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Economic and political developments in Russia 1894
التطورات الاقتصادية والسياسية في روسيا 1894-1905

Author: Enas Sa'adi Abdullah ايناس سعدي عبد الله
Journal: Mustansiriyah Journal of Arts مجلة آداب المستنصرية ISSN: 02581086 Year: 2015 Issue: 69 Pages: 1-43
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Russia in the late nineteenth century from more European countries lagging behind, as a result of the existence of the tsarist government autocracy, which has caused increasing hatred of the people have, as well as the presence of a large number of nationalities that were feel persecution which he would stir problems, internal and external. As the prevalence of illiteracy among members of the Russian people and other nationalities was an important factor in this delay.Russia was an agricultural country, and the peasants make up the grassroots major in Czarist Russia, who were in a state of poverty and misery, lack of education, so things were agricultural generally deteriorating, and suffers from several obstacles are: the remnants of serfdom, and inequality in ownership farmland, and the presence of the public domain, and the great inequality among the peasants themselves. Russia experienced in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century developed industrially important, and it was the industrial renaissance in Germany after unification, and the emergence of Japan as a modern state with danger, a significant impact in the Russian industrial development. Nevertheless remained Russian industry suffers from many problems due to: the violent confrontation by nobles reactionaries who saw the industrial development a threat to the interests of the noble class, and a system of autocratic rule, as the technique is automated in Russia resulted in the recruitment for capital, which shares inflating production, at a time The small enterprises with the capacity few of the kind almost literally does not have the means to use the machines are complex, and lag behind in terms of technique, so it has become such institutions cannot withstand the competition, so swallowed by large industrial enterprises, as well as the poor conditions of the workers; were factories, and laboratories , and concerns, and machinery, buildings, ships, is the king of a small number of rich people, and employs millions of workers. Adding to the delay in the industry a low level of living of the population, and the periodic famines that occur in Russia. Russia has seen in the nineteenth century revolutionary movements Chairperson, each carrying a certain revolutionary philosophy, and it was for the growth of the industrial movement a big impact in the emergence of these ideas in Russia that were resistant to the reactionaries and their followers. It was the great contradiction in the liberal ideas of utopian socialism, and anarchism, and popular, and a Marxist, not a big impact in uniting these movements generally autocratic rule.I've contributed Russo-Japanese War in further collapse of Tsarist rule, and revealed to the Russian people over the delay suffered by their country, and their military forces, compared to European countries, and Jap

كانت روسيا القيصرية في اواخر القرن التاسع عشر اكبر دول اوروبا اتساعا، ولكنها لم تكن تملك امبراطورية وراء البحار، الا انها كانت بلدا متخلفا من الوجهتين الاقتصادية، والتقنية. كان الفلاحون يشكلون القاعدة الشعبية في روسيا القيصرية، والذين كانوا في حالة من الفقر والبؤس، ونقص التعليم جعلتهم سلبيين الى حد ما غير مستعدين للمشاركة في تطور الامة الروسية. مع ذلك شهدت البلاد في اواخر القرن التاسع عشر، واوائل القرن العشرين تطورا صناعيا هاما، وكان قيام النهضة الصناعية في المانيا بعد توحيدها، وظهور اليابان كدولة حديثة لها خطرها، اثر كبير في التطور الصناعي الروسي، مع ذلك ظل الاقتصاد الروسي متخلفا قياسا بالاقتصاد الاوروبي. ونتيجة لتخلف الاقتصاد الروسي ووجود حكومة استبدادية شهدت روسيا العديد من المظاهرات، والاضرابات التي قام بها مختلف فئات الشعب الروسي ولاسيما الفلاحين، والعمال. كما شهدت روسيا منذ اواخر القرن التاسع عشر ظهور عدد من القوى الاشتراكية التي لعبت دورا كبيرا في التاريخ السياسي الروسي. كما شهدت هذه الفترة توتر العلاقات مع اليابان التي ادت الى اندلاع الحرب الروسية- اليابانية 1904-1905.


Article
The Peasant Movement and the Labor their Role in Russian Political events 1905-1914
الحركة الفلاحية والعمالية ودورها في الاحداث السياسية الروسية 1905-1914

Author: Enas Sa'adi Abdullah ايناس سعدي عبد الله
Journal: Mustansiriyah Journal of Arts مجلة آداب المستنصرية ISSN: 02581086 Year: 2015 Issue: 70 Pages: 1-41
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

It turns out the role of the labor movement and the peasant with the beginning of the twentieth century, and reached its peak during the years between 1905-1907 during any period of the Russian Revolution. In fact, were the causes of this revolution are many, including the survival of serfdom which was paralyzing the country's economy, and its political system, and hinders the development of the country, this system has been tight on the internal market, hampering the development of the industry, and the imposition of a proletarian roughest forms of capital investment. As the autocratic Tsarist policy towards the Russians or other nationalities have increased popular discontent, and perhaps the situation in Finland was a good example of this policy and its consequences. Came Russo-Japanese War to reveal defects Tsarist regime, because he is convinced that many of the corrupt system of government is responsible for what the right of Prussia defeats that the system that has squandered the people's money, has cost the lives of citizens is a necessity. As a result of factors have become over the conditions of workers badly to a large extent, and it was these make up the largest percentage of the population in the industrial cities such as Moscow, Riga, Lodz, Warsaw, and endowed with a wave of meetings and demonstrations and labor strikes, raising slogans workers, political, economic, and culminated in Bloody Sunday, which raised more popular discontent.. The conditions of the peasants in Russia, the bad, and the system of serfdom, and poor distribution of wealth, is a burden on the Russian peasant, so we find that the peasantry was heavily involved in the 1905 revolution to lift the injustice in all their shoulders. Peasants aspires to abolish the ownership of land owners, and the remnants of serfdom in the agricultural system, and Russian, but the peasant movement, although characterized by the power of spontaneity, and generally do not they are organized, and the weak link in the movement of workers and peasants struggling to meet local needs, and do not apply to claim political rights wide.Differed from the position of the Socialist Forces revolution in 1905, the Bolsheviks believed, it's the bourgeois revolution is working on creating a revolutionary democratic dictatorship, any provision in any of the proletariat and the peasantry together. The Mensheviks have thought that as long as the bourgeois revolution must be led by the bourgeoisie.Despite the buildup, which saw a revolutionary movement by the workers and peasants through late 1905, the movement that has seen a significant decline during the years 1906 to 1907, due to overheating that has plagued the revolutionary forces, at a time when reactionary forces have taken the same gathering, and began counter-revolution against the forces Free in 1906, and helped return the army from the battlefields after the end of the Russo-Japanese War, was used to eliminate the Revolution. Despite the failure of the 1905 revolution, the results have been impressive to some extent, one side gave way to the emergence of a number of political parties that represent the various forces of: right-wing and left-wing, whether it is the bourgeoisie, or conservative, or socialist, as well as the start of a new era in the history of Russia represent approval the law of the State Duma, which despite failing four times during the period that the contract, but his presence is a remarkable development in the establishment of a constitutional life somewhat advocated by the political forces, especially the bourgeoisie. The main problem that was not able to be resolved from the Duma, as well as in Tsarist failed to solve, is the agrarian question, this was a matter in the long run, one of the causes of the 1917 revolution.

كانت روسيا اوائل القرن العشرين دولة اوتوقراطية، استبدادية، تحت حكم ال رومانوف( )،وبدأت تشهد تطورا صناعيا كان له ابعاد خطيرة في تاريخها. كانت الثورة الصناعية التي بدأت في روسيا اواخر القرن التاسع عشر، اثر كبيرا في نمو الطبقتين الوسطى(البرجوازية)، والعاملة(البروليتارية)، الامر الذي ادى الى خلق مشاكل كثيرة للأوتوقراطية الروسية. لذلك بذلت القوى الرجعية جهودا كبيرا لعرقلة التطور الصناعي، لأنه يؤدي الى ظهور مجتمع مدني مناوئ لها، وللحياة الريفية، التي تعتمد عليها، ويؤكد عليها بشكل خاص اصحاب التقاليد السلافية. وظهرت في المجتمع الروسي عدة حركات أو جماعات معارضة لسياسة الحكومة الرجعية، واخذت الطبقة الوسطى تعتقد ان الاوتوقراطية مضرة بمصلحتها، ان لم تحدد سلطتها، وتؤسس حكومة دستورية تمثلها( ). كما ان بروز طبقتي العمال والفلاحين خلال سنوات 1901-1903 كان له اثر كبير في اندلاع الثورة الروسية عام 1905.

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