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Innocence When Dooms tht Idealist Man in Melville's Billy Budd

المؤلف: Instructor : Luma Ibrahim Al-Barznji
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Al-Fatih journal مجلة الفتح ISSN: 87521996 السنة: 2008 المجلد: 4 الاصدار: 33 الصفحات: 52-67
الجامعة: Diyala University جامعة ديالى - جامعة ديالى

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الخلاصة

Innocence sometimes reaches the points of naïveté as it stands against evil and depravity but at another time this innocence may lead to one's doom if it lacks wisdom . It finds its counterpart in the hatred and malice that some people are disguised with . The conflict here is also which law society has to apply ; man-made law or natural law for both laws put man in an inevitable way under , sometimes , unjust punishment.
In Billy Budd , men who confront the law and men who confront evil suffer similar consequences suggesting the dark view that evil and law are closely connected .
The story has clear references with the circumstances of Jesus Christ and his sacrifice , his innocent spirit , and his unjust execution though critics remain sharply divided over whether Billy Budd's religious imagery represents Melville's embrace of religion or harsh critique of it .
This paper is divided into two chapters . The first section of chapter one tackles the insecure Melville and some important spot lights of his background , while section two deals with the treatment of Billy Budd from Christian point of view . The second chapter is also divided into two sections ; the first deals with Billy Budd socially and logically , while section two is conclusions

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مقالة
Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World :Ignorance and Failure toRecognize the Purpose of the Human Spirit

المؤلفون: Lamiaa Ahmed Rasheed --- Luma Ibrahim Al-Barznji
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Al-Fatih journal مجلة الفتح ISSN: 87521996 السنة: 2008 المجلد: 4 الاصدار: 35 الصفحات: 139-149
الجامعة: Diyala University جامعة ديالى - جامعة ديالى

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الخلاصة

Brave New World is a dystopian novel by Aldous Huxley(1894-1963) , first published in 1932 . Set in London in "the year" 2540 . The novel anticipates developments in reproductive technology , biological engineering , and sleep-learning that combine to change society . People all around the world are part of a totalitarian state , free from war , hatred , poverty , disease , and pain . They enjoy leisure time , material wealth , and physical pleasure .In it , the author questions the value of 1931 London using satire and irony to portray a futuristic world in which many of the contemporary trends in British and American societies have been taken to extremes .
Actually , Huxley meant to write a satirical and fictional novel , but it turned out to be a scientific prophecy . He wanted to warn the former (his contemporary) society of the danger of scientific progress , or progress in general . The danger occurs when the weapons , media and industry , science and technology play a crucial role . The main thrust of science and technology thus has served oppressors and hindered the expansion of peace and freedom .
Huxley’s analysis of society and science can be traced back to one guiding principle that was taken from the famous historian Lord Acton (1834-1902) and his writing about the corruption of power : that power is corrupting and absolute power corrupts absolutely . If power is corrupting , then all technologies and social arrangements that allow concentrations of power should be resisted . The abuse of power and violence are the surest way to reach corruption in which mass production depends on them mainly in Huxley’s novel .Thus, he believes that nonviolence is the only hopeful way .

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