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Article
Esterification of Free Fatty Acid with High Chain Alcohol for Biodiesel Production Using Semi-Batch Reactive Distillation

Authors: Wadood T. Mohammed --- Marwa F. Abdul Jabbar
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 11-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The esterification of oleic acid with 2-ethylhexanol in presence of sulfuric acid as homogeneous catalyst was investigated in this work to produce 2-ethylhexyl oleate (biodiesel) by using semi batch reactive distillation. The effect of reaction temperature (100 to 130°C), 2-ethylhexanol:oleic acid molar ratio (1:1 to 1:3) and catalysts concentration (0.2 to 1wt%) were studied. Higher conversion of 97% was achieved with operating conditions of reaction temperature of 130°C, molar ratio of free fatty acid to alcohol of 1:2 and catalyst concentration of 1wt%. A simulation was adopted from basic principles of the reactive distillation using MATLAB to describe the process. Good agreement was achieved.


Article
Mechanical Degradation Of High Molecular Weight Polymer With Surfactant Addition In Arotating Disk Apparatus TUS

Authors: Hala S. Al-shifee --- Marwa F. Abdul-Jabbar --- Haidar M. Al-Qamaje --- Izzat N. Slaiman
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 1143-1151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTARCTMechanical degradation hampers the practical usage of polymers for turbulent drag reduction application. Mechanical degradation refers to the chemical process in which the activation energy of polymer chain scission is exceeded by mechanical action on the polymer chain, and bond rupture occurs. When a water-soluble polymer and surfactant are mixed in water solution, the specific structures (aggregates) are formed, in which polymer film is formed around micelle. In this work, Xanthan gum (XG) – Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SELS) complex formation and its effect on percentage viscosity reduction (%VR) was studied. It was found that SELS surfactant reduced the mechanical degradation of XG much more efficiently than this polymer alone. Xanthan Gum (XG) has been tested for its shear stability and degradability. 0.5% and 1.0 % by weight concentration solutions were exposed to shear stirring at different speeds and time; also 0.5% through 1.5% by weight concentration solutions of SELS were added to XG solutions to determine the ability of SELS to reduce the mechanical degradation of XG. It has been noticed by measuring the percentage viscosity reduction (%VR) of the mixture of XG-SELS that the % VR decreases when added this surfactant to XG polymer.

يحد الانحلال الميكانيكي للسلاسل البوليمرية من الاستخدامات العملية في تطبيقات تقليل الاعاقة في الجريان المضطرب. كما أن الانحلال الميكانيكي يعمل على تقليل الطاقة الموجودة في سلاسل البوليمر الطويلة عن طريق تكسير وتحطيم هذه السلاسل. أن إضافة المواد النشطة سطحيا إلى محاليل البوليمر في وسط مائي يعمل على تكوين جزيئات تسمى التجمعات أو (الاركيت) بحيث أن سلاسل البوليمر تحيط بجزيئات المواد النشطة سطحيا المسماة بالمذيلات في هذه التجمعات أو (الاركيت) وان هذه التجمعات أو (الاركيت) هي التي تعمل على تقليل الاعاقة أو تقليل الانحلال الميكانيكي في الجريان المضطرب. في هذا البحث تم حساب تأثير إضافة المواد النشطة سطحيا المسمى (صوديوم ليورال أيثر سلفيت) على بوليمر (صمغ الزانثان) عن طريق حساب النسبة المئوية لنقصان اللزوجة, حيث تم استخدام تركيزيين من بوليمر (صمغ الزانثان) وهما 0,5 و 1 نسبة وزنيه ومعاملتهما مع تركيزيين آخرين من المواد النشطة سطحيا وهما 0,5 و 1,5 نسبة وزنيه لمعرفة مدى تأثير المواد النشطة سطحيا على تقليل الانحلال الميكانيكي للبوليمر (صمغ الزانثان) , فقد تم ملاحظة أن إضافة المواد النشطة سطحيا يعمل على تقليل الانحلال الميكانيكي للبوليمر المستخدم.


Article
Preparation and characterization of magnetic nickel nanoparticles by chemical reduction reaction

Authors: Saad H. Ammar د. سعد حنش عمار --- Natheer Nori Ismail --- Marwa F. Abdul Jabbar
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 21 Pages: E87-E100
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

The efficiency of many of conversion-processes in petroleum and industrial improves upon application of materials with the nanosized scale dimension, which is caused by enhancements and advances of improved properties as the particle size decreases. Nickel nanoparticles has numerous applications in petroleum industry with its own catalytic in additional to the magnetic properties. In this study, high purity nanosized magnetic nickel particles has been effectively prepared by chemical reduction of nickel chloride using hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent in aqueous solutions containing ethylene glycol and water and using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as anti-agglomeration agent. Nanosized Ni particles samples with different hydrazine to nickel chloride mole ratios and PVP to nickel chloride ratios were obtained at constant temperature of 80 °C. The morphology and structural properties of the produced magnetic nickel nanoparticles were characterized by powder XRD and AFM methods. XRD study revealed that the prepared nanoparticles were pure nickel nanoparticles without considerable oxides or other impurity phases. AFM test revealed that all prepared Ni nanoparticles was in nano scale, it was stated that Ni nanoparticles size was very affected by the hydrazine/nickel mole ratio. Experimental results showed that particle size decreases from 94.35 nm to 71.48 nm when increases the [N2H4]/[Ni2+] molar ratio from 15:1 to 45:1.

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