technique for preservation of oocytes. As well as, the addition of follicular fluid (FF) to maturation medium produced the best results for in vitro maturation (IVM).


Article
Glycoconjugates cytochemistry in teeth development in normal and hydrocortisone treated rats (experimental study)

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Abstract

Background: This study was designed to investigate the expression of glycoconjugates in rat teeth germs at various stages and to evaluate the effect of hydrocortisone on the formation and development of dentition of the rat histochemically.Materials and methods: Foetuses of albino rats were divided into tow main groups, the control group were injected with one ml distilled water (12-18day of gestation) and experimental group were injected with one ml hydrocortisone sodium succinat (12-18day of gestation) then specimens were stained with H & E and lectinsResults: The developing teeth are effected by the hydrocortisone sodium succinate drug at all stages of tooth development, lectins used through this study can serve as a marker for tooth development process, sugar residues (Glc NAC, GLC, Gal, Gal NAC) are carbohydrate components of predentin of the control group while less residus were found in the treated groups and they were to a less extent at the inner dental BM (basement membrane).Conclusion: This drug affect rat teeth development, the abnormalities are confirmed by the stains H and E, and lectins

Keywords

Hydrocortisone --- rat --- lectins


Article
RELATION OF ANTIMÜLLERIAN, FOLLICULAR STIMULATING HORMONE AND ANTRAL FOLLICLE COUNT ON INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION OUTCOME IN INFERTILE PATIENTS

Authors: Menal F. Farhood منال فاضل فرهود --- Farqad B. Hamdan فرقد بدر حمدان --- Anam R. Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 261-266
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Studying some of fertility-related hormones is of major benefit to identify the causative factors and to search for an appropriate treatment. Anti-müllerian hormone regarded as quantitative markers for ovarian reserve. Basal follicular stimulating hormone provides a picture of how well the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is functioning and is the most commonly used tests for predicting success in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.Objective:To evaluate the level of serum and follicular fluid antimüllerian hormone, serum follicular stimulating hormone and antral follicle count and its relation to ICSI outcome in infertile patients.Methods:Seventy four infertile women were selected randomly from those attending the Fertility Centre, Al-Sader Teaching Hospital, Al-Najaf /Iraq. Ultrasound was performed for antral follicle count and their measurement at cycle day 2. Hormonal analysis is done for serum follicular stimulating hormone at cycle day 2 and for serum and follicle fluid antimüllerian hormone at day of ovum pickup.Result:The fertilization rate was positively correlated with follicular fluid antimüllerian hormone (r = 0.303; P = 0.048) but not with serum follicular stimulating hormone, serum antimüllerian hormone and antral follicle count.Conclusion:Follicular fluid antimüllerian hormone level was positively correlated with fertilization rate, while serum antimüllerian hormone level does not affect the fertilization rate in ICSI cycle. The basal follicular stimulating hormone level do not relate to fertilization rate, and the same thing regarding antral follicle count.Keywords:Anti-müllerian hormone, follicular stimulating hormone, antral follicle count, intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


Article
Detection of Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Sulcus Median in Hind Brain (Fourth Ventricle) in the Hind Brain of the Adult White Rat (Ruttsrutts)
الكشف عن إنظيم الكاربونك آنهايدريز في الثلم الناصف Sulcus median في البطين الرابع للدماغ الخلفي فيالجرذ الأبيض البالغ(Ruttsrutts)

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The method of heavy metals deposition which is based on cobalt in detection of Carbonic anhydrase enzyme in the Sulcus median in the hid brain (fourth ventricle) in the adult white rat (Ruttsrutts). An essential amended in the method has been done by using cobalt chloride (CoCl2) instead of cobalt phosphate (Co3(PO4)2) in the reaction medium. Any efficacy of enzymichistochemical for carbonic anhydrase enzyme did not show in histological sections. The floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain is specific, clearly any histochemical reaction sediments have not been found in sulcus median of the floor of the fourth ventricle. The corresponding stain to green methyl which was observed clearly in sulcus median region. The ventral surface of area postrema composes of differentiated columnar cells without existence for any efficacy for carbonic anhydrase enzyme in it. Area postrema did not show any effective in both outerion region where appears as one mid line component or in back region where as continuing couple with central canal lining appears.

أعتمدت طريقة ترسيب المعادن الثقيلة والمعتمدة على الكوبالت في الكشف عن إنظيم الكاربونك آنهايدريز (Carbonic anhydrase) في الثلم الناصف (Sulcus median) في الدماغ الخلفي (البطين الرابع Fourth ventricle) في الجرذ الأبيض البالغ (Ruttsrutts) . وقد أجري تعديل أساسي في طريقة العمل , إذاستعمل كلوريد الكوبالت (CoCl2) بدلاً من فوسفات الكوبالت (Co3(PO4)2) في وسط التفاعل . لم تظهر في هذه النتيجة أية فعالية كيميانسجية لأنظيم الكاربونك آنهايدريز في المقاطع النسجية. حيث ظهرت أرضية البطين الرابع للدماغ محددة بشكل واضح ولم يتم العثور على رواسب التفاعل الكيميانسجي في الثلم الناصف لأرضية البطين الرابع . كان الملون المضاد (المثيل الأخضر)واضح بشكل جيد , وواضحاً في منطقة الثلم الناصف . يتألف السطح البطني (Venter surface) للباحة المنخفضة (Area postrema) من خلايا عموديةلم تظهر فيها أية فعالية للأنظيمسواء في المنطقة الأمامية منها اذ تكون تركيباً مفرداً وسطياً أو في المنطقة الخلفية حين تكون تركيباً مزدوجاً مستمراً مع بطانة القناة المركزية (Central canal) .


Article
EFFECT OF CYP19 GENE ON POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME PHENOTYPE IN IRAQI WOMEN

Authors: Anam R. Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي --- Farqad B. Hamdan فرقد بدر حمدان --- Manal T. Mutib منال طه متعب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 272-278
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Ovarian androgen overproduction is the key physiopathologic feature of polycystic ovary syndrome and the bulk of evidence points to the ovary being the source of excess androgens, which appears to result from an abnormal regulation (dysregulation) of steroidogenesis. Aromatase is an enzyme complex responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogen. It is encoded by CYP19.Objective:To examine whether the rs2414096 of CYP19 gene contributes to genetic susceptibility to the polycystic ovary syndrome hyperandrogenism in Iraqi women.Methods:A Case control study was conducted in the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Al-Nahrain University and Al-Nahrain Forensic DNA Unit, Baghdad, Iraq for the period from February 2012 to February 2013. Sixty-five healthy women serves as the control group and eighty-four infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome, divided into two subgroups depending on the body mass index (< and ≥30 kg/m2) were studied. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to determine the genotypes of rs2414096 of CYP19. Clinical, anthropometric, hormonal and biochemical parameters were also estimated.Results: Genotypic distribution of rs2414096 of CYP19 was significantly different in polycystic ovary syndrome patients from that of control women. The frequency of GG genotype was higher in the patients, while AA genotype was higher in control women. Those with GG genotype have lower estradiol, estradiol/testosterone and higher testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicular stimulating hormone than those with AA genotype.Conclusion:The present data suggests that single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene is associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome hyperandrogenism in Iraqi women.Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP19 gene, reproductive hormones, Iraqi women.


Article
EVALUATION OF LEPTIN IN SERA AND FOLLICULAR FLUIDS OF INFERTILE WOMEN UNDERGOING INTRA-CYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME

Authors: Menal F. Farhood منال فاضل فرهود --- Farqad B. Hamdan فرقد بدر حمدان --- Anam R. Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 146-152
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Leptin may serve as the critical link between the body’s adipose tissue and the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, thus it is considered a possible link between nutrition and reproduction.Objective:To evaluate leptin in the serum and follicular fluid and its effect on fertilization rate and pregnancy outcome in infertile female patients undergo intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection cycle.Methods:Seventy four infertile women who agreed to participate in the study were selected randomly from those attending the Fertility Centre in Al-Sader Teaching Hospital, Holly Najaf. Hormonal analysis was done for serum and follicular fluid leptin hormone at the day of ovum pickup.Result:Serum and follicular fluid leptin hormone levels were increased above its normal cutoff level according to the kit used. There was a relationship between the fertilization rate and leptin in serum and follicular fluid. Fertilization rate was significantly (p = 0.049) different depending on the serum leptin level while it has nothing to do with follicular fluid leptin hormone. On the other hand, follicular fluid leptin significantly (p = 0.04) affect pregnancy outcome.Conclusion: Leptin provides possible impact on oocyte and/or embryo quality leading to impaired endometrial bed preparation that may be involved in pregnancy failure.Keywords: Leptin, ferilization rate, pregnancy outcome.

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