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Article
Evaluation of Dental Caries Prevalence among Kindergartens’ Children in Mosul City Center

Author: Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2009 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 120-130
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This study aims to determine dental caries prevalence and pattern in preschool children in Mosul City Center, and to evaluate caries according to d1–d3 criteria, which have not been widely adopted for caries diagnosis in the primary dentition. Materials and Methods: Examination was conducted on 762 preschool children aged 4–5 years old selected randomly from 20 kindergartens in Mosul City Center fromdifferent socioeconomic and education levels. Caries was recorded in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index, and the d1–d3 scale. The criteria for caries diagnosis included non–cavitated (d1 and d2)lesions and cavitated (d3) lesions.Results: Dental caries was recorded to be high (mean dmft for the total sample= 6.82), with only 16.87% of children were caries free. Distribution of caries (dt component) was slightly higher in the upper arch and the left side, with the second molars were recorded to be the most affectedand the canines to be the least. The d1–d3 criteria of caries for the total sample clearly showed that d2 lesions were the most common (47.24%), followed by d3 and d1 lesions (33.33% and 19.43% espectively).Conclusions: The high rate of dental caries recorded in this study for this young age has strongly emphasized the necessity of community–based preventive programs and professional care that should begin in the early childhood life. Also, the benefits of d1–d3 diagnostic criteria cannot be neglected


Article
Evaluation of the Sequelae of Untreated Dental Caries Using PUFA Index

Author: Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 101-110
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To evaluate (PUFA/pufa) index in assessing the prevalence and severity of oral conditions relat-ed to untreated caries in a group of primary school pupils in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: Dental examination was conducted on 756 school pupils aged 7–12 years old, divided into 3 groups according to age; 7–8, 9–10, and 11–12 years old. Caries was recorded in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth for both primary teeth (dmft) and permanent teeth (DMFT). The PUFA/pufa index was also recorded for both dentitions regarding the presence of severely decayed teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f) and abscess (A/a). Results: Caries experience in the primary dentition was found to be 6.33, 4.75, 1.00, and 4.43 for the three age groups as well as the total sample, respectively. While for the permanent dentition, it was 0.59, 1.18, 3.67, and 1.58, respectively. The PUFA/pufa index recorded the following values for each age group as well as the total sample for permanent and primary teeth respectively; 0.03/2.35, 0/1.66, 0.42/0.58, and 0.12/1.66. The main component in this index for all age groups, and both denti-tions was found to be pulpal involvement. Conclusion: The PUFA index should be seen as a comple-mentary to the current caries assessment index (DMF), with relevant information for epidemiologists and health care planners.


Article
Topical fluoride gel application: When and to whom starts therapy?

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Karam H JAZRAWI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-42
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study aims at investigating the scope of topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel effect on initial carious lesions, evaluating the effect of the gel on newly erupted teeth, as well as on the low-, moderate, and high-risk School children.A sample of (340) school children [177 (52.06%) males and 163 (47.94%) females]initially in the fourth grade (aged 9-11 years) were collected from (4) Primary schools in Mosul city center, The children were allocated randomly to one experimental group (received topical APF gel) and one control group (did not receive any fluoride therapy).The dental examinations were done using DMFT index: one before fluoride application and the other after one year. It can be observed from this study that the topical APF gel is effective on initial lesions. Moreover, the efficacy of the gel on the newly erupted teeth, including chose teeth erupted during the study, is found to be greater than on the previously erupted ones. The results also reveal that the high - risk groups are the most benefitted from the fluoride treatment than the moderate- and low-risk groups. The percentages of caries reduction were (96.700%), (74.880%), and (36.071%) for the three groups, respectively.So, the use of such a fluoride therapy as a school-based programme is advised for all children with evidence of dental caries, and is recommended to be planned to match the pattern of eruption of teeth.


Article
Caries-preventive effect of topical APF gel with three different frequencies of application in 9-11 years old school children in Ninevah

Authors: Karam H JAZRAWI --- Tarik Y KHAMRCO
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S201-S214
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This is the first study carried out in Iraq that aimed at evaluating the effect on dental caries of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) gel applied topically with different frequencies (once per year vs. twice per year vs. four times a year).A sample of (235) school children [116 (49.36%) males and 119 (50.64%) females) initially in the fourth grade (aged 9-11 years) were collected from (4) primary schools in Mosul city Centre. The children were allocated randomly to (3) experimental groups and one control group. The first group received (0.49%) APF gel four times a year for (4) minutes. The second group received (0.4%) APF gel once per year for (4) minutes; whereas the third group received (0.4%) APF gel twice per year for (4) minutes.Two examinations were done using DMFT and DMIFS indices: one before fluoride application and the other after one year.The results showed a reduction in dental caries (with respect to DMFT index, and in comparison with the control group) of (112.8%) for the first group,(35.9%) for the second group, and (80.4%) regarding the third group. With respect to DMFS index, and in comparison with the control group, the reduction in dental caries was (97.3%),(32.8%), and (72.6%), respectively.The best benefit from using topically applied APF gel was, therefore, achieved from applying (0.4%) gel four times a year for (4) minutes.


Article
Dental health knowledge, attitude and behavior among first year university students, Mosul.

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab --- Karam H Jazrawi --- Saher S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 138-152
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the level of oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior among first yearuniversity students in Mosul city, to compare this level among different Colleges also between malesand females. Then the obtained results were compared with those of other studies carried out on similarage groups in other countries, to see if there was any significant difference between them. Materialsand Methods: Nine Colleges were randomly selected from Mosul University, from each College afifty random sample was selected to complete the questionnaires in the classroom. The questionnaires’language was in Arabic included a number of questions related to oral health knowledge, attitude andbehavior. Incomplete questionnaires were neglected. The size of the sample was 425 students, 216males and 209 females. Statistical analysis included calculation of frequency, percentage of answers,and chi-square test. Results: Most of the students (93.2%) brushed their teeth and the majority of them(54.8%) engaged in once daily brushing, less than half of them (48.7%) using other means of teethcleansing aids. A large percent of them had no ideas about the causes of dental caries (75.5%), and howto avoid it (76%). Their knowledge was poor regarding the age at which the primary and permanentteeth erupted( 23.8%, 22.8%) and completed (18.6%, 27.3%). More than half of the students (54.6%)had gingival bleeding but they didn’t know the cause of the bleeding (75.1%) and how to avoid it(75.5%). Most of them like eating sweets (82.1%). Small percent (22.4%) knew what is fluoride and itsbenefit in reducing dental caries (17.9%). Regarding sex differences, females’ answers were in generalbetter than those for males. Conclusion: College students seemed to have appropriate knowledge andbehavior on some oral health topics but these were limited on the others. Health education needs to bedone at universities for enhancing their knowledge attitude and behaviors

Keywords

Knowledge --- attitude --- behavior --- students.


Article
Evaluation of Dental Caries Prevalence among Children in Mosul City Center Using Significant Caries Index

Authors: Karam H Jazrawi --- Ghada D Al-Sayagh --- Saher S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 191-197
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims of the study: To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries among children aged 9-10 years in Mo-sul City Center and to compare between traditional index and significant caries index of these students. Materials and Methods: The study sample was obtained from third and fourth class students from eight randomly selected primary schools in Mosul City Center. Sample size was 363 students, 225 fe-males and 138 males. Students' ages were 9 and 10 years. All primary and permanent teeth were ex-amined for the presence of decay, missing or filling teeth/surfaces. Mean DMFT, DMFS, dmft and dmfs were calculated for the students together and separately for each sex. The mean Significant Caries Index (SiC) was also calculated as the mean DMFT and DMFS of the one third of the students with the highest caries scores. Results: The SiC index was significantly higher in all comparisons with tradi-tional DMF index (p < 0.000). A comparison between the two indices indicated that there is a large children subgroup presented with a high caries rate. Conclusions: The mean DMF values did not accu-rately reflect the skewed distribution of dental caries leading to incorrect conclusions that the caries rate of the statewide population is under control. It is better to use SiC index instead of the traditional index.


Article
A clinical study of the anti–caries effect of 1.23% and 0.4% APF fluoride gel on primary dentition: One year follow–up

Authors: Tarik Y Khamrco --- Layla A Makani --- Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 186-193
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims: To determine the efficacy of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel in reducing cariesincrement in a group of pre–school children in Mosul City, and to compare between the anti–carieseffect of two different concentrations (full strength–1.23% and half strength–0.4%) after one year ofbi–annual application of the gel. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 363 kindergartenchildren [192 (52.89%) males and 171 (47.11%) females] aged 4 years –at the initial examination–from 10 randomly selected kindergartens in Mosul City Center. The sample was divided into twoexperimental groups and one control group. Children in the first group received bi–annual applicationof full strength (1.23%) APF gel; those in the second group received bi–annual application of halfstrength (0.4%) APF gel, whereas those in the third group did not receive any fluoride treatment.Dental examinations were done according to WHO criteria using dmft and dmfs indices: One beforefluoride application and the other after one year. Results: A significant reduction in dental cariesincrement of the two experimental groups compared with the control group regarding dmft and dmfsindices. The percentage of caries reduction regarding dmft and dmfs indices were 97.25% and 101.15%for the first group, and 95.94% and 85.33% for the second group, respectively. However, thedifferences between the two concentrations were statistically not significant, although children in thefirst group who received the full strength fluoride application revealed slightly better reduction incaries increment than those in the second group who received the half strength fluoride application.Therefore, to decrease the risk of ingesting a highly concentrated fluoride gel, the use of the lowerconcentration APF gel is recommended. Conclusion: The use of such a program involvingprofessional APF gel application for pre–school children is advised especially for those with evidenceof dental caries.


Article
Association Between Weight and Height of Children and Eruption of Permanent Teeth in Mosul City Center-Iraq

Authors: Ghada Dh Al–Sayagh --- Aisha A Qasim --- Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 275-281
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims: To evaluate the effect of length and weight of 5–13 years old children on eruption of permanent teeth in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 894 children and teenagers; 412 males and 482 females ranging in age from 5–13 years. A tooth was defined as erupted when any part of its crown pierced its gingiva. The sample was divided into 4 age groups: Group 1: 250 child and teenager aged 5–<7 years; group 2: 248 child and teenager aged 7–<9 years; group 3: 257 child and teenager aged 9–<11 years; and group 4: 139 child and teenager aged 11–13 years. Other information were also recorded including length of child (in meters) and weight of child (in kilograms). Results: The number of erupted teeth according to individual tooth, gender and age groups was recorded. There was a strong correlation (p = 0.001) between length and weight of children on one hand and number of erupted teeth on the other hand. Conclusion: Children who had higher weight and length accelerated dental development.


Article
Dental caries changes between(1989) and(2001) in children aged(3-14) years in KasaFakhra and Al-Shamsiat villages,Ninevah Governorate, Iraq

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Layla A MAKANI --- Karam H JAZRAWI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 269-278
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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This study was designed to assess the trend of dental caries among children aged(3-14) years in KasaFakhira and Al-Shamsiat rural areas and compare the results with those obtained from the first study that conducted (12) years ago.The study comprised(255) chili aged(3-14) years, 117 (45.88%) males and 138 (54.12%) females.The sample was divided into four age groups (3-5),(6-8),(9-11) and (12-14) years. The numbers of children for each group were (31,62, 92 and 70) respectively. Clinical examination was carried out in the village school in good natural daylight using plane mouth mirror and sickle-shaped caries explorer. The index used was based on the WHO criteria and examination was done for both primary and permanent teeth.The results indicated that the mean DMFT for children aged (6-12) years regarding the total sample was (1.55), whereas the previous study recorded (3.06). The general mean for boys in this study (1.54) was nearly similar to the girls (1.56), while the boys in the previous study recorded a lower meanthan girls (2.44) and (3.52), respectively.Through the results, it could be noted that the mean dmft for primary teeth was (1.96) regarding the age group (3-5) years, increased with increase age to (2.43) for the age group (6-8) years,and decreased due to normal shedding of primary teeth and eruption of permanent teeth to (1.27) and (0.59) regarding age groups (9-11) and (12-14) years, respectively. All these means were lower than those in the previous study which were (3.7), (4.5), (2.6) and (0.9) respectively. The boys recorded lower mean of dental caries than girls (1.35) and (1.85) respectively. The results,therefore,confirmed that the trend of dental caries for this young age group was decreased gradually throughout this period (1989-2001) due to the sharp decrease in the quantity of sugar consumed in the previous years because of the unfair embargo on Iraq. This lowered percentage of dental caries could be maintained so and further decreased in the future.


Article
A comparative double–blind study among two universal systems of classification of impacted lower wisdom tooth and duration of surgery

Authors: Mohammad S Sulieman --- Wa’el T Al–Wattar --- Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 42-47
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aim: To estimate the importance of time in determining the difficulty of surgical removal of impactedthird molars. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medically fit patients were selected with an agerange between 18–25 years of both sexes. These patients had vertically impacted lower third molarsand indicated for surgical extraction. The diagnosis of third molar impaction was based on clinical andstandard intraoral periapical radiographs. A double–blind approach was adopted whereby tworesearchers carried out a classification of the operation based on expected time of surgery and the thirdresearcher performed the surgery. The classification of the impaction was performed pre–operativelyaccording to Pell–Gregory classification, then the operation was performed following the standardprocedure for this type of surgery. Following extraction, surgical difficulty was rated according toGarcia et al. classification and operation time from the incision till suturing of the flap. Results:Comparison among the three classification systems was performed and the results indicated nosignificant difference among the three classifications regarding simple and moderate operations, butonly a significant difference was recorded for the difficult operations. Conclusion: This study,however, revealed the importance of time in assessing the difficulty of such operations and this, in turn,will help surgeons in scheduling the treatment plan and taking the necessary precautions when dealingwith difficult operations

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