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August Strindberg's "The Stronger " as Monodramatic Situational –Plot Structure : A Stylistic Study

Author: Fatima H . Aziz
Journal: ADAB AL-BASRAH آداب البصرة ISSN: 18148212 Year: 2010 Issue: 52 Pages: 21-52
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

On the surface , there is nothing particularly complicated about Strindberg's monodramatic situational plot one – Act play structure ,"The Stronger ". Tow women- Tow actresses – run into each other in a restaurant on Christmas Eve . One is married and has been out shopping for presents for her family , the other is unmarried and is sitting alone in the restaurant reading magazines and drinking . We are told almost nothing about these tow women- they are not even important enough to have names ; Strindberg calls them simply Mrs. X. and Miss. Y. And , the entire play consists of nothing more than a single conversation between these tow women. There is no action , no real plot development , nothing particularly out of the ordinary . In fact , one of the woman – Miss. Y. does not even speak in the entire play ,i.e. Miss Y. maintaining her share in the development of the action by pantomime , facial expressions , and an occasional laugh , ( The Stronger ,P.: 22).


Article
No Repetition Where None Intended : A Stylistic Study Of Repetition as a Cohesive Signal In Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot

Authors: Fatima H. Aziz --- Majeed H. Jasim
Journal: ADAB AL-BASRAH آداب البصرة ISSN: 18148212 Year: 2007 Issue: 43 Pages: 1-19
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Samuel Beckett seems to be possessed by the idea of repetition to the extent that it becomes one of the principal traits which distinguishes his work. Repetition , here ,should not be confined to the abstract dictionary meaning .The term simply suggests that there are similar dramatic settings , situations , and phrases which may be found in more than one place in the same play, and in their relations to the theme of the playwright. Thus , the cohesive function of repetition is to achieve certain dramatic purposes so as to provide us with a useful key in attempting an interpretation of the play and to make us see clearly the meaning and the relevance of the dramatist’s philosophy . This suggestion can be substantiated by discussing and examining the ideas of Beckett and how repetition becomes of a great significance in presenting the settings , action and dialogue in a symbolic way in “Waiting for Godot “ *(henceforth, WFG).


Article
Silence as Non-Verbal Positive Politeness Strategy in August Strindberg's The Stronger : A Pragma - Stylistic Study
الصمت بوصفه دراسة ستراتيجية تأدب ايجابية في مسرحية أوغست سترن بيرغ ( أكوا ) : دراسة براغماتية

Authors: Fatima. H. aziz فاطمة حسين عزيز --- Majeed. H.Jasim مجيد حسين جاسم
Journal: Journal of Misan Researches مجلة ابحاث ميسان ISSN: 66221815 Year: 2010 Volume: 7 Issue: 13 Pages: 291-323
Publisher: Misan University جامعة ميسان

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Abstract

Silence can sometimes be eloquent. Conversations consist not only of what is said but what is not said—the cold silence, the disapproving silence, the appreciative silence, the reverent silence, the baffled silence, ( Schmitz,1994: 1). So, it is not only the complete refusal to speak , but also acts of silence within discourse that are considered meaningful (Baker , 1955: 165 ). The ambiguous act of silence is a source of quite different possible meanings , and it is the source of various sayings and proverbs , literary inspiration and misunderstandings ( Ibid.). Yet , silence has been considered as a magic comforter ( Farr , 1962: 96 ) . It has become a precious commodity difficult to afford. Paradoxically , the desire to relax to the sound of silence is contrasted by the fact that at the same time , silence is feared , considered as something negative and undesirable since it impedes communication and distorts the message being conveyed ( Gal , 1989: 25) . By itself, silence is altogether meaningless, gaining significance only when supplemented by speech .At least at first, it seems that a person who remains silent is passive. He does nothing to work his will on the situation, to create, or to share with others. Silence is not about the striving, aspiration, and connection that we normally associate with human fulfillment. Instead, it is usually about emptiness and loneliness. The ambition of this research is to provide a defense of, and explanation for, a right to silence. Here, my suggestion is that silence protects the freedom to choose between public obligation and private commitment. Surprisingly, though, in this context, silence as freedomdoes not necessarily translate into a legal right to remain silent. Sometimes when the law requires speech, it forces the choices that make us free. Silence is a right, but it also comes with an obligation: to speak quietly or not at all in the face of doubt and mystery. Accordingly , silence sometimes is considered only unwanted , meaningless ,nonvaluable and nothing else . But , silence does contribute to conversations ( Bruneau ,1973 :40).Thus, silence can be considered as an equally important element of conversation as speech despite the fact that it is speech that is a primary communicative category ; a superior information carrier ( ibid.: 42).

يكون الصمت بليغاً في بعض الأحايين . فالحورات تنطوي على ما لا يقال فضلاً عن ما يقال . ومالا يقال هو مثل الصمت البارد , والصمت الرافض , والصمت المقدر , والصمت المفعم بالأحترام والإعجاب , والصمت المربك ( شولتز 1994, 1 ). إذ أن ليس الرفض الكامل مقتصراً على الكلام , ولكن فعاليات الصمت في ثنايا الخطاب تعد ذات مغزى ( بيكر 1955 , 165 ) . إن الفعل الغامض للصمت هو مصدر لكثير من المعاني المختلفة الممكنة , وهو مصدر لإقوال وأمثال متنوعة , وإلهام أدبي . ومع هذا , فالصمت يعد مريح سحري . فقد أصبح سلعة ثمينة من الصعب تحملها . وعلى نحو مخالف , إن الرغبة للراحة لصوت الصمت تناقضها حقيقة ان الصمت في الوقت عينه يخافه الناس , بوصفه فعلاً سالباً وغير مرغوب فيه طالما أنه يعيق التواصل ويشوه الرسالة المرسلة . وعلى وفق هذا , فأن الصمت يعد في بعض الأحيان غير مرغوب فيه فحسب , وعديم المعنى ولا شيء آخر . وأن الصمت لا يسهم في الحوار . ولهذا فأن الصمت يمكن أن يكون عنصراً مهماً في الحوار بالرغم من حقيقة كون الكلام صنفاً اتصاليا أولياً , حامل متفوق للمعلومات .

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Article
Propaganda in George Orwell's Animal Farm : An Allegorical And Satirical Study
الدعاية السياسية في رواية جورج ايرول ( مزرعة الحيوانات ) دراسة اسلوبية

Authors: Majeed H. Jasim مجيد حميد جاسم --- Fatima H. Aziz فاطمة حسين عزيز
Journal: ADAB AL-BASRAH آداب البصرة ISSN: 18148212 Year: 2013 Issue: 66 Pages: 1-38
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Animal Farm has been called George Qrwell's most ferocious propaganda ( Voorhees, 1961: 87). Orwell was quick to admit that he was a propagandist . In fact , in 1940 , during a BBC radio discussion , he maintains that " every artist is a propagandist in the sense that he is trying , directly or indirectly , to impose a vision of life that seems to him desirable ( Orwell & Angus ,1968: 41). But , Orwell hates political propaganda which deliberately falsifies reality , especially the hypocritical kind used solely for the purpose of keeping totalitarian regimes in power. During the 1930s and 1940s he was repelled by the propaganda machines of dictators like Hitler and Stalin (Colmer, 1978: 183). It is this variety of propaganda that Orwell satirizes in Animal Farm , a novel that presents his vision of life . Yet, George Orwell's Animal Farm is a story of pure propaganda. Propaganda is a recurring theme and technique seen and used by characters in the book, as well as the author. Animal Farm is an allegory that focuses on the communist revolution in Russia. Being an allegory, events in the book accurately depict actual events in history that actually relate to propaganda ( Clader,1987: 16). Propaganda is a central element to the plot of Animal Farm ( henceforth, AF). Propaganda is used by various methods in the book. These methods vary depending on who uses them. Characters in the book use them according to who they are ? Orwell also uses propaganda, simply by writing this book. This book clearly shows his views on communism and events that took place in history. As previously stated, the entire book represents his political views on historic events.

عُرِفَت رواية جورج اورويل ( مزرعة الحيوانات ) على انها من اكثر رواياته إستخداما للدعاية السياسية . بل انه وفي مقابلة لأذاعة ال بي بي سي في عام 1940 من القرن الماضي صَرّحَ انه من أَكثر الأُدباء إستخداما للدعاية السياسية حيث قال ": كُل فنان , سواء روائي أَم غير ذلك, هو رجل دعاية بالدرجة الأساس وذلكَ خلال محاولاتِه ,بطريقة مباشرة ام غير مباشرة ,عرض صورة مقبولة للحياة كما يراها هو,( اورويل & اكنس , 1968: 41)." طالما كَرِهَ اورويل الدعاية السياسية خاصة تلك التي تُشُووه الحقائق والتي تُستَخدَم للحفاظ على سُلطة الانظمة الدكتاتورية مُتَمَثِلة بنظام ادوولف هتلر في المانيا وجوزيف ستالين في الاتحاد السوفيتي سابقا وذلك في الثلاثينيات والأربعينيات من القرن المنصرم ,( كوملر ,1978:183).السُخرية من هكذا دعاية سياسية هو الاسلوب الأدبي الذي إستَخدَمَهُ اورويل في روايتهِ هذهِ مُستَعمِلا النظريات السياسية الدعائية المُستَخدَمَه في ذلك الوقت وبكافة عواملها ومقوماتها . وعَلَيهِ تُمَثِل رواية ( مزرعة الحيوانات ) وجهة نَظَر اورويل السياسية تجاه النظام الشيوعي وتجاه الأحداث التاريخية التي مرًّ بٍها المجتمع السوفيتي ومعاناتِه خلال فترة حكم جوزيف ستاين.

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