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HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ADULT MALE RAT’S LIVER INDUCED BY CONTINUOUS DARKNESS

Authors: Samia A Eleiwe سامية عباس عليوي --- Basim Sh Ahmed باسم شهاب احمد --- Salman S Salman سلمان شفبق سلمان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 249-254
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:It is well known that liver is an endocrine as well as exocrine gland; it also synthesizes, accumulates, detoxifies and transports certain substances. Melatonin is the principle hormone of the pineal gland, which is mainly secreted at night and it is definitely documented to regulate the physiology of all tissues and cells keeping their normality.Objective:This work is designed to study the effect of continuous darkness on hepatic tissues.Methods:Adult Wister albino rats were kept in complete 24 hours darkness for successive 4 periods. Rats were divided into 16 groups. Group II, III, IV and V were left in continuous darkness for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, respectively. Group I†, Group I††, Group I†††, and Group I†††† were the control groups for group II, III, IV and V correspondingly. After the last day of the dark period for each group, the animals were dissected under effect of anesthesia. The liver was weighed and right lobe of liver was processed for study its histopathology.Results:The results showed no important histopathological effect on short and medium periods, while on long periods; there was histopathological changes represented by clear lobulation and inflammatory cell infiltrations.Conclusion:Continuous darkness affects the hepatic tissues of rats depending on the length of exposure.Key words:Melatonin, Darkness, Liver injury.

Keywords

Melatonin --- Darkness --- Liver injury.


Article
IS PEDIATRIC APPENDICITIS SCORE SUFFICIENT TO MAKE THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS AMONG CHILDREN?

Authors: Ali F Abdullah علي فاروق عبد الله --- Firas M Katoof فراس مجيد --- Basim Sh Ahmed باسم شهاب احمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 195-199
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Children with acute abdominal pain represent most of the admitted cases to the pediatric surgical department, one third of these cases are acute appendicitis. Early diagnosis of “no appendicitis” or “appendicitis” on the basis of pediatric appendicitis score could potentially save emergency department's time and resource use and could avoid time cost and risks for further evaluation.Objective:Evaluation of Samuel scoring system in diagnosing children with acute appendicitis and their need for surgery.Methods:One hundred and twelve patients aged between 5 to 15 years who presented with abdominal pain suggestive of acute appendicitis were studied. A complete data from patients were analyzed by using Samuel score. The clinical findings used by previously mentioned scoring system were analyzed to determine reliability of pediatric appendicitis score (PAS). The Final diagnosis was determined by histopathological report for patients' undergone appendicectomy.Results:The mean (median, SD) score for children with acute appendicitis and non-acute appendicitis were 4.9 (5, 1.8) and 4.6 (5, 1.7) respectively. No variable (of the known signs and symptoms regarded as pathognomonic for acute appendicitis) shows a significant value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A PAS of ≥ 4 had a sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive value (PPV), and Negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.78, 0.27, 0.87, and 0.16 respectively.Conclusion:The diagnosis of acute appendicitis and the need for surgery is still a matter of clinical judgment which can be built with practice, and although the PAS could provide useful diagnostic information in children with suspected acute appendicitis, it cannot be used as sole method for determining the need for surgery.Key words:Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), acute appendicitis, appendicectomy.

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