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Weak forms under different prosodic,Morphological and syntactic conditions

Author: Hadeel K. Ali
Journal: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 20 Pages: 221-235
Publisher: university of samarra جامعة سامراء


English pronunciation is characterized by variable use of weak forms. One of the major features of spoken form is the variation in pronouncing vowels. Many vowels, some times even consonants, are reduced or omitted in certain contexts. Therefore Arabic learners of English have unnatural way in pronunciation, and face particular difficulties in connected speech, While English speakers use weak forms all the time especially in casual speech.
The researcher tries to reveal these matters, since relatively each sentence consists of at least one weak form. In rapid speech learners cannot understand because they are not accustomed to them.
This study aims at:
1.Examining the source of students' difficulties in using weak forms, second year students in English department, College of Education Tikrit University.
2.Studying and analyzing of students' answers.
3.Showing the major ways that enable students to make a proper use of weak forms in connected speech.
The test is limited to:
1.Making a phonemic transcription of weak forms in 20 sentences.
2.The sample of the students will be specified to the second year students, College of Education Tikrit University.
3.The academic year 2008-2009.
The procedures adopted in this study include:
1.Constricting a test to show students' use of weak forms and difficulties they face.
2.Classifying their weaknesses.
3.Analyzing results statistically.


Epenthesis in English and Arabic A Contrastive Study

Authors: Hasan Sh. Ali --- Hadeel K. Ali
Journal: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 Year: 2011 Volume: 18 Issue: 6 Pages: 648-660
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت


ABSTRACTAs a result of historical sound change or synchronic rule, many sounds are added or inserted. Addition of sounds may be very prominent in informal speech. Epenthesis or addition is the insertion of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word. According to Crowly (1997: 55) epenthesis may be divided into two types: excrescence which refer to the insertion of a consonant, and anaptyxis which refers to the insertion of a vowel. In English the process of epenthesis is versus deletion in particular positions, that general principles govern the choice of epenthesis whether a vowel or a consonant. In Arabic the essential phonological characteristics can be clarified by showing the selection of epenthesis according to the restricted conditions.This study includes listing words in English and Arabic that necessitate the use of epenthesis in both types excrescene and anaptyxis. The aim behind this study is to show how universal conditions can govern words with the use of epenthesis in both languages.


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