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Article
Oral hygiene and gingival health status among teenagers population lived in Al–Rashidiya, Ninevah

Author: May Gh Al–Ajrab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 121-126
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the oral hygiene andgingival health among teenagers aged 13 to 16 years old livingin Al–Rashidiya in Mosul City.The sample consisted of 633 students (345 males and288 females) examined in their schools using plane mirrorsand periodontal probes. Plaque index by Silness and Löe(1964) and gingival index by Löe and Silness (1963) were usedfor detecting plaque and gingival scores respectively.The results showed that 31.9% and 31.3% of the samplebrush their teeth for males and females respectively while25.1% and 11.7% of students did not. A very highly significantdifference has been found in mean plaque and gingival scoresbetween those brushed their teeth and those not in all agegroups.The study revealed that mean plaque score for total malesand females were 1.01, 1.00 for those brush their teeth and1.32, 1.46 for those not and there is no significant differenceby sex. While the mean gingival score for total males and femaleswere 1.28, 1.31 for those brush their teeth and 1.63,1.76 for those not, with no significant difference between sex.It has been obvious that mean plaque and gingival indicesincreased with increasing age of the individual.


Article
Natural fluoride Content of Drinking Water in Two District Areas in Iraq and Yemen (A comparative study).

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab --- Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-103
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine and compare the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in two district areas: Iraq and Yemen, in relation to age and sex for students aged 13–16 years old. Materials and methods: the study was conducted among 904 students of both countries. Five hundred and seventy two students from Iraq (Sinjar province): 334 males and 238 females. Three hundred and thirty two students: 173 males and 159 females, from Yemen (Thamar province); aged 13–16 years old were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary schools who had lived since birth in two different areas with concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Sinjar with high concentration (2.05–2.22 ppm), Thamar with moderate concentration (1.8–2.2 ppm) by the use of Dean index (1934) to assess dental fluorosis. Results: the study had shown that the prevalence of dental flourosis in Sinjar province was 52.1%, 63.53% within students and teeth respectively was much higher than Thamar province which was 16.99%, 30.23% within students and teeth respectively; ranging from questionable, very mild forms for all age groups, while for Thamar it was ranging from very mild to moderate with significant sex difference for individuals (females reported less prevalence than males) for both provinces for the first three degrees of flourosis at P<0.001, P< 0.05. The percent age of severity for Sinjar was much higher than Thamar province which increased significantly with increasing age at P<0.001, P<0.01,and P< 0.05. Also the distribution of severity of frequency was much higher in Sinjar than Thamar with highest percentage in upper and lower posterior teeth (75%, 72%) at P<0.001. The community flourosis index for Sinjar was 1.62 (moderate) while for Thamar province was 3.05 for these age groups (very marked). Conclusions: prevalence of dental flourosis increased infrequently with age in Sinjar while systematically in Thamar with sex difference (females reported less percentage than males).


Article
Naturally fluoride contained of drinking water and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Ninevah Governorate, Iraq

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- May GH AL-AJRAB
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 7-19
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in a group of school students lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Ninevah Governorate.The study was conducted among (1724) school's students aged (11-16) years from randomly selected schools (primary and intermediate) in two provinces in Ninevah Governorate. Eight hundred and thirteen students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province) (2.05-2.22 ppm) and (911) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province) (0.11-0.19 ppm).Dean index has been used to assess the dental fluorosis. The results show that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Sinjar province is (97.3%) within individual and (62.9%) within teeth, ranging from very mild to mild form of dental fluorosis, with no significant sex difference, but the percentage of severity has been found to be increasing with age, while the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Talkaif province was (5.5%) within individual and (1.2%) within teeth, with no significant sex difference.The community fluorosis indices for Sinjar and Talkaif provinces are (1.7 and 0.1) respectively. This difference is due to the difference in level of natural fluoride in both provinces drinking water supplies.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries (DMFT) in Iraqi children and adolescent living in areas with low and high level of natural fluoride

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- May GH AL-AJRAB
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S385-S400
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries in a group of school children lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Ninevah governorate.The study is conducted among (1724) schools students aged 11-16 years from randomly selected schools (primary and intermediate) in two provinces in Ninevah governorate.Eight hundred and thirteen students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province)(2.05-222 ppm) and (911) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province)(0.11-0.19 ppm).WHO methodology (1997) has been used to assess the dental caries status and using DMFT index for permanent teeth.The results show that in Sinjar province the mean DMFT for total samples were (1.67) and (36.2%) are caries free with no sex difference. while there is a significant age differences. On the other hand, in Talkaif province the results reveal higher DMFT (3.7) and lower percent of caries free (19.1%), The mean DMFT reported twice in Talkaif province than Sinjar province with highly significant differences between them.The percentage of reduction of dental caries has been found to be (54.3%) in Sinjar province compare to Talkaif province.


Article
Dental health knowledge, attitude and behavior among first year university students, Mosul.

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab --- Karam H Jazrawi --- Saher S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 138-152
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the level of oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior among first yearuniversity students in Mosul city, to compare this level among different Colleges also between malesand females. Then the obtained results were compared with those of other studies carried out on similarage groups in other countries, to see if there was any significant difference between them. Materialsand Methods: Nine Colleges were randomly selected from Mosul University, from each College afifty random sample was selected to complete the questionnaires in the classroom. The questionnaires’language was in Arabic included a number of questions related to oral health knowledge, attitude andbehavior. Incomplete questionnaires were neglected. The size of the sample was 425 students, 216males and 209 females. Statistical analysis included calculation of frequency, percentage of answers,and chi-square test. Results: Most of the students (93.2%) brushed their teeth and the majority of them(54.8%) engaged in once daily brushing, less than half of them (48.7%) using other means of teethcleansing aids. A large percent of them had no ideas about the causes of dental caries (75.5%), and howto avoid it (76%). Their knowledge was poor regarding the age at which the primary and permanentteeth erupted( 23.8%, 22.8%) and completed (18.6%, 27.3%). More than half of the students (54.6%)had gingival bleeding but they didn’t know the cause of the bleeding (75.1%) and how to avoid it(75.5%). Most of them like eating sweets (82.1%). Small percent (22.4%) knew what is fluoride and itsbenefit in reducing dental caries (17.9%). Regarding sex differences, females’ answers were in generalbetter than those for males. Conclusion: College students seemed to have appropriate knowledge andbehavior on some oral health topics but these were limited on the others. Health education needs to bedone at universities for enhancing their knowledge attitude and behaviors

Keywords

Knowledge --- attitude --- behavior --- students.


Article
Enamel mottling in a group of Iraqi students in a high and low fluoride community

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- May Gh AL-AJRAB --- Layla A MAKANI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 150-157
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of mottled enamel in a group of school students lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Iraq.The study was conducted among (874) school's students aged (13-16) years from randomly selected intermediate schools in two provinces in Ninevah Governorate, Tour hundred and eight students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province) (2.05-2.22 ppm fluoride) and (466) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province) (0.11-0.19 ppm fluoride). Al-Alousi index has been used to assess mottled enamel. The results show that the prevalence of mottledenamel in Sinjar province is (95.8%) within individuals and (65.3%) within teeth, with significant difference between the sex; while the prevalence of mottled enamel in Talkaif province was (18.1%) within individuals and (3.6%) within teeth, with no significant sex difference.The high percentage of mottled channel was of type "A", followed by types "B" and "E" in high fluoride area, while in low fluoride area also type "A" reported thehigh prevalence, followed by types "B" and "C".


Article
Plaque, gingival condition and brushing behaviour among school children aged (11) and (12) years in QadhaSinjar,Ninevah, Iraq

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Basman A AL-MASHHADANI --- May GH AL-AJRAB
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 184-191
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of gingivitis and oral hygiene condition in school children aged (11) and (12) years in peri-urban area (QadhaSinjar).A sample of (388) school children aged(11) and(12) years (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined using plaque index score by Silness and Loe, and gingival index by Loe and Silness. The severity of gingival inflammation and the frequency of tooth brushing were recorded. The results show that the mean plaque score for the total sample was (1.06); the girls reported less significant mean plaque score than boys. The mean gingival score was (1.45) for the total sample; also the girls reported less significant mean gingival score than boys. Three quarters of children have moderate gingivitis.The study revealed that (63.7%) of the total sample did not brush their teeth or brush infrequently. Therefore, oral health education for school children is an essential activity for promoting, establishing and maintaining optimal oral health and preventing oral diseases.

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