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Article
Effect of Moderate Exercise on the Level of Melatonin Hormone and Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Healthy Subjects

Authors: Israa F. Ja'afar --- Huda Arif Jassim --- Alaa G. Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 88-94
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Physical exercise is important for promotion of the immune system. The immune responses to exercise are dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise performed. During exercise, metabolic and hormonal changes occurred that can induce lymphocyte apoptosis. Melatonin is one of the hormones that are affected by exercise, it is a pineal gland hormone, its production and secretion followed a circadian pattern, onset of darkness stimulate its secretion, while day light suppress its production. Melatonin is regarded as an anti-aging hormone; it has a role in the elimination of harmful lymphocytes which may give rise to chronic inflammation and possibly to autoimmunity. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to elucidate the effect of moderate endurance exercise on melatonin hormone and the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis in healthy subjects. METHODS: Sixty healthy subjects with a mean age of (37.05 ± 13.02) year, participated in the study. They were subjected to moderate exercise session which lasted for 60 min and repeated 3 times per week for 3 months. The exercise intensity was 50-60% of heart rate reserve (according to Karvonen formula). Two exercise stages were performed; the first stage include 30 minute of physical activity program and the second stage include 30 minute of treadmill exercise. Blood sample were collected before and after exercise to examine its effect on the level of melatonin hormone and apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocyte. RESULTS: This study showed significant increment in the level of melatonin hormone and the percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis after exercise in comparison to pre exercise values for each week along the period of the test (P < 0.05). Three months exercise showed a significant correlation with the levels of melatonin hormone (P= 0.008, r= 0.44), and with percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis (P = 0.001, r= 0.701). CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that moderate exercise for three months was associated with increased percentage of periphral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and increased level of melatonin hormone in the first two months while in the third month this anti aging hormone had reached a steady state after the subjects get trained to exercise


Article
Effects of Exhaustive Exercise on Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

Authors: Israa F. Ja'afar اسراء فائق --- Balsam F. Abid بلسم فاروق
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 / 24108057 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 1 Pages: 84-88
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Acute exercise stress is associated with a lower lymphocyte functional response. It is suggested that exercise can enhance or reduce immunity depending on the frequency, duration, and intensity of the exercise.Subjects and Methods: From November 2007 to January 2008, thirty healthy Volunteers were recruited from medical, paramedical staffs, and students of Baghdad College of Medicine (all males). Participants were chosen according to the following: (1)Age (between 20 and 35 years), (2) Non obese : Body mass index (BMI in kg/m2) was used as an index of obesity, (3) Non-smoker, (4) No recent medical problem, (5) No recent medications, and (6) No musculoskeletal complaint. After a general medical checkup, the thirty subjects were subjected to the exercise protocol. Blood samples were taken before, and immediately after the end of exercise. Results: The mean age of individuals enrolled in the study was 29 ± 4years. Exercise induced significant granulocytosis whereas lymphocytes declined to a level significantly below the baseline. Trypan blue exclusion test showed that the initial percentage of nonviable lymphocytes was 2.90% ± 0.2%. After exhaustive exercise, cell viability decreased where percentage of nonviable cells was 4.3% ± 0.3% (p<0.005). Early apoptotic lymphocytes showed membrane blebbing and did not take the dye, while dead cells appeared blue from dye uptake. MDA was 3.0 ± 0.23 nmol/ml. An increment in the mean value of MDA was observed in the post exercise blood sample that was withdrawn immediately after exercise (p<0.005).Conclusion: The present study shows that exhaustive exercise induces apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes manifested by increased level of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. This finding supports the hypothesis that apoptosis could be involved in exercise-induced lymphocytopenia and this effect depends on exercise intensity. Keywords: Apoptosis, Exercise, MDA, lymphocyte.

Keywords

Apoptosis --- Exercise --- MDA --- lymphocyte.

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