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Article
Anatomical Study of Axillary Artery Variation.

Authors: Mohammad O. Selman --- Thaer M. Farhan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 3 Pages: 322-325
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The axillary artery is a direct continuation of the subclavian artery. The axillary artery is usually described as giving off six branches. The first part gives superior thoracic artery. The second part gives lateral thoracic (LT) and thoracoacromial(TAC) arteries. The third part gives three, subscapular(SS), anterior circumflex humeral(ACH)and posterior circumflex humeral(PCH) arteries. Anatomical variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery are quiet common and typically include the subscapular artery(SS), lateral thoracic artery(LT) and the posterior circumflex humeral artery(PCH). The variation of the axillary artery branching pattern has anatomical as well as clinical and surgical relevance given the proximity to the shoulder joint and humerus.
Patients & Method: Bilateral axilla dissection was conducted on 26 embalmed axillae (13 cadavers) to allow examination of the axillary artery and its branches. The study was carried out in Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medicine.
Results: The classical branching pattern of the LT originating from the axillary artery posterior to the pectoralis minor muscle and the SS producing the circumflex scapular (CS) artery and thoracodorsal(TD) occurred in 77%. The SS was observed originating from the LT 7% of the time. The LT was observed originating from the SS 5% of the time. The LT was observed producing the circumflex scapular artery and TD in the absence of SS 2.5% of the time. The PCH originated from four different sources, from the third part of axillary artery as is classically described in 77%. From the SS 11%. From deep brachial artery DB 9% and from LT 2%.
Conclusion: Vascular variation in the axillary artery and its branches is quiet common , This variation should be considered seriously as will implicate risk of bleeding during surgery in the axilla and also the difficulty in interpretation of the angiography after axillary catheterization .


Article
METRIC STUDY ON DEPTH OF THE SIGMOID SINUS PLATE IN RELATION TO SUPRAMEATAL (MACEWEN'S) TRIANGLE

Author: Mohammad O. Selman محمد عودة سلمان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-91
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: The lateral wall of the mastoid antrum, which offers the usual surgical approach to the tympanic cavity, is formed by the postmeatal process of the squamous part of the temporal bone. Since the suprameatal triangle covers the lateral wall of the mastoid air system, it is of importance to otologic surgeons during mastoidectomy.Objectives: To examine the relationships of the surgical landmarks on the lateral surface of the mastoid bone with the landmarks in a deeper location. Morphometric measurements were performed between the surgical landmarks (Macewen's triangle) and the sigmoid sinus plate.Methods: 30 dry human adult skulls were investigated. Three marks were allocated on the left and right sides of the norma lateralis of these skulls namely the tip of the mastoid process, the asterion, and the region of the suprameatal triangle (posterior border).Results: The measurements of (D1+D2), (D1+D3) and (D2+D3) showed statistical significant differences. The correlations of D1, D2 and D3 on the right and left sides showed statistical significant differencesConclusion: The assessment of the depth of sigmoid sinus plate may be used as a mark that possibly point toward avoidance of the bleeding possibility during mastoidectomy. The suprameatal approach eliminates the need for mastoidectomy and avoids the damage of sigmoid sinus plate. If the depth can be assessed by measuring D1 and D2 on lateral X-rays of the heads as this study prove that we can avoid the dangerous complications which occur in the normal mastoidectomy. Keywords: Suprameatal triangle, mastoidectomy


Article
POLYTHELIA: ANATOMIC AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
تعدد الحلمات: مضامين تشريحيه وسريريه

Author: Mohammad O. Selman محمد عودة سلمان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2010 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 53-56
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Polythelia or supernumerary nipple (also called third or accessory nipple) is an additional nipple occurring in mammals including humans. These additional nipples develop during embryonic life as part of abnormal development of mammary glands.Objectives: To describe the polythelia and it’s most frequent locations also to give a perspective of polythelia in a series of observations. And lastly to asses if there is any genetic inheritance present.Methods: Forty three cases of polythelia were collected from attendants of general practice clinic in Baghdad. The polythelia was observed during routine physical examination, which included examination of the chest and abdomen.Results: From 43 cases of polythelia, males constituted 23 (53.5%) of cases. Regarding the anatomical location of polythelia, 2(4.65%)were on the anterior axillary fold, 28(65.1%)on the anterior thoracic wall, 12(27.9%) on the anterior abdominal wall and one (2.3%) was in the inguinal region. Only five cases (11.6%)had family history of previous similar conditions.Conclusion: Polythelia is a fairly common abnormality. Men and women may have extra nipple, but no significant difference was detected that can be related to gender difference. Nevertheless presence of extra nipples was sometimes linked to heart disease, no such relationship was noticed. All cases in this study had their polythelia along the milk line. Nevertheless, there had been reports on polythelia presenting as far away as the foot. Keywords: polythelia, mammary gland, Supernumerary nipple.

خلفية الدراسة: ظاهرة تعدد الحلمات تشمل حلمة إضافية عند اللبائن , وتظهر هذه الحلمات الإضافية في الطور الجنيني من الحياة , وكجزء من النمو غير الطبيعي للغدة اللبنية .هدف الدراسة: لشرح حالة تعدد الحلمات والاحتماليه الاكثر لمواقعها لاعطاء وذلك بعمل تحري استباقي لهذه الحالات في سلسله من الملاحظات. واذا ماوجدت اي وراثه جينيه للحاله.طريقة الدراسة: تم جمع 43 حاله من تعدد الحلمات .وقد جمعت من رواد عياده طبيه خاصه لممارس عام في بغداد. وقد لوحظت حالات تعدد الحلمات اثناء الفحص الفيزياوي الروتيني المتضمن فحص الصدر والبطن.النتائـج: من 43 حاله من تعدد الحلمات, الرجال يشكلون 23 (53.5%) من الحالات. فيما يتصل بالموقع التشريحي لتعدد الحلمات, و2 (4.65 %) حاله تقع على الطيه الابطيه الاماميه, 28 (65.1%) حاله تقع على الجدار الصدري الامامي . 12 (27.9 %) حاله تقع على الجدار البطني الامامي, وحاله واحده ( 2.3 %) تقع في النطقه المغبنيه. هناك فقط 5 حالات (11.6 %) تملك تأريخ عائلي من الحالات المشابهه السابقه. الاستنتاج: تعدد الحلمات شذوذ مألوف بشكل واضح . الرجال والنساء ربما لديهم حلمات اضافيه ولكن لم يُكتشف فرق ذو اهميه يعود الى الاختلاف الجنسي. بالرغم من ان وجود تعدد الحلمات في بعض الاحيان يربط الى امراض في القلب لكن لم تلاحظ هذه العلاقه. كل الحالات في هذه الدراسه لتعدد الحلمات وقعت على طول خط الحليب. بالرغم من ان وجود حلمات اضافيه قد سجلت في القدم .


Article
A New Sperm Preparation Technique by Glass Wool Filtration Combined with Pentoxifylline Techniques versus Glass Wool Filtration alone for Infertile and Fertile Men

Authors: Ali A. Kadhim --- Hayder A. L. Mossa --- Mohammad O. Selman
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2017 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 28-36
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The procedures of assisted reproductive technologies have been developed during recent years and have been revealed the need for new suitable and effective techniques of sperm treatment in the laboratory.


Article
Analysis of Amino Acids of the Brain in Embryo and Adult of Quail

Authors: Asmaa B. Abed --- Nahla A. Al-Bakri --- Mohammad O. Selman
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Amino acids have the role in the process of proteins synthesis. They are an essentialsource of nitrogen atoms that have a role in the pathways of synthetic reaction pathways.The carbon skeletons of the amino acids are the source of energy in addition to their roleas precursors in the paths of interactions.The amino acids analysis for the brain of the quail bird in different stage of development(10-16 days of incubation) in addition to the hatching stage (17th day)and the adult.

Keywords

Amino acids analysis --- brain --- quail --- embryo --- adult


Article
Evaluation of Anti-sperm Antibodies in Relevance to Testosterone Levels in Serum and Seminal Plasma in Infertile Men

Authors: Mohammad O. Selman --- Hayder A. L. Mossa --- Maryam H. Khaleefah
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-28
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Immunological infertility is expected to be the reason of infertilityin 9-36% of the concerned twosomes. The major cause of immunologicalinfertility is the creation of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA), which influence thecapability of insemination of spermatozoa. It has been detected that anti-spermantibodies (ASA) are present either systemically in blood or locally in seminalplasma of approximately 10% of infertile male patients. Immunity to sperm cancause infertility; humoral antibodies directed against sperm did not necessarilyimpair fertility unless the circulating antibodies are also present within the reproductivetract and on the living sperm surface. Hormonal imbalance and spermautoimmunity have been considered as two systems that play in near associationand affect each other. Testosterone is the Steroid hormone necessary for the developmentand maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics as well as initiationand maintenance of Spermatogenesis .It was known that males with abnormalseminal fluids have lower concentrations of the testosterone hormone.Objectives: To study the serum & seminal plasma antisperm antibodies levels in relevance tolevels of testosterone in serum and seminal plasma accordingly to sperm function parametersin different groups of infertile patients.Subjects,Materials and Methods: Blood and semen samples were collected from (80) subjects(60) infertile patients (20Asthenozoospermic, 20 Oligozoospermic,20Azoospermic) and 20Normozoospermic subjects .The anti-sperm antibody and testosterone levels were measuredby using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).Results: The Antisperm antibodies were positive in serum of normozoospermic, asthenozoospermic,oligozoospermic and azoospermic men respectively are about 10%, 5%, 20%,5%and in the total group was 10% positive. The ASA in seminal plasma of normozoospermicmen, asthenozoospermic men, oligozoospermic men and azoospermic men respectively are0%, 0%, 5%, 5% and in the total groups 2.5%.These findings lead to no possibility to makeclear correlations with the studied hormones. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in thelevels of testosterone in serum and seminal plasma in comparison between normozoospermicand infertile men subgroups. There was significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of progesteronein serum and seminal plasma in comparison between normozoospermic men andinfertile men subgroups, the highest levels were observed in asthenozoospermic subgroup.The study showed that 10 patients (12.5%) out of 80 patients showed a positive ASA positivein serum or seminal plasma of all groups. The result was considered positive if the value was≥60 RU / ml .On these basis and regarding that screening criteria the positive ASA groupshowed the association with the low levels of testosterone in both types of the samples(serumand seminal plasma), these results was exhibited a high significant difference when comparedwith negative ASA group.Conclusion: Determination of the relevance of the levels of testosterone and anti-sperm antibodiesin the serum and seminal plasma, which in turn is important to determine the type ofinfertility especially the immunological type.


Article
The Effects of Progesterone on Mice Offspring Testis Development and Anogenital Distance Postnatally

Authors: Najat A. Mohammad --- Nahla Al-Bakri --- Mohammad O. Selman
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-54
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Analysis of human reports and comparison with results of experimentalanimals indicate that the effects of progesterone on human not analogousto experimental animals fetus, many studies showed that exposure to progesteroneduring developing of genital tract of human fetus was not teratogenic.Other studies which performed on laboratory animals found association betweenprogesterone administration during gestation and genital malformation.Objectives: to explore the effect of progesterone in 10.2mg/kg intraperitonealinjection in mice on testis development and anogenital distance.Materials and Methods: ten pregnant mice divided into five mouse controlgroup that injected10.2mg/kg sesame oil and treated group that injected progesteroneat dose 10.2mg/kg/day allover gestation to the seventh day postnatally,mice offspring sacrificed, the anogenital distance, weight and diameter of testiswere measured ,histological slides were prepared and examined for histopathologicalchange and measurement of seminiferous tubules diameter, germinalepithelium thickness and interstitial space were done .Results: the current study found anogenital distance decrement and histopathologicalchanges in mice offspring testis as hemorrhage or congestion of bloodvessels ,irregular shapes of seminiferous tubules with atrophy, detachment ofspermatogenic cells from basement membrane, death of spermatogenic cells anddestruction of Sertoli and leydig cells ,it is also showed wider interstitial tissueand thinner germinal epithelium.Conclusions: The present study indicate study that progesterone injected in miceat dose 10.2 mg/kg /day (the equivalent human dose allover gestation was embryotoxicand teratogenic, it may cause feminization of male offsprings representedby decrement the anogenital distance in mice and hypospadias in human .


Article
Relationship of Seminal plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) with LH and FSH Levels in Serum with Sperm Function Parameters in Different Groups of Infertile Men

Authors: Fahad D. Oleiwi --- Hayder A. L. Mossa --- Mohammad O. Selman
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-69
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Oxidative stress (OS) plays a vital role in human reproduction. Itrises as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) productionand/or reduced total antioxidant capacity (TAC) protection. Oxidative stress mediateddamages to the plasma membrane of the spermatozoa may account for defectivespermatozoa function parameters that are observed in a high percentageof infertile patients.Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between level of seminalplasma TAC in relevance to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulatinghormone (FSH) in serum with the assessment of routine spermatozoaparameters in different groups of infertile men.Subjects,Materials and Methods: Blood and semen samples were collected fromthe infertile and fertile subjects. The total number of samples were (80), the infertilemen were divided into three groups (azoospermic, oligozoospermic andasthenozoospermic) each with (20) sample, and (20) as fertile men. Then the levelsof serum hormones and seminal plasma TAC were measured using EnzymeLinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).Results: The results of hormonal levels in serum showed that there were highlysignificant difference (P<0.001) in the levels of FSH and LH between controlgroup and infertile groups. In this study its appear that there were a highly significant(p<0.001) difference in the level of TAC between study groups and controlgroup which were increased among normozoospermic men and decreased amonginfertile groups. The lower limit of TAC were seen in asthenozoospermic men.The results of this study also showed that there were a relationship between TACof seminal plasma and hormonal levels, it is appear that TAC are negatively correlatedwith LH and FSH.Conclusions: From the results obtained it could be concluded that; LH and FSHhave an effect on male fertility via regulation of seminal plasma TAC. On theother hand seminal plasma TAC are negatively correlated with the number of immotilespermatozoa and positively correlated with concentration, progressivelymotile and morphologically normal spermatozoa.


Article
Evaluation of Serum TNF-α in Insulin Resistant Non PCOS Pa - tients Undergoing ICSI: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Manal T. Al-Obaidi --- Mohammad O. Selman --- Manar Alhoda Z. Al-Faqheri
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 27-35
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:With the rapid evolution of assisted reproductive technologies,more and more studies are concerned about the possible influential factors onthe success rates of these procedures, with the efforts are now mainly directedtoward defining these factors in a trial to increase these rates. Of these factors,inflammation is considered among the most remarkable and is in the focus ofthe updated studies. However, most of these studies are evaluating the role ofinflammation in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) , while theimpact of this inflammation in insulin resistant non PCOS patients is underestimatedand not well evaluated .Objectives:This study is a trial to elucidate the importance of one of the inflammatorymediators , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF – α) , in insulin resistantpatients undergoing IVF ( ICSI ) cycles .Patients and Methods:A group of 27non-PCOS infertile patients were selectedfor this clinical randomized prospective study from patients attending thehigh institute for infertility diagnosis and assisted reproductive technologies /Al-Nahrain University and subjected to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)procedure. BMI was measured for all patients and they were classified accordingto WHO classification into 3 groups : Acceptable , overweight and obese . Fastingplasma level of glucose and insulin was investigated and insulin resistanceindex (HOMA) was calculated. Serum TNF-α has been measured using ELISAand the relation with insulin resistance was investigated. Finally, the pregnancyrate, as a primary reproductive endpoint was compared according to TNF -a andinsulin resistance levels between different study subjects.Results: Of the 27 infertile patients , 17(63 %) were non obese and 10 (37%)were obese , 15(55.5%) were having HOMA index < 1.6 and 12 (44.5 %) werehaving HOMA index ≥ 1.6 . BMI was found to be positively correlated with higherHOMA index ( P = 0.01 and R= 0.4 in spearman correlation). Investigating therelation between TNF-α with BMI revealed that TNF-α levels are increasing withthe increment in BMI, However , the difference in the mean TNF-α between thethree BMI groups failed to achieve statistical significance (P=0.1). In contrastto that, when stratifying for HOMA index , TNF-α was significantly correlatedwith it ( spearman correlation R= 0.4 , P=0.01 ) , and patients with HOMA index≥1.6 were found to have higher levels of TNF-α (The effect of insulin resistance was also implicated on pregnancy rates , as those with highinsulin resistance were shown to have significantly lower pregnancy rates when compared tothose with low indices of resistance (P = 0.03) . However, the impact TNF-α on pregnancyrates was apparently less significant (P= 0.5).Conclusion: Rate of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis was 32.6 % in pregnant women comparedto 73.3% in non- pregnant group, being highly significant higher in those women whofailed to get pregnant.


Article
Evaluation of Lipids in Serum and Follicular Fluid on Oocyte and Human Embryo Quality after ICSI

Authors: Mustafa H.O. Hussein --- Qays A. M. Al-Khafaji --- Mufedah Ali Jawad --- Mohammad O. Selman --- et al.
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2017 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-61
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The estimation of oocyte quality in human in vitro fertilization (IVF) is an important point for the embryologists. Oocyte selection and the identification of the best oocytes may help to limit an overproduction of embryos and to improve the results of oocyte cryopreservation programs.The follicular fluid (FF) can be provided easily during oocyte pick-up and known to represents an optimal source for non-invasive biochemical predictors of oocyte quality. However, till now no substance was found to be used as reliable markers of oocyte competence to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy.Metabolism and ATP levels within the oocyte and adjacent cumulus cells are associated with quality of oocyte and optimal development of a healthy embryo. Lipid metabolism provides a potent source of energy and its importance during oocyte maturation is being increasingly recognised.

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