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Article
Arbitrariness As Seen By Arab and English Linguists

Author: Jassim Mohammed Rayhan
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 22 Pages: 303-310
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

language is both individual and social process .It is individual in the sense that it expresses one’s thoughts and feelings .It is also social since its use demands , in most cases, a speaker and a listener. A pre-requisite for communication is existence of common ground on which the users of the language should agree.At present, Linguists realize that what is true of one language is not necessarily true of another .Thus each language is studied according to its logic. In other words, languages follow no universal logic. Each language provides an intricate system of symbols that dissects nature in its own way. It is found that every nation has satisfied in using its language as far as it achieves the individuals needs. Though languages have been found to be basically arbitrary. They are not based on logic as in the case of mathematical concept. It is hard to explain why this object or concept is given a certain name. Also if there are certain justifiable natural forms in every language , they cannot be regarded more than exceptions. Therefore, arbitrariness is the dominant Property of language and these exceptions support and reinforce that domination.

Keywords

Linguists --- arbitrriness --- arab --- lnguage --- logic --- written language


Article
The Impact of Using Role Play Techniques on Improving Pupils' Speaking Skill for Primary School
أثر استخدام التقنيات اللعب الحديثة في تحسين أداء التلاميذ

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Abstract

The current study aims at investigating the impact of using role -play on improving students' speaking ability for the primary school. The study is restricted to sixth grade female pupils in the primary schools in Babylon City during the second term of the academic year 2011–2012.The population consists of (160) Iraqi EFL students distributed over two sections A and B. Sixty students are chosen randomly to represent the main study sample and other twenty students represent the pilot administration. To achieve the aim of the study, two tests are constructed. The total number of items of the first test which represents written test is (10). While, the second test represents oral test. From the analysis of the data, it is found that the mean of post- scores of the experimental group is (57.7333), which is higher than the mean scores of the control group that is found to be (48.1000). This indicates that students’ achievement in the experimental group is better than that of the control group, which shows that role –play technique is more useful for them in teaching speaking skill than the lecture method teaching


Article
The Impact of Using Classroom Interaction on Teaching English Grammar for First Year Iraqi EFL University Learners
تأثير طريق التفاعل الصفي في تعليم قواعد اللغة الإنكليزية للسنة الأولى في الجامعات العراقية للمتعلمين EFL

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Abstract

To verify the hypotheses , an experiment was designed whereby two groups, the experimental and control, each consisted of (20) students, who had been chosen randomly from the first stage in the Department of English , College of Basic Education, University of Babylon. Both groups were matched in terms of their age and the level of subjects' achievement in syntax in the first course of the academic year (2008-2009). The experimental and the control groups were subjected to a pre and post tests. The test results indicate that there is a significant between the two groups in favor of the experimental group.

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