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Article
Continuous De-emulsification of Crude Oil Using Packed ColumnUnder Various Conditions

Author: G. A. R. Rassoul
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 19-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This research dealt with desalting of East Baghdad crude oil using pellets of either anionic, PVC, quartz, PE, PP or nonionic at different temperature ranging from 30 to 80 °C, pH from 6 to 8, time from 2 to 20 minutes, volume percent washing water from 5 to 25% and fluid velocity from 0.5 to 0.8 m/s under voltage from 2 to 6 kV and / or using additives such as alkyl benzene sulphonate or sodium stearate. The optimum conditions and materials were reported to remove most of water from East Baghdad wet crude oil.


Article
Producing Oil from Dead Oil Wells Using injected LPG

Authors: Omar M. Waheeb --- G.A.R.Rassoul
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-33
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In order to reduce hydrostatic pressure in oil wells and produce oil from dead oil wells, laboratory rig was constructed, by injecting LPG through pipe containing mixture of two to one part of East Baghdad crude oil and water. The used pressure of injection was 2.0 bar, which results the hydrostatic pressure reduction around 246 to 222 mbar and flow rate of 34.5 liter/hr fluid (oil-water), at 220 cm injection depth. Effects of other operating parameters were also studied on the behavior of two phase flow and on the production of oil from dead oil wells.


Article
Reducing the evaporation of stored Iraqi crude oil

Authors: Tahseen hameed khlaif --- G. A. R. rassoul
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 41-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In order to reduce the losses due to evaporation in the stored crude oil and minimizing the decrease in °API many affecting parameters were studied (i.e. Different storage system, namely batch system with different types of storage tanks under different temperatures and:or different pressures). Continuous circulation storage system was also studied. It was found that increasing pressure of the inert gas from 1 bar to 8 bar over the surface of the crude oil will decrease the percentage losses due to evaporation by (0.016%) and decrease the change of °API by (0.9) during 96 hours storage time. Similarly using covering by surfactant (potassium oleate) or using polymer (polyurethane foam) decreases the percentage evaporation losses compared with uncovered surface of the blend crude oil. In each surfactants and polymers the layer thickness was (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 cm), and increasing the thickness of the surfactant to 2.5 cm or of the polymer to 3 cm was found to be best required thickness. Surfactant gave lower percentage evaporation losses than polymer, for fixed roof tank (i.e. 0.299%, 0.383%) for 120 hours evaporation time. Different processed storage tanks namely (fixed roof, external moving roof, fixed and internal moving) were studied and fixed and moving roof was the best in reducing evaporation losses (0.453%) for 120 hours. In continuous circulation for proposed continuous storage system, the percentage evaporation losses for covered with surfactant, covered with polymer, and uncovered surface of blend crude oil were (0.328%), (0.378%), and (0.45%) respectively at 24 °C for 96 hours evaporation time.

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Article
Drag Reduction of Crude Oil Flow in Pipelines Using Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Surfactant

Authors: Ali A. A. Hadi --- G. A. R. Rassoul
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-34
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present worA a closed loop circulation system consist of three testing sections was designed and constructed. The testing sections made from (3m) of commercial carbon steel pipe of diameters (5.08, 2.54 and 1.91 cm) . Anionic surfactant (SDBS)with concentrations of (50 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm) was tested as a drag reducing agent The additive(SDDS) studied using crude oilfrom south of Iraq. The flow rates of crude oil were used 08 and 2.54cm ID.pipes are (1 — 12) m3/hr while (1-6) ra were used in 1.91 cm ID. pipe. Percentage drag reduction (%Dr) was found to increase by increasing solution velocity, pipe diameter and additives concentration (La increasing Renolds number).Also it was found that there is no change in apparent physical properties (viscosity) of crude oil after the addition of SDBS, The higher value of drag reduction of 54% in 5 cm ID. was observed using 250 ppm SDBS surfactant dissolved in the used crude oil at flow rate of 12 m Friction factor was calculated from experimental data. The friction factors values for pure solvent lies near or at Blasius asymptote suggestedfor flow of Newtonian fluids. Afier the addition of small amount of SDI3S, the friction factor values were positioned below Blasius asymptote toward Virk maximum drag reduction asymptote, &hich was never reached.


Article
Reduction of Concentrating Poisonous Metallic Radicals from Industrial Wastewater by Forward and Reverse Osmosis
اختزال تركيز جذور المعادن السامة من مخلفات المياه الصناعية بواسطة التنافذ الأمامي والتنافذ العكسي

Authors: G. A. R. Rassoul غياث عبد الرضا رسول --- Ahmed Faiq Al – Alawy احمد فائق --- Woodyian Nahedth Khudair وديان ناهض خضير
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 7 Pages: 784-798
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The research aims to use a new technology for industrial water concentrating that contains poisonous metals and recovery quantities from pure water.Therefore, the technology investigated is the forward osmosis process (FO). It is a new process that use membranes available commercial and this process distinguishes by its low cost compared to other process. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was used as draw solution to extract water from poisonous metals solution. The driving force in the FO process is provided by a different in osmotic pressure (concentration) across the membrane between the draw and poisonous metals solution sides. Experimental work was divided into three parts. The first part includes operating the forward osmosis process using TFC membrane as flat sheet for NaCl. The operating parameters studied were: draw solutions concentration (10 – 95 g/l), draw solution flow rate (12-36 I/h), temperature of draw solution (30 and 40°C), feed solution concentration (10 -210 mg/l), feed solution flow rate (10 -50 l/h), temperature of feed solution (30 and 40°C) and Pressure (0.4 bar). The second part includes operating the forward osmosis process using CTA membrane as flat sheet for NaCl. The operating parameters studied were: draw solution concentration (15 – 95 g/l), feed solution concentration (10-210 mg/l). Constant temperature was maintained at 30°C. The last part includes operating the reverse osmosis process using TFC membrane as spiral wound module in order to separate NaCl salt from draw solution and obtain on pure water so as to usefully in different uses and also obtain on solution of NaCl concentrate which was recirculated to forward osmosis process. It is then used as draw solution. The operating parameter studied was: feed solution flow rate (15-55 l/h).The experimental results show that the water flux increases with increasing draw solution concentration, feed solution flow rate, temperature of draw solution and decreases with increasing feed solution concentration, draw solution flow rate and temperature of feed solution. The experiments also show that CTA membrane gives higher water flux than TFC membrane for forward osmosis operation.

يهدف البحث لاستخدام تكنولوجيا جديدة لتركيز المياه الصناعية الحاوية على المعادن السامة واسترجاع كميات من المياه النقية . لذلك تمت دراسة عملية التنافذ الأمامي وهي طريقة جديدة تستخدم الأغشية المتوفرة تجارياً وتمتاز هذه العملية بكلفتها القليلة مقارنة بالطرق الأخرى . تم استخدام كلوريد الصوديوم (NaCl) كمحلول سحب لنزع الماء النقي من محاليل المعادن السامة . القوة الدافعة في عملية التنافذ الأمامي ناتجة من فرق الضغط التنافذي (التركيز) على جانبي الغشاء بين محلول السحب ومحلول المعادن السامة . تم تقسيم الجزء العملي إلى ثلاث أقسام : يضم القسم الأول تشغيل عملية التنافذ الأمامي باستخدام غشاء TFC على شكل صفيحة مستوية لمحلول سحب كلوريد الصوديوم. الظروف التشغيلية التي تم دراستها : تركيز محلول السحب (15-95 g/l) ، معدل الجريان لمحلول السحب (12-36 l/h) ، درجـة حرارة محلـول السحب (30 , 40°C) ، تركيز محلول اللقيم (10-210 mg/l) ، معدل الجريان لمحلول اللقيم (10-50 l/h)، ودرجة حرارة محلول اللقيم (30 , 40 °C) . الضغط (0.4 bar). القسم الثاني يضم تشغيل منظومة التنافذ الأمامي باستخدام غشاء نوع CTA على شكل صفيحة مستوية لمحلول السحب كلوريد الصوديوم . وكان تركيز محلول السحب (15-95 g/l) ، وتركيز محلول اللقيم ( 10-210 mg/ l) . درجة الحرارة ثابتة عند 30°C . القسم الثالث تضمن تشغيل منظومة التنافذ العكسي باستخدام غشاء نوع TFC على شكل وحدة حلزونية لفصل ملح الـNaCl من محلول السحب والحصول على مياه نقية يمكن الاستفادة منه في العديد من الاستخدامات وكذلك الحصول على محلول NaCl مركز يتم استرجاعه إلى منظومة التنافذ الأمامي واستخدامه من جديد كمحلول سحب . وكان الظرف التشغيلي الذي تم دراسته : معدل الجريان لمحلول اللقيم (15-55l/h). أظهرت نتائج البحث ان معدل تدفق الماء يزداد بزيادة تركيز محلول السحب ومعدل الجريان لمحلول اللقيم ودرجة حرارة محلول السحب والقوة الدافعة ويقل بزيادة تركيز محلول اللقيم ومعدل الجريان لمحلول السحب وزيادة درجة حرارة محلول اللقيم وكذلك أظهرت النتائج ان أغشية CTA تعطي معدل تدفق ماء أعلى من أغشية TFC في عمليات التنافذ الأمامي .

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