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Article
Enhancement of Uniformity of Solid Particles in Spouted Bed Using Stochastic Optimization

Author: Ghanim.M. Alwan
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 23-33
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Performance of gas-solid spouted bed benefit from solids uniformity structure (UI).Therefore, the focus of this work is to maximize UI across the bed based on process variables. Hence, UI is to be considered as the objective of the optimization process .Three selected process variables are affecting the objective function. These decision variables are: gas velocity, particle density and particle diameter. Steady-state solids concentration measurements were carried out in a narrow 3-inch cylindrical spouted bed made of Plexiglas that used 60° conical shape base. Radial concentration of particles (glass and steel beads) at various bed heights and different flow patterns were measured using sophisticated optical probes. Stochastic Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been found better than deterministic search for study mutation of process variables of the non-linear bed. Spouted bed behaved as hybrid system. Global GA could provide confirmed data and selected best operating conditions. Optimization technique would guide the experimental work and reduce the risk and cost of operation. Optimum results could improve operating of the bed at high-performance and stable conditions. Maximum uniformity has been found at high-density, small size of solid beads and low gas velocity. Density of solids has been effective variable on UI.Velocity of gas and diameter of solid particles has been observed more sensitive decision variables with UI mutations. Uniformity of solid particles would enhance hydrodynamic parameters, heat and mass transfer in the bed because of improving of hold-up and voids distributions of solids. The results of the optimization have been compared with the experimental data using sophisticated optical probe and Computed Tomography technique.


Article
Operation and Ph Control of A Wastewater Treatment Unit Using Labview
عملیة والسیطرة على الحامضیة لوحدة المعالجة المیاه الثقیلة باستخدام برنامج LABVIE

Authors: Adnan Abdual Arazak --- Farooq A. Mehdi --- Ghanim M. Alwan
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 17 Pages: 5524-5546
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

LABVIEW is a powerful and versatile graphical programming language thathad its roots in operation, automation control and data acquisition of the system. The pH control system of a non-linear wastewater treatment unit, contains heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni and Zn), had been developed depending on dynamics behavior of the process. The pH value of wastewater is change by addition chemicals (lime or Na2S). The semi-batch pH process system dynamically behaved as a first order lag with dead time. The tuning of control parameters was carried byseveral methods; Internal Model Control (IMC), Minimum (ITAE) criteria and Adaptive mode. Since the process was fast, the Integral of Absolute of Error (IAE) criteria was used to compare between the above tuning methods. Adaptive control was the best and effective to determining the values of proportional gain (Kc), Integral time constant (t I) and Derivative time constant (t D ).PI mode was found to be the best for control the fast pH process.

ھي لغة برمجة الرسم التي استخدمت لتشغیل و السیطرة الاتوماتیكیة واكتساب النت ائج LABVIEWالعملیة لمنظومة البحث الحالیة. تم تطویر نظام الس یطرة عل ى الحامض یة لوح دة معالج ة المی اه الص ناعیة واعتم اداً عل ى دراس ة الس لوك (Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni and Zn) الت ي تحت وي عل ى العناص ر الثقیل ةان . (lime or Na2S) ال دینامیكي للمنظوم ھ. ان قیم ة الحامض یة تتغی ر بواس طة اض افة الم واد الكیمیاوی ةالعملیة شبھ مستمرة دینامیكیاً و من الدرجة الاولى مع وجود اعاق ة زمنی ة. ت م توص یف مؤش رات الس یطرةAdaptive و Integral of Absolute of Error و Internal Model Control بط رق مختلفةكاس اس (IAE) لایجاد افضل قیم للمعاملات . نتیجة لسرعة العملیة تم استخدام معیار الخطا المطلق modeللمقارنة بین الطرق و ان اسلوب التوصیف الذاتي ھم الافضل و الادق و اكثر تاثیرا في احتساب مؤشراتھو الافضل بالنسبة لباقي المسیطرات و ذلك لكون العملیة سریعة. PI السیطرة. و قد وجد ان الصیغة


Article
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL/POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVA/PVC) HOLLOW FIBER COMPOSITE NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR WATER TREATMENT

Authors: Sufyan Algebory --- A. Figoli --- Qusay Alsalhy --- Ghanim M. Alwan --- et al.
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 23-32
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Two different polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl chloride (PVA/PVC) hollow fiber composite nanofiltration membranes were prepared after PVC hollow fiber membranes were coated using dip-coating method with PVA aqueous solution, which was composed of PVA, fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (AEO9), and water [PVA/AEO9/water (4:0.5:95.5) wt%]. Effect of two different PVC hollow fiber immersion times in coating solution were studied. Cross-section, internal and external surfaces of the PVC hollow fibers and PVA/PVC composite nanofiltration membranes structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pure water permeation flux and solutes rejection. It was found that, the coating layer thickness on the outer surface of the 19 wt% PVC hollow fiber was thin and about (6µm), while the coating solution penetrates through the outer edge of the PVC hollow fiber and it looks like sponge-like structure with increase of the dip-coating time from 20 to 30 sec. Besides, the pure water permeation flux decreases and solutes rejection increases with an increase of the coating time from 20 to 30 sec for the two PVA/PVC composite nanofiltration membranes.Molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the PVA/PVC composite nanofiltration membranes were in the range of NF (i.e. 200-3000 Mw).

تم تحضير نوعين من اغشية الالياف المجوفة والنانوية المكونة من PVA/PVC بواسطة طريقة الاكساء بالتغطيس في محلول PVA المائي المكون من بولي فنيل الكحول PVA, الماء و(AEO9) Fatty Alcohol Polyoxyethylene Ether وبنسب وزنية مئوية(0.5, 95.5, 4) على التوالي.تم دراسة تاثير وقتين مختلفين لزمن اكساء اغشية الالياف المجوفة على التركيب الداخلي والخارجي لاغشية الياف PVA/PVC المركبة والنانوية باستخدام جهاز المجهر الالكتروني الماسح (SEM) وايضا على اداء الاغشية في فصل المذابات وانتاج الماء النقي. وجد ان سمك طبقة الاكساء للالياف المحضرة من19% PVC كان رقيقا وبسمك µm6بينما يدخل محلول الاكساء خلال السطح الخارجي ويسد التراكيب الاصبعية الشكل عندما يزداد زمن الاكساء من 20-30 ثانية. بالاضافة الى ذلك, تقل نفاذية الماء النقي ويزداد فصل المذابات بزيادة زمن الاكساء من 20-30 ثانية لكلا نوعي الالياف المجوفة النانوية. ان الوزن الجزيئي للمذابات المفصولة(MWCO) لاغشية اليافPVA/PVC المجوفة النانوية كان ضمن مدى اغشية الفصل النانوية (200- 3000Da ).


Article
Optimization and Control of Acation Exchanger :1- Steady State Optimization
الاختيار الافضل والسيطرة على مبادل كتيوني . 1 الاختيار الافضل للمنظومة في ظروف مستقرة

Authors: Ghanim M. Alwan --- Layla A. A. Ahmed --- Ahlam. S. Maroof --- Abeer S. Mahmod
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 484-491
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The effect of process variables on the recovery of hardness from water byacation exchanger was studied. At steady state the process could be represented bysecond order nonlinear emperical model. Although this model was less accurate thanthe dynamic model,the results show agreement when compared with the experimentaldata. The steady state optimization model was used to limit the operating conditions ofthe system. The static feed forward control could be used with the aid of on – linedigital computer.

يتضمن البحث دراسة تأثير متغيرات العملية على مقدار إزالة الأملاح المسببة للعسرة فيالماء بواسطة مبادل كاتيوني في ظروف مستقرة. تم تمثيل العملية بموديل رياضي لاخطي ومنالدرجة الثانية .بالرغم من قلة دقة هذا الموديل مقارنة بالموديل الديناميكي الا انه اعطى نتائجمرضية مقارنة بالنتائج العملية .من خلال هذا الموديل تم تحديد الظروف التشغيلية المثلى.. منالممكن استخدام السيطرة الامامية الانية للعملية بمساعدة الحاسوب.

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