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Article
VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL FOR SECOND TRIMESTER PREGNANCY TERMINATION IN WOMEN WITH PRIOR ONE CAESAREAN DELIVERY

Author: Enas A.A. Al-Kazaaly ايناس عدنان عبد الرسول
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 238-244
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin analogue, has become the leading mean for terminating the pregnancy. It is not clear, however, whether misoprostol is a safe abortifacient after thirteen weeks gestation in women who have a uterine scar from a previous lower segment caesarean delivery.Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and maternal side effects of misoprostol used vaginally for second trimester termination in women with a single previous lower segment caesarean delivery.Method:Sixty participants with a history of previous one lower segment caesarean delivery underwent pregnancy termination for missed abortion or lethal fetal anomaly between 14-28 weeks gestation using intra vaginal misoprostol. The dose of which was 400 microgram up to 20 weeks gestation and 200 microgram thereafter, repeated every 4 hours with a 12 hours nightly rest from misoprostol application up to a maximum of 72 hours. Women having termination for similar reasons but lacking a history of cesarean section served as a control group.Results:Abortion rate was 96.66% in the study group and 95% in the control group. The mean induction to abortion interval was 21.81±9.51 for the study group and 22.21±8.52 for the control group with no significant difference between the two groups. No cases of uterine rupture occurred in either groups.Conclusion:Inducing abortion with lower misoprostol doses appear to be safe and effective throughout the second trimester in women with a single previous lower segment cesarean delivery.Keywords:Second trimester, Misoprostol, Termination of pregnancy


Article
The Use of New Techniques in The Management of Waste Plastic by Reuse it in The Asphalt Mix
استخدام التقنيات الحديثة في ادارة النفايات البلاستيكية واستخدامها في الخلطات الاسفلتية

Authors: . Falak O. Abas --- Raghad U. Abass --- Enas .A .A
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2548-2567
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The quantity and type of waste being generated is growing at enormous rate. The plastic waste produced particularly in form of bags, Plates, Containers, being non-degradable and with limited recycling options poses disposal problem. An academic research aimed at probable use of waste plastic in pavement structure so as to come up with an ultimate safe disposal together with improvement in the performance of asphalt mix of road through better mix design was under taken. Preliminary investigations have indicate of RPWA (from 1.2 in (1.5 cm) to No. 200 sieve ( 0.075 cm) , in surface mix design when utilized up to (5% to 15%) by weight substitution, through the use of Box-Wilson design program in order to give an optimum condition, time of reaction, and weight percent of substitution replacement aggregate in asphalt mix. The above following variables were studied temperatures (109-206) c , time (20-60) min and weight at waste substitution (5-15) % wt. respectively. The optimum conditions were: were 172 oc, 40 min, and 10% wt RPWA. The effects of experimental variables on the properties of improved asphalt mix were studied using the Box-Wilson technique of experimental design and useful relationships could be attained. Which improved these optimum conditions give high stability of Marshall Test and low distortion with acceptable low constant wet density and uneffect dry density with these condition with high resistance to chemical solutions exposure? It is envisaged that use of RPWA in the conventional asphalt hot mix design likely to improve the surface asphalt mix performance with sustainable solution for the disposal of plastic waste.

ان العديد من النفايات اخذت بالنمو وبمعدلات كبيرة وعلى الاخص النفايات البلاستيكية والمنتشرة على شكل ( حقائب ، طبقات ، حافظات وقناني ) والتي تكون غير قابلة للتحلل وتسبب مشاكل كبيرة منها التراكم ومحددات معينة لاعادة التدوير ، والبحوث الاكاديمية الحالية تهدف الى تطوير الامكانيات لاستخدام هذه النفايات في تصميم وتحسين الخلطات الاسفلتية المستخدمة في الرصف من ناحية الاستخدام الامن مع تحسين اداء هذه الخلطات . وتجريبيا تبحث في استخدام النفايات البلاستيكية ذات التدرج الحبيبي من 1/2 انج ( 1.5 سم ) الى 0.075 سم ( تدرج حبيبي رقم 200 ) ( بشكل متدرج وخليط من عدة حجوم حبيبية ) في تصميم الخلطات الاسفلتية للطبقة السطحية المستخدمة في التبليط للطرق وبنسبة تعويضية من 5% نسبة وزنية الى 15% نسبة وزنية وذلك بتطبيق البرنامج التصميمي بوكس _ ويلسن في تصميم هذه التجارب وصولا الى الظروف المثلى للتفاعل ( درجة حرارة التفاعل ، زمن التفاعل ، النسبة المئوية الوزنية للاستبدال او التعويض مع الركام الخشن والناعم وحسب التدرج الحبيبي للخلطة ) . والمتغيرات التي تمت دراستها هي درجة الحرارة من ( 109 – 206 )ºم وزمن تفاعل بين( 20 – 60) دقيقة ، ونسبة استبدال وزنية تعويضية تصل الى ( 5 – 15 ) % نسبة وزنية على التوالي . وكانت الظروف المثلى للخلطة المثالية هي درجة حرارة 172 ºم ، وزمن تفاعل 40 دقيقة ، ونسبة استبدال تعويضية من النفايات البلاستيكية بالركام مقدارها 10 % نسبة وزنية ان تأثير المتغيرات التجريبية على خصائص الخلطات الاسفلتية المحسنة درست باستخدام تقنية البوكس – ويلسن ( البرنامج التصميمي ) وقد تم تحسين ظروف الاداء للخلطات ، حيث اعطت الخلطات المحسنة والخلطة المثالية المحسنة اسقرارية عالية لاختبار مارشال ، واقل تشوه ، ونتائج مقبولة وثابتة للكثافة الرطبة ، وكثافة جافة مستقره غير قابلة للتغير ، ومقاومة كيمياوية عالية للرطوبة والمحاليل الحامضية 5% محلول) H2SO4هذا الذي يشجع استخدام النفايات البلاستيكية في تحسين اداء الخلطات الاعتيادية المستخدمة في الرصف ويشكل الحل الامثل للتخلص من هذه المشكلة البيئية الحالية.


Article
4.VAGINAL PROGESTERONE PESSARY FOR PRETERM LABOR PREVENTION IN WOMEN WITH A SHORT CERVIX EARLY IN THE SECOND TRIMESTER

Author: Enas A.A. Khazaali ايناس عدنان عبد الرسول الخزرجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 133-143
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The prevention of preterm birth is a major health care priority.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of vaginal progesterone pessary in reducing the rate of preterm delivery and subsequent neonatal morbidity and mortality events in pregnant women with a short cervical length early in the 2nd trimester.Methods: Women with a singleton pregnancy without a history of preterm labor nor a history of second trimester miscarriage, underwent cervical length measurement at 14+0 to 15+6 weeks of gestation. Women found to have a cervical length less than 30 mm received vaginal progesterone pessary (400 mg per pessary) on daily basis, or no treatment. Primary outcome was preterm delivery rate before 37 weeks gestation. Secondary outcome includes neonatal morbidity and mortality events.Results: From the 7725 pregnant women screened between the period from April 2015 to January 2017, 613 were found to have a cervical length less than 30 mm and only 518 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in this study. However, only 492 were followed up till the time of delivery. From those 252 women administered 400 mg vaginal progesterone pessary once daily at night and the remaining 240 women did not receive any form of progesterone and served as control. There was a significant reduction in preterm delivery rate less than 37 weeks gestation among women receiving progesterone vaginal pessary compared to the control group 11 (4.4%) vs 38 (15.8%), p value < 0.001. Regarding neonatal outcome, there were significant reduction in the frequency of respiratory distress syndrome, low birth weight neonates and admissions to neonatal intensive care unit in women taking vaginal progesterone pessary compared to the control. While other neonatal morbidity and mortality events, incidence of neonatal congenital anomalies were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Vaginal progesterone pessaries in women with a cervical length less than 30 mm early in the second trimester are found to be effective in reducing the rate of preterm birth and some of the prematurity related morbidity events. Keywords: preterm labor, vaginal progesterone pessaries, short cervix, premature deliveryCitation: Khazaali EAA. Vaginal progesterone pessary for preterm labor prevention in women with a short cervix early in the second trimester. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(2): 133-143. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.2.4


Article
Geochemical Modeling of Water-Rock Interaction in Uppermost Regional Aquifer in Arar Area

Authors: Enas A. A-Mallah --- Hussein B. Al-Mansoury --- Qusay A. Al-Suhail
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2006 Volume: 47 Issue: 1 Pages: 111-118
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Geochemical modeling technique was used to study the chemical evolution of the Upper most regional aquifer in Wadi Arar area. This aquifer composed from limestone, dolomite and some scattered or interbedded anhydrite and gypsum. Karstic terrains are highly developed in the area. Geochemical calculations showed that the studied groundwater are supersaturated and undersaturated with carbonate and sulfate minerals respectively. Four flow paths were selected to determine the main chemical reactions thought to be responsible for the variation of chemical composition of the system under consideration and also to evaluate the amount of mass transfer of selected mineral phases. Many reaction path models have been identified, mainly calcite precipitation, de-dolomitization and cation exchange of Ca for Na for paths 11 and 12 (eastern parts) and calcite precipitation, dolomitization and cation exchange of the Na for Ca for the western parts, flow paths 2 and 5.

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