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A pragmatic Analysis of some polite Expressions in the Glorious Qura’n with References to their Realization in English

Author: Dr. Nawfal Saeed Majeed
Journal: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 Year: 2009 Volume: 16 Issue: 12 Pages: 435-461
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Polite expressions are the most significant phenomena in pragmatics. They reflect the respect and deference among people. This study sheds the light on some of these indirect expressions in the Glorious Qur'an . Realizing the Qur'anic expressions in English faces many problems because of the non-existence of correspondence between the Qur'anic expressions and the English ones. The transference of meaning and neglecting of the interepretive meaning by some translators as well as the lack of appropriate strategies of translating the Qur'anic expressions in English. This study aims at specifying the Qur'anic polite expressions (i.e. indirect expressions) and investigating how the Glorious Qur'an employs these expressions in order to mitigate the impact on the addressee and to avoid the mentioning of the offensive expressions. Therealization of these expressions in English and how the Quranic miraculous nature is taken into consideration through translating suchexpressions. Achieveing the former aims is built upon the following hypotheses : Both Arabic & English contain polite expressions. Realizing the Qur'anic expressions in English is difficult. The data usedto validate of these hypotheses is some Ayas with three rhetorical interpreters and three translators. The conclusions that are arrived at: the realizations of polite expressions in both Arabic & English are different inspite of their frequency. Some translations give polite expressions and some do not .

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Article
Relative Clauses Reduction in English and Arabic

Authors: Mahmood Abbas Dawood --- Dr. Nawfal Saeed Majeed
Journal: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 Year: 2008 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 549-563
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

ABSTRACTReduction is used by native speakers to avoid redundancy and achieve cohesive style in both spoken and written forms. Non-native learners are required to develop the skill of employing deletion in speech and writing if they want to show a complete mastery of the language.The study undertaken here contrast English and Arabic relative clauses reduction in order to describe and explain, as far as the available data permits, what similarities and differences these clauses show. The data analyzed for comparison are derived from adequate description of the languages under investigation. The comparative analysis based its techniques on syntactic criteria. Two kinds of reduction are presented in this study: optional and obligatory. Obligatory deletion refers to the removal of an item or items from a structure or else the sentence will be ungrammatical. The second kind is optional which must be known where to apply since its application in some structures may result in ambiguous sentences. The two languages are compared, as far as relative clauses reduction is concerned, as an attempt to get the major points of similarities and differences. Some of the problems of second language learning are ascribed to the phenomenon of transference of the native language structure to the foreign language. It is assumed that the transference often causes difficulty or ease in learning the structure of the foreign language. The findings arrived at can be utilized by classroom teachers, linguists, textbook writers and students of English and Arabic.

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