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Article
Iraqi cephalometric norms using McNamara’s analysis

Author: Mohammed Nahidh
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 123-127
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study aimed to establish the cephalometric norms for Iraqis using McNamara's analysis and to verify
the existence of sexual dimorphism.
Materials and Methods: 75 dental students, (33 males and 42 females) having normal occlusion, were chosen for this
study. Each student was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral cephalometric X-ray. The
radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD program 2006 to measure the distances and angles. Descriptive statistics
was obtained for the measured variables for both genders and independent- samples t-test was performed to
evaluate the genders difference.
Results and Conclusions: The maxilla is protrusive in males in comparison with females, the effective midface and
mandibular lengths, lower facial height are significantly higher in males, and the Frankfort mandibular plane angle is
significantly higher in females. The females show retrusive mandibles with slight retrusive upper incisors in comparison
with males, while both genders show the same lower incisor position.
Key words: McNamara's analysis, cephalometric norms. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):123-127).

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Article
Nose and skeletal patterns, is there a relationship?

Author: Mohammed Nahidh
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 113-117
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length and projection with the sagittal and
vertical jaw parameters.
Material and method: One hundred digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs were selected from the files of the
patients attending the orthodontic clinic in the College of Dentistry at Baghdad University and classified according to the
ANB angle into class I and class II (50 cases for each group). Eleven skeletal and 2 nasal soft tissue parameters were
measured using AutoCAD program. Independent samples t-test was used to evaluate the genders and classes differences
and Pearson coefficient of correlation was used to show the relationship between the nasal and skeletal parameters.
Results: The results indicated that the males had longer and prominent noses in both classes. On the other hand, there was
non-significant correlation between the sagittal relation and the nasal parameters, while there was significant correlation
between the facial heights and nasal parameters.
Conclusion: The noses in males were longer and more prominent than females. The sagittal relation parameters had no
influence on the nasal parameters in contrary to the facial heights.
Key words: Nasal length, projection, skeletal relations. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):113-117)

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Article
Prediction the widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars from the widths of maxillary incisors and first molars (Iraqi study)

Author: Mohammed Nahidh
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 153-157
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to use the combined mesio-distal crowns widths of maxillary incisors and first molars aspredictors to the combined mesio-distal crowns widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars.Materials and methods: The sample included 110 Iraqi Arab subjects with an age ranged between 17-25 years andclass I skeletal and dental relations. The crown widths of maxillary teeth and mandibular canines and premolars weremeasured at the largest mesio-distal dimension on the study casts using digital electronic caliper with 0.01 mmsensitivity. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the relation between the combined mesio-distalcrowns widths of maxillary incisors and first molars and the combined mesio-distal crowns widths of maxillary andmandibular canines and premolars. Regression analysis was used to determine the equations that predict the widthsof maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars. Paired sample t-test was used to compare between the actualand predicted mesio-distal crown widths.Results and Conclusions: The findings showed a non-significant difference between the predicted and actual mesiodistalcrown widths; hence the combined mesio-distal widths of maxillary incisors and first molars can be used aspredictors for the combined mesio-distal widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars

الخلفیة: ھدفت ھذه الدراسة إلى استخدام العرض الانسي الوحشي المجتمع للقواطع والأضراس الأولى العلویة للتنبؤ بعرض الاسنان الانسي الوحشي المجتمع للانیاب والضواحكالعلویة والسفلیة.25 سنة و من ذوي الصنف الأول من العلاقات الھیكلیة والسنیة. تم قیاس العرض الانسي الوحشي لاسنان الفك - المواد والطرق: شملت العینة 110 شخص عراقي بعمر یتراوح بین 17العلوي وانیاب وضواحك الفك السفلي باستخدام الفرجار الالكتروني الرقمي وبحساسیة تصل الى 0.01 ملم على القوالب الدراسیة خاصتھم. تم استخدام معامل ارتباط بیرسون لتحدیدالعلاقة بین العرض الانسي الوحشي المجتمع للقواطع والأضراس الأولى العلویة مع عرض الاسنان الانسي الوحشي المجتمع للانیاب والضواحك العلویة و السفلیة. باستخدام تحلیلالانحدار تم تحدید المعادلات التي تتنبأ بعرض الاسنان الانسي الوحشي المجتمع للانیاب والضواحك العلویة و السفلیة. للمقارنة بین عرض الاسنان الانسي الوحشي الفعلي والمتوقع تمالمقترن. t استخدام اختبارالنتائج والاستنتاجات: أظھرت النتائج عدم وجود فروق معنویة بین عرض الاسنان الانسي الوحشي المتوقع و الفعلي ، وبالتالي یمكن استخدام العرض الانسي الوحشي المجتمع للقواطعوالأضراس الأولى العلویة لتنبؤ بعرض الاسنان الانسي الوحشي المجتمع للانیاب والضواحك العلویة والسفلیة


Article
The effects of various beverages on the shear bond strength of light-cured orthodontic composite (An in vitro comparative study)

Author: Mohammed Nahidh محمد ناهض محمد حسن
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 144-148
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study was conducted to assess the effects of various beverages on the shear bond strength of lightcuredorthodontic composite used to bond stainless steel orthodontic brackets on human teeth and to determinethe site of bonding failure of this material.Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars were selected and randomly divided into five equal groupseach with 10 teeth according to the beverage type (Control, One Tiger, Milk, Green tea and Coffee). After bonding,the teeth were immersed in specific beverages for 5 minutes twice daily with equal intervening intervals then washedand stored in distilled water at 37º C for the reminder of the day. The process was carried out for 30 days. Thesamples were then tested for shear bond strength using Tinius-Olsen testing machine with a crosshead speed of0.5mm/minute. For adhesive remnant index, the enamel surface and bracket base of each tooth were inspectedunder magnifying lens (20X) of a stereomicroscope.Results: Milk, coffee and one Tiger energy drink reduced the shear bond strength of the light-cured compositesignificantly unlike the green tea. The predominant site of bond failure was between the bracket base and theadhesive leaving the composite on the tooth rather on the brackets base.Conclusions: Orthodontic patients should be instructed to reduce the intake of acidic and fatty beverages toprevent debonding of the orthodontic brackets

الخلفیة : أجریت ھذه الدراسة لتقییم تأثیر المشروبات المختلفة على القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان الفولاذیة ، وتحدید موقع فشل الارتباط مع الاسنان.المواد و الأسالیب: تم اختیار خمسون من الضواحك البشریة والتي قسمت عشوائیا إلى خمس مجموعات متساویة كل منھا 10 اسنان وفقا لنوع الشراب (ماء مقطر ، مشروب الطاقةوقد º النمر الاول ، الحلیب ، الشاي الأخضر والقھوة ). تم غمر الاسنان في المشروبات لمدة 5 دقائق مرتین یومیا ثم تم غسلھا وتخزینھا في الماء المقطر في درجة حرارة 37أجریت عملیة لمدة 30 یوما . تم اختبار القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان باستخدام آلة اختبار خاصة و بمعاییر معینة.النتائج: كانت القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان الفولاذیة في الحلیب ، القھوة و مشروب الطاقة النمر الاول اقل بشكل ملحوظ مما ھي علیھ في المجموعة الضابطة على عكسالشاي الأخضر.الاستنتاجات : یجب الاقلال من تناول المشروبات الحمضیة والدھنیة لمرضى تقویم الأسنان.


Article
Wits appraisal and Tweed triangle for a sample of Iraqi adults

Authors: Noor F. K. Al-Khawaja --- Yassir A. Yassir --- Mohammed Nahidh
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 134-140
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study aimed to establish the normal value of Wits appraisal and Tweed triangle for a sample of Iraqi
adults and to verify the existence of sexual dimorphism.
Materials and Methods: 95 dental students (41 males and 54 females) having normal occlusion and acceptable
facial profile were chosen for this study. Each student was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral
cephalometric radiograph. The radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD 2007 to measure the distance
representing the Wits appraisal and the angles representing Tweed triangle. Descriptive statistics were obtained for
the measurements for both genders separately and for total sample; independent samples t-test was performed to
evaluate the gender difference.
Results: The results indicated that the mean value of Wits appraisal was higher in males than females with a nonsignificant
difference between both genders, on the other hand, the Frankfort- mandibular plane angle was higher in
males than females while the Frankfort- mandibular incisor angle was higher in females than males and mandibular
incisor- mandibular plane angle was nearly similar in both genders with a non-significant difference.
Conclusions: The normal values of Wits appraisal and Tweed Triangle were established. The Iraqi sample showed Wits
appraisal of females near to that of Jacobson while of males was higher. Regarding Tweed triangle, both genders
showed more proclination of lower incisors than of Tweed with a Frankfort- mandibular plane angle near to that of
Tweed.
Key words: Tweed triangle, Wits appraisal. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):134-140).

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Article
The effect of tooth shape ratio on mandibular incisors arrangement in Iraqi adult subjects

Authors: Sami K. Al-Joubori سامي كاظم الجبوري --- Mohammed Nahidh محمد ناهض
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 132-136
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of tooth shape ratio on mandibular incisor arrangement.Materials and methods: The sample included dental casts of some dental students and orthodontic patients havingClass I dental and skeletal patterns with normal occlusion and severe crowding. The sample was divided into twogroups according to the severity of crowding into: group I had Class I normal occlusion with mild or no crowdedmandibular dentition and group II had Class I malocclusion with severe crowded mandibular dentition. Each groupcomprising of 40 subjects (20 males and 20 females). The mesio-distal and facio-lingual crown diameters weremeasured manually for each cast using modified vernier caliper gauge. Descriptive statistics were obtained for themeasurements for both genders; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender difference ineach group and to evaluate the groups' difference in total sample.Results and Conclusions: The results showed that there is non-significant genders difference in both groups. Generally,the mesio-distal and facio-lingual dimensions were higher in severely crowded mandibular incisor group. Neitherfacio-lingual dimension nor the tooth shape ratio has significant influence of the mandibular incisor arrangement andthe mesio-distal dimension is the most important factor


Article
Beta angle in a sample of Iraqi adults with Class I skeletal and dental relations and its correlation with other craniofacial measurements

Authors: Mohammed Nahidh محمد ناهض --- Sara M. J. Al-Mashhadany سارة محمد جاسم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 145-150
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to determine the value of Beta angle for a sample of Iraqi adults with class I skeletaland dental relations and to verify the existence of sexual dimorphism and to find out the relation between this angleand other craniofacial measurements.Materials and Methods: Sixty dental students (23 males and 37 females) with an age ranged between 20-31 years oldand having class I skeletal and dental relations were chosen for this study. Each student was subjected to clinicalexamination and digital true lateral cephalometric radiograph. The radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD 2007computer program to measure the angular and linear variables. Descriptive statistics were obtained for themeasurements for both genders and total sample; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate thegender difference and Pearson's correlation coefficient test used to detect the relation between the Beta angle andother measurements.Results and Conclusions: The value of Beta angle in this study was 32.63°± 2.57°. When the Beta angle is less than 27°,the case is class II and when it is more than 38°, the case is class III. There is no genders difference regarding the Betaangle and this angle correlated significantly and positively with the mandibular length and articular angle andnegatively with ANB and saddle angles


Article
Palatal dimensions in different occlusal relationships

Authors: Mohammed Nahidh محمد ناهض --- Noor F. K. Al-Khawaja نور فلاح الخواجة --- Ata'a Ghazi عطاء غازي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 116-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to compare the palatal dimensions in different occlusal relationships and to find outthe genders difference in each relationship.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 60 sets of dental casts for 60 dental students and patients attendingthe Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. These casts divided into three groupsaccording to the Angle's classification: Class I group: included casts of subjects had Class I normal occlusion andconsisted of 10 males and 10 females. Class II Division 1 group: included casts of subjects had Class II Division 1malocclusion and consisted of 10 males and 10 females. Class III group: included casts of subjects with Class IIImalocclusion and consisted of 10 males and 10 females. The palatal dimensions were measured using digital vernierand palatometer. Descriptive statistics were performed to each gender and to both genders in each class.Inferential statistics included independent sample t-test to find out the presence of genders difference and ANOVAthen LSD tests to show the classes differences in each gender and in the total sample.Results and Conclusions: The results showed that Class I and II males had the largest palatal dimensions than femaleswhile Class III females had the largest palatal dimensions than males. Class I subjects had the largest palatal widthand depth while Class II subjects had the largest palatal length. Class I males and Class III females had the largestpalatal width than other classes. Class III females and Class II males had the largest palatal depth than other classes


Article
TMJ Relationships for Both Genders in Different Facial Morphology (Lateral Cephalometric Study)

Authors: Arkan Muslim Abdulkareem اركان مسلم --- Wisam Wahab Sahib وسام وهاب --- Thair Jaber Al-Khafagi ثائر جابر --- Mohammed Nahidh Mohammed محمد ناهض
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2012 Volume: 20 Issue: 5 Pages: 1667-1677
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to verify the position of the glenoid fossa for both genders in subjects with different sagittal and vertical skeletal patterns.A lateral cephalometric study was carried out on 124 subjects (45 male and 79 female) aged 18-30 years who were classified according to skeletal sagittal relationships using ANB angle into three groups {Cl. І =48 (13 male and 35 female), Cl. ІІ =41 (14 male and 27 female), Cl. ІІІ =35 (18 male and 17 female)} subjects, and according to skeletal vertical relationships using MP-SN angle into three groups {normal angle=67(17male and 50 female) , high angle=23 (8 male and 15 female), low angle=34 (20 male and 14 female)} subjects. Cephalometric analysis comprised both sagittal and vertical measurements for the assessment of the position of the glenoid fossa in relation to surrounding skeletal structures. The assessment was achieved by measuring two angular and six linear variables using the AutoCAD computer program 2008.The results revealed that in sagittal skeletal relation, the glenoid fossa position didn’t differed in skeletal Class I for both gender, while in skeletal CL.ΙΙ and CL.ΙΙΙ the glenoid fossa position was more cranial in male than female, while in the vertical plane; the position of the glenoid fossa relative to Basicranial structures was more posterior in male than female for normal angle subjects and more cranial in male than female for high angle subjects when compared with subjects with low angle vertical relationships. In conclusion, subjects with high angle vertical relationships show a more cranial position of the Glenoid Fossa in male group in relation to cranial base when compared to subjects with either normal or low angle vertical relationships regarding the vertical plane and more cranial in male group in skeletal CL.ΙΙ and CL.ΙΙΙ regarding the sagittal plane.

موقع الحفرة الصدغية يؤدي دور مهم في تأسيس مختلف الأنماط الهيكلية. أجري هذا البحث للتحقق من موقع الحفرة الصدغية في الأشخاص ذوي العلاقات الهيكلية المختلفة و لكلا الجنسين أجريت دراسة شعاعيه على عينه من 124 شخص مقسمين إلى 55 رجل و 79 امرأة تتراوح أعمارهم بين 18-30 سنه. صنفت العينة حسب العلاقة الهيكلية السهمية باستخدام زاوية أ ن ب إلى ثلاث مجاميع(الصنف الأول=48 (13 رجل و 35 امرأة), الصنف الثاني=41 (17 رجل و 27 امرأة), الصنف الثالث=35 (18 رجل و 17 امرأة), وحسب العلاقة الهيكلية العمودية باستخدام الزاوية بين المستوي س ن ومستوي الفك الأسفل إلى ثلاث مجاميع( زاوية طبيعية=67(17 رجل و 50 امرأة), زاوية كبيرة =23 (8 رجل و 15 امرأة), زاوية صغيرة=34 (20 رجل و 14 امرأة), تألف التحليل ألشعاعي القياسي من كلا القياسين السهمي والعمودي لتحديد موقع الحفرة الصدغية وعلاقتها بالتراكيب الهيكلية المحيطة. تم التحديد من خلال قياس زاويتين و 6 قياسات خطية تم قياسها باستعمال برنامج حسابي رقمي خاص(أوتوكاد 2008). أظهرت النتائج إن موقع الحفرة الصدغية في العلاقة الهيكلية السهمية من الصنف الأول لا يختلف في كلا الجنسين, بينما في العلاقة الهيكلية السهمية في الصنف الثاني والثالث فأن موقع الحفرة الصدغية يكون اقرب إلى قاعدة الجمجمة في الرجال منه في النساء, بينما في الخط العمودي فأن موقع الحفرة الصدغية بالنسبة للتراكيب في قاعدة الجمجمة للخلف في الرجال ذوي الزوايا الطبيعية واقرب إلى قاعدة الجمجمة في الرجال منه في النساء للأشخاص ذوي الزوايا الكبيرة عند مقارنته بالأشخاص ذوي الزوايا الصغيرة. نستنتج من ذلك إن الأشخاص ذوي العلاقة الهيكلية العمودية بزاوية كبيرة بالنسبة للرجال يكون لديهم موقع الحفرة الصدغية اقرب إلى قاعدة الجمجمة عند مقارنته بالنساء, بينما موقع الحفرة الصدغية في الرجال ذوي العلاقة السهمية من الصنف الثاني والثالث يكون للخلف عند مقارنته بالنساء.

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Article
Size and Morphology of Sella Turcica in Iraqi Adults

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AbstractTo measure the size and describe the morphology of sella turcica on true lateralcephalometric radiographs; and to determine if there is any statistical significantdifference in the size of sella turcica regarding the genders and skeletal classes.The sample included 130 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs(67 female and 63 males) with an age range between 17-25 years, collected from theOrthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. Thesample was divided according to ANB angle into 3 skeletal classes. The size of sellaturcica (length, depth, and diameter) was measured and its morphology wasdetermined. Frequency distribution and percentage described the morphology,independent samples t-test was used to test genders difference, while ANOVA testwas performed to show if there is any statistical significant difference in the size ofsella turcica among the skeletal patterns.Males had slightly higher sella turcica measurements than females with a nonsignificantdifference between genders; on the other hand, class III sample had highersella turcica measurements with a non-significant difference among the skeletalclasses. In addition to the normal morphology, six distinct variations of sella turcicawere identified with the highest percentage to the normal morpholgy.All the linear measurements of the sella turcica were within standard range.Neither gender nor skeletal patterns showed significant differences in sella turcicalinear measurements. Normal morphology of the sella turcica was found in themajority of subjects.

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