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Article
Extraction, Purification, Characterization and Immobilization of Sheep Pepsin

Authors: Munir A. Jasim --- Zena K. Al -Essa
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 202-223
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The present study aimed to isolate pepsin enzyme Ec : 3.423.1 from sheep stomach and purified it , it's characteristics were studied as free and immobilize under various conditions. The enzyme was extracted from the stomach using five extraction solutions in order to find out the extraction solution , the study revealed that sodium chloride (6%) with Boric acid (2%) solution was the best extraction solution which gave the highest specific activity 14.3 unit / mg .Protein content for the crude enzyme extracts were concentrated using saturated ammonium sulfate in arrange of 30-70%, Dialysis was done using distilled water. Ion exchange chromatography DEAE–Sephadex A-50 was used to complete purification of Sheep pepsin followed by gel filtration using Sephadex G-100, Purification Folds 27.64 time and the yield was 18.4%.Electrophoresis process using poly acrylamide gel in the absence of SDS observe the presence of one protein band which indicates the complete purification of Sheep pepsin. Sheep pepsin molecular weight was 33700 Dalton when it was evaluated using poly acrylamide electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The sheep pepsin was immobilized with agar in 3% concentration. The remainder enzyme activity for agar Immobilized Sheep pepsin were 25% after 7 times using and the remainder enzyme activity for agar Immobilize Sheep pepsin were 22% which stored for 60 days in 4°C. The optimal pH for proteolytic activity for free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin was 2,On other hand the pH value 5.8 was the highest clotting activity for free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin. The clotting activity decreased with the increase of pH for 5.8-7.The optimal pH for the stability of free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin are 2.The free and Immobilize enzymes lost their activities at alkaline pH values 8 and 9.The optimal temperatures of proteolytic activity for free Sheep pepsin was 35 °C and 45°C for its Immobilized form. The optimal temperature for clotting activity for free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin was 3°C .The optimal temperature for free and Immobilize sheep pepsin stability ranged from 15 to 3°C. Both free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin lost their activities completely at 75°C, 85°C respectively. The activation energy for free and immobilize pure Sheep pepsin was 8.13 kcal. Mol-1 and 10.79 kcal. Mol-1 respectively.


Article
Chemical and Physical Changes for some types of Commercial Oil and Fats during Deep Frying

Authors: Munir A. Jasim --- Ali A. Sahi --- Hani S. Stephan
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 21-30
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The chemical and physical changes of Al-Bint oil, Cezer and Golden Spoons fat before and during deep frying of Falafil were studied at 180 C°±5. The obtained results were summarized as follows: 1- There were significant different ( P<0.05 ) between types of oils and fat and between the number of deep frying times, there were increased in peroxide value, acid value, saponification number, refractive index and viscosity. The increase in Golden spoons fat of all above values more than Cezer oil and followed by Al-Bint oil after the fourth time . 2- There were significant different( P< 0.05 ) between number of frying times and red color and no significant differences with yellow color, but ,did not notice the effect of oil type on the color. The stability to change color of the Tow Golden spoons fat more than Cezer oil then Al-Bint oil. 3- A decrease in Palmitic in Al-Bint oil and in two Golden spoons fat after the fourth frying time, but it increased in Cezer oil after the fourth frying time. A decrease in stearic in Al-bint oil and Cezer after the fourth frying time, but it increased in Two Golden spoons fat after fourth frying time. The total saturation fatty acids between frying process were in Two Golden spoons fat more than Al-bint oil then Cezer oil, but its present increased in Two Golden spoons fat and decreased in Al-Bint and Cezer oils. Oleic and Llinoleic increased after the fourth frying time in Al-Bint oil, but Oleic present was lower in Cezer oil than in Al-Bint oil before frying process and it's percent decreased after the fourth frying time. Oleic and Lionleic increased in Al-Bint oil after the fourth frying time. Total unsaturated fatty acids in Al-Bint and Cezer oils increased after the fourth frying time, but they were decreased in Two Golden Spoons fat.


Article
The study of fatty acids for four types of common marine fish smoked, marinated and dried in Basrah

Authors: Munir A. Jasim --- Sabah M.H. AL-Shatty
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 69-82
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of preservation by smoking, marinating and drying on quality and quantity of fatty acids for four common marine fish species in Basrah province which were Suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), Jaffout (Nematolosa nasus), Biayh (Liza carincota), and Thela (Scomberoides commersonianus). The fresh, good quality fish sample were purchased from local market in Basrah, as soon as they purchased the fish were kept in insulated box made from cork and covered with crashed ice. When the samples reached to the laboratory they were tested chemically, then they divided into three groups and stored separately by different preservation methods mentioned above with assessment of their shelf life during preservation methods by refrigerating at 4°C or at ambient conditions (25 °C).The quality and quantity of fatty acids were estimated by gas chromatography technique, 11 of fatty acids were followed during preservation and storage, which they were C14, C14:1, C16, C16:1, C16:2, C18, C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, C20:4 and C20:5.Results were analyzed by SPSS program using completely randomized design (CRD) for triplicates. The studied factors were tested by using revised least significant differences test (RLSD) at level of 0.01 and 0.05. the correlation coefficient ® for some studied criteria as well as determination of standard deviation (SD) had performed. The results of statistical analysis showed significant differences (P<0.01) for quality and quantity of preserved fish along with a period of storage. The study showed that marine fish were good sources of Omaga-3 fatty acids like Eciosapentaeroic acid (EPA) (20:5), specially in Subbor and Jaffourt.


Article
The Changes of Some Commercial Oils and Fats during Frying of Falafel

Authors: Ali A. Sahi --- Munir A. Jasim --- Hani S. Sdfanna
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2015 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 162-177
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Due to the misuse of fats and oils during deep fat frying for preparing many types of foodlike (Falafel) and its effect on the health and economic aspects and to optimize the use offats and oils . This work includes the chemical and physical changes of local common oil(Al – Bint) and imported oil and fat (CEZER, Two Golden Spoons) before and duringdeep frying operating at 5±180°C, it also includes sensory evaluation of Falafel duringfrying operation. The results of this research were summarized as follows:-1- Significant decrease of Iodine Number for the three fats with increasing frying times.The decrease was from (138.8, 137.9, 54.5) before process of frying to (131.5, 133.9,49.2) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint, CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fatrespectively. Consequently the decrease of Iodine Number were (4.3, 4.0, and 5.3) for thethree fats respectively.2- Significant decrease of Smoke Point for the three fats with increasing number offrying times. The decrease of Smoke Point was from (213°C, 200°C, 214°C) beforefrying process to (205°C, 190°C, 206°C) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint,CEZER oil and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the resistance todecrease of Smoke Point of Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZERoil.3- Significant increase in Refractive Index at (40°C) with increasing number of fryingtimes for the three fats. The increase was from (1.4473, 1.4474, and 1.4470) beforefrying process to (1.4710, 1.4740, and 1.4640) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint,CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the stability foroxidation for Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZER oil.1- Sensory evaluation of Falafel during deep frying for several times appeared that theappearance, texture, color, flavor and overall acceptance were acceptable. Falafel fried inAl – Bint oil was the best, then that with CEZER oil and then with Two Golden Spoonsfat. Also there were no significant effect of number of frying times on texture, flavor,color and overall acceptance of Falafel.


Article
The effect of freezing storage on the chemical and physical composition of meat of male duck and goose.
تأثير التجميد على الصفات الكيميائية والفيزيائية للحم ذكور البط والوز.

Authors: Munir A. Jasim منير عبود جاسم الطائي --- Saher Sabih George سحر صبيح جورج
Journal: Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science مجلة وادي الرافدين لعلوم البحار ISSN: 18152058 Year: 2008 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-128
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

A Study was carried out on male Duck and Geese at age 12 and 16 weeks respectively carcasses were slaughtered and the feathers were removed and intestines were taken off, then they were cut in to main cuttings leg and breast and warped by polyethylen. A study was then made on the chemical and physical properties were followed for frozen meat leg and Goose in both ducks and geese at -18 ± 2 Cº for 0.15, 30.45, 60, 75, and 90 days and the results were analyzed statistically to determine the effect of meat type (source), period of storage and the interference among them on the a mean value by adapting R.L.S.D. at P<0.05. there was a significant increase at level P<0.05 in total volatile nitrogen and free fatty acid with increasing the frozen storage period the means dropped significantly at level P<0.05 through out these periods 0.15 and 30 days of frozen storage then they stored to increase significantly at level P<0.05 at periods 45, 60, 75 and 90 days by freezing storage for both pH and Water Holding Capacity, while there were no significant differences on pH and Water Holding Capacity depending on the meat type for leg and breast for duck and geese.

أجريـت هـذه الدراسة على لحـم الطيور المائيـة (البط والوز) بعمر 12 و16 أسبوعـاً وبواقـع 10 طيور ذكور لكل من البط والوز على التوالي، إذ تم ذبحها وأزيل الريش ونزعت الأحشاء الداخلية والأرجل ثـم قطعت إلى القطع الرئيسية (الفخذ والصدر) وغلفت بأكياس بولي اثلين وتـم دراسـة الصفات الكيميائية والفيـزيائية عـند 0، 15، 30، 45، 60، 75 و 90 يوماً من الخـزن بالتجميـد على درجة حرارة -18 ± 2 م, وحللت النتائج إحصائيا لمعرفة تأثير نـوع اللحم ومدة الخـزن بالتجميد والتداخل بينهما على متوسط هذه القيـم وذلك بالاعتمـاد على اقـل فـرق معنـوي معـدل ((R.L.S.D عند مستوى (p<0.05) أظهرت النتائج حصول ارتفاعاً معنوياً عند مستوى (p<0.05) لكل من النتروجين الكلي الطيار (TVN) والأحماض الدهنية الحرة (F.F.A) بتقدم مدة الخزن بالتجميد بينما وجد بان المتوسطـات كانـت منخفضة معنـوياً عنـد مستوى (p<0.05) خـلال فتـرات 0، 15 و 30 يومـاً مـن الخـزن بالتجميـد ثم بـدأت بالارتـفاع المعنـوي للفتـرات 45، 60، 75 و 90 يوماً من الخزن بالتجميـد لكـلاً من الأس الهيدروجينـي وقابلية حمـل الماء بينما لوحظ عدم وجـود فـروق معنويـة لكل مـن (الرماد والأس الهيدروجيني وقابلية حمل الماء) اعتماداً على نوع اللحم (فخذ وصدر) البط والوز.

Keywords


Article
The effect of freezing ,glazing and packaging on quality properties of suboor and shank fish
تأثير التجميد والتزجيج والتغليف في الصفات النوعية لأسماك الصبور والشانك

Author: Munir A. Jasim & Al-Magsosy, L. Falih منيرعبود جاسم الطائي لمى فالح حسين المگصوصي
Journal: basrah journal of science البصرة للعلوم ISSN: 18140343 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 2B micro conf Pages: 21-37
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was carried out on two species of fish : suboorTenualosailisha and shank Acanthopagruslatus considered an important fishes in Basrah, to determine the characteristics properties of fresh and frozen flesh at (–18± 2)oC and package and glazing by used distilled water only , Ascorbic acid concentration 2% , sodium poly phosphate concentration 2% ,vinegar concentration 2%and saltconcentration 2% with package and without package , and measurement of their quality as well as suitability for human consumption, for four months. The samples were collected from Fao city, Basrah, South of Iraq. The effect of freezing (at-18±2)oC on quality characteristics of fish flesh frozen and frozen with package and glazing with different treatment with package and without package all month for four month. The changes of quality characteristics were studies during (0, 30, 60, 90,120) days by using chemical indicators, pH, acid value,free fatty acid and Thiobarbiutric acid).This study has shown the following results :1-The glazing method is prefer from freezing method with package or without package in saving on quality properties for storage fish, the results for analyzed statistically shown a significant effect between glazing fish ,freezing fish with package and freezing fish without package also was asignificant effect of the terference on mean acid value,free fatty acid and thiobarbiutric acid.2-The quality properties appeared for fresh flesh pH (6.62,6.57); acid Value (0.24,0.63); free fatty acid(0.12,0.31%) and the thiobarbituricacid (TBA) (0.64,1.33) mg malonaldehyde/Kg fish flesh for Shank and Suboor respectively.3-The result showed decreasing in pH. Also increasing in acid value , thiobarbituricacid and free fatty acid with courage of freeze storing periods.but decreasing in pH was less in glazing fish them freezing fish with package and freezing fish with out package also increasing in acid value , thiobarbituricacid and free fatty acid was less in glazing fish.4-showed that verage increasing in acid value , thiobarbituricacid and free fatty acid in glazing fish with using ascorbic acid less from glazing fish with using other treatment.

أجـريت الـدراسة علـى نوعيـن مـن الأسماك البحرية في محافظة البصرة همـا اسماك الصبور Tenualosailishaوالشعم الفضي (الشانك) Acanthopagruslatus ذات الأهمية الاقتصاديةً المصطادة في قضاء الفاوالواقع في محافظة البصرةلغرض تعيين الصفات النوعية لهذه الأسماك بحالتها الطازجة والمجمدة المغلفة وغير المغلفةلمدة اربعة اياموالتي تم تزجيجها بأستعمالالماء المقطر وحامض الاسكوربيك وصوديوم بولي فوسفيت وملح الطعام والخل وجميعها بتركيز 2%،ثم قسمت المعاملات المزججة الى قسمين وقد تم تغليف القسم الاول بينما ترك القسم الثاني دون تغليف،وقُدرت مدى جودتها وصلاحيتها للاستهلاك البشري خلال فترة الخزن البالغةاربعة أشهرمن خلالدراسة الدلائل الكيميائية ( الرقم الهيدروجيني، قيمة الحموضة والاحماض الدهنية الحرة وقيمة حامض الثايوباربتيوريك). حُللت النتائج احصائياً باستعمال البرنامج الاحصائي الجاهزSPSS واستعمال التصميم العشوائي الكامل CRD بمكررين واخُتبرت العوامل المدروسة باستعمال اختبار اقل فرق معنوي المعدل R.L.S.D عند مستوى احتمال (0.05 ) وكانت النتائج كالاتي :-1–تُعد طريقة التزجيج افضل من طريقة التجميد بوجودغلاف او بدونه، اذ بينت نتائج التحليل الاحصائي وجود فروقات معنوية عند مستوى احتمال(0.05 p) بين الاسماك المزججة والاسماك المجمدة بدون تغليف والاسماك المجمدة المغلفة حيث كان لها تأثيراً معنوياً على متوسط حامض الثايوباربتيوريك وقيمة الحموضة والاحماض الدهنية الحرة.2-كانت قيم الدلائل الكيميائية كالاتي (6.57،6.62) للرقم الهيدروجيني و(0.63،0.24) لقيمة الحموضة و(0.31،0.12)للاحماض الدهنية الحرة و(1.338،0.6474)ملغم مالونالديهايد/ كغم سمك لقيمة حامض الثايوباربتيوريك لكل من اسماك الصبور والشانك الطازجة على التوالي.3– انخفضت قيمة الرقم الهيدروجيني، بينما لُوحظ حصول ارتفاع في قيمة حامض الثايوباربتيوريك وقيمة الحامض والاحماض الدهنية الحرة، الا ان انخفاض الرقم الهيدروجيني كان اقل في الاسماك المزججة منها في الاسماك المجمدة المغلفة وغير المغلفة وارتفاع قيمة حامض الثايوباربتيوريك وقيمة الحامض والاحماض الدهنية الحرة كان ايضا اقل في الاسماك المزججةبالمقارنة بالاسماك المجمدة غير المغلفة والمغلفة.4- لُوحظ أن نسبة الزيادة في قيمة الحموضة والاحماض الدهنية الحرة وحامض الثايوباربتيوريك في الاسماك المزججة بأستعمال حامض الاسكوربيك قليلة مقارنة بالاسماك المزججة بأستعمال المعاملات الاخرى.


Article
Extraction, Purification, Characterization and Immobilization of Chicken Pepsin and Using it in Protein hydrolysate
أستخلاص وتنقیة وتوصیف وربط ببسین الدجاج واستعماله في تحضیر متحلل بروتیني

Authors: Zena K. Issa زینة كاظم عیسى --- Munir A. Jasim منیر عبود جاسم
Journal: Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة البصرة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18175868 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 110-123
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study aimed to Isolate pepsin enzyme Ec: 3.4.23.1 from someanimal sources and Purified it and Studied it’s Characteristics and Immobilized it as well asit’s practical applications in food industry. The enzyme was extracted from the stomach ofthree animal sources (Sheep, Chicken and Nuwaibi fish) using five extraction solutionsincluding Distilled water , Sodium chloride (10%) solution , Sodium chloride (6%) Boricacid (2%) solution ,Sodium Phosphate 0.1M and an pH 7.3 solution and Tris-acetic acid0.4M and an pH 7.6 solution in order to find out the best source of enzyme and the bestextraction solution . Sheep's stomach was the best source of enzyme , Sodium chloride(6%) Boric acid (2%) solution was the best extraction solution which gave the highestspecific activity 14.3 unit / mg .Protein content for the crude enzyme extracts were concentrated using saturated ammonium sulfate in arrange 30-70% , 20-90% and 20-60% forSheep, Chicken and Nuwaibi fish pepsin respectively, Dialysis was done using distilledwater. Dialyzed Chicken pepsin possesses the highest proteolytic activity. The dialyzedchicken pepsin Immobilized study with four carriers including Silica gel, SRF Resinous,Calicium Alginate and Agar showed that the best carrier was agar which gave themaximum Immobilized efficiency 67%.The best optimum concentration for Immobilizedialyzed chicken pepsin with agar was 3% with the highest proteolytic enzyme 75%. Thepurified sheep pepsin was Immobilized with agar in 3% concentration .The remainderenzyme activity for agar Immobilized pure Sheep pepsin and dialyzed Chicken pepsin were25% , 21% respectively after 7 times using and the remainder enzyme activity for agarImmobilize pure Sheep pepsin and dialyzed Chicken pepsin wer 22%, 27% respectivelywas stored for 60 days in 4 °C. The optimal pH for proteolytic activity for pure free andImmobilize dialyzed Chicken pepsin was 2 .The optimal pH for the stability of free andImmobilize dialyzed Chicken pepsin are 3. The free and Immobilize enzymes lost theiractivities at alkaline pH values 8 and 9. The optimal temperature for free dialyzed Chickenpepsin was 45 ◌C and 55 °C for its Immobilize form. The optimal temperature for clottingactivity for free and Immobilize dialyzed chicken pepsin was 35°C .The optimaltemperature for free and Immobilize dialyzed Chicken pepsin stability was 15-45 ◌C. Bothfree and Immobilize dialyzed Chicken pepsin lost their activities completely at 85°C. AgarImmobilized dialyzed Chicken pepsin was utilized in the preparation of protein concentratereached the maximum hydrolysis in 180 min. Immobilize Chicken pepsin hydrolysis wasapproximately similar to free Chicken pepsin which reached 2.6, 2.8 respectively.

بعض المصادر الحیوانیة وتنقیته EC: المستخلص: هدفت الدراسة الحالیة الى استخلاص انزیم الببسین 3.4.23.1ودراسة بعض صفاته وربطه واستعماله في التطبیقات العملیة في مجال الصناعات الغذائیة ، استخلص الانزیم من معدة ثلاثةانواع من الحیوانات ( الاغنام ، الدجاج ، سمك النویبي ) باستعمال خمسة محالیل استخلاص تضمنت الماء المقطر، محلولكلورید الصودیوم بتركیز 10 % ، محلول كلورید الصودیوم بتركیز 6 % الحاوي على 2 % حامض بوریك ، محلول فوسفاتبتركیز 0.4 مولاري برقم Tris-acetic acid الصودیوم الدارىء بتركیز 0.1 مولاري ورقم هیدروجیني 7.3 ومحلولهیدروجیني 7.6 لغرض تحدید افضل مصدر للانزیم وافضل محلول استخلاص وقد وجد ان معدة الاغنام كانت افضل مصدرللحصول على الانزیم وان محلول كلورید الصودیوم 6% الحاوي على 2% حامض البوریك هو افضل محلول استخلاص اذاعطى اعلى فعالیة نوعیة للانزیم والتي بلغت 14.3 وحدة/ملغم .بعد ذلكركز المحتوى البروتیني للمستخلصات الانزیمیة الخام60 % لببسین الاغنام والدجاج وسمك -20 ، %90-20 ، %70- باستعمال كبریتات الامونیوم بنسبة اشباع تراوحت بین 30النویبي على التوالي ، ثم اجریت عملیة الدیلزة باستعمال الماء المقطر ، وقد اعطى ببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً اعلى فعالیة،SRF انزیمیة. اظهرت دراسة ربط ببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً باربعة انواع من المواد الرابطة تضمنت السلیكاجل ،راتنجالجینات الكالسیوم والاكار ان افضل مادة ربط هي الاكار اذ اعطي اعلى كفاءة ربط والتي بلغت 67 %.كان افضل تركیزلربط ببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً بالاكار هو 3 % اذ اعطى اعلى فعالیة انزیمیة والتي بلغت 75 %. بلغت الفعالیة المتبقیةلببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً المرتبط بالاكار 21 % بعد استعماله 7 مرات، وبلغت الفعالیة المتبقیة لببسین الدجاج المنقىجزئیاً المر تبط بالاكار 27.6 % عند خزنه لمدة 60 یوم بدرجة حرارة 4 م. وجد ان الرقم الهیدروجیني الامثل للفعالیة التحلیلیةلببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً الحر والمرتبط هو 2 ، ووجد ان الرقم الهیدروجیني الامثل لثبات ببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاًالحر والمرتبط كان 3 وان كلا الانزیمین الحر والمرتبط فقدا فعالیتهما عند الارقام الهیدروجینیة القاعدیة 8 و 9 .كانت درجةالحرارة المثلى للفعالیة التحللیة لببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً الحر 45 م والمرتبط 55 م ، ووجد ان درجة الحرارة المثلى لثبات45 م وان ببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیا الحر والمرتبط فقد - ببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً الحر والمرتبط كانت تتراوح بین 15فعالیته بالكامل عند 85 م. استعمل ببسین الدجاج المنقى جزئیاً المرتبط بالاكار في تحضیر متحلل بروتیني من سمك النویبيووجد ان التحلل البروتیني بلغ اقصاه في فترة 180 دقیقة وان تحلل ببسین الدجاج المرتبط كان مقارب لتحلل ببسین الدجاج2.8 مل على التوالي . ، الحر حیث بلغ 2.6


Article
Extraction of Fish Oils and Used in Drugs Systems.
استخلاص زيوت الاسماك واستعمالها في بعض الانظمة الـصيدلانـية

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Abstract

In this study was undertaken frish fish such as Bigeye Ilisha megaloptera, Nematalos nasus, Suboor Hilsha ilisha and Carp Cyprinus carpio. they were purchased from local marketes in Basrah, Oil was extracted by a solvent extraction method on low temperature. And the level of oil obtiened about (6.08; 10.72; 13.52 and 5.61)% for Bigeye, Jaffout, Suboor and Carp. the Crud oils were compared with vegetable oil (olive oil) and animal fat (tial fat mutton). The extracted oil from fresh complete fishs with compared oils intraed on pharmacological system through packed in capsul with and with out garlic`s extract. this system analysis with chemical tests. Results were analyzed statistically by using the SPSS program with using (CRD) Completely Randomized Design for dipilcates. The study factors were tested by using Revised Least Significant Different test R.L.S.D on the level (0.05).the results showed that oils which packing thrugh capsol with garlic extraction keeping good quality.

في هذه الدراسة استعملت اسمـاك طازجة مثل أبوعـوينه Ilisha megaloptera واسمـاك الجــفـوتة Nematalosa nasus واسمـاك الصـبور Tenualosa ilisha واسمـاك الكـارب Cyprinus carpio. وتم الحصول على هذه الاسماك من الاسواق المحلية لمحافظة البصـرة، اجري استخـلاص للزيت منها باستعمال طريقة الاستخلاص بالمذيب العضوي عند درجات حرارة منخفضة، وكانت نسبة الدهون المستحصـلة حوالي 6.08) و10.72 و13.52 و5.61)% لاسماك ابوعوينـه والجفوتة والصبـور والكارب على التوالي. وقورنت الزيوت الخام المستخلصة بزيت نبـاتي (زيت الزيتون) ودهـن حيواني (دهن آلية الغنم).الزيوت المستخلصـة من الاسماك الطازجة الكاملة مع زيوت المقارنة ادخلت في نظام دوائي من خلال تعبئتها في كبسول مع او بدون اضافة مستخلص الثوم. واجريت الاختبـارات االكيميائية على هـذا النظام. حللت النتائج احصائياً باستعمال البرنامج الاحصائي الجاهزSPSS واستعمال التصميم العشوائي الكامل CRD بمكررين واختبرت العوامل المدروسة باستعمال اختبار اقل فرق معنوي المعدل R.L.S.D عند مستوى احتمال (0.05)، وقد اشارت النتائج الى احتفاظ الزيوت المعبأة في الكبسول مع مستخلص الثوم على نوعيتها الجيدة.


Article
Preparation of water soluble Chitosan derivatives by Millard reaction and identify its by GC-MS and Test its as antioxidant
تحضير مشتقات الكايتوسان الذائبة بالماء والناتجة من تفاعلات ميلارد وتشخيصها بتقنية GC-MS واختبارها بوصفها مضادات للاكسدة

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Abstract

Chitosan prepared from Chitin that extracted from shrimp shell (Penaeus semisulcatus) by removal acetyl group from Chitin by chemical methods, water soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by interaction Chitosan with two types of reducing sugars by Millard reactions at 121 ᵒc for 1/4 hour by autoclaving, Chitosan derivatives resulting from the interaction carried symbols (G td, M td), where t was reaction temperature, d reaction time, either symbols (G and M) represents the sugar (glucose and maltose) respectively, the derivatives identify by GC-MS, the results shows the derivative (chitosan -glucose) (G121-1/4) hour contain 5 compounds, While the derivative (chitosan- maltose) (M121-1/4) hour contain 2 compound ,It was identify the molecular formula, molecular weight and the percentage of the area and the time of detention for each compound of these compounds. Determined the antioxidant activity of its and the result shows that the derivative(G121-1/4) hour was more significant than (M121-1/4) hou and have 85.80% of antioxidant activity, while the derivative (M121-1/4) hour have 80.30% .

تم تحضير الكايتوسان من الكايتين المستخلص من قشور الروبيان Penaeus semisulcatus بازالة مجاميع الاستيل من الكايتين بالطريقة الكيميائية, وقد حضرت مشتقات الكايتوسان الذائبة بالماء بتفاعل الكايتوسان المحضر مع نوعين من السكريات المختزلة بوساطة تفاعلات ميلارد على درجة حرارة 121ᵒم لمدة 1/4 ساعة بواسطة الاوتوكليف (جهاز التعقيم بالبخار), وقد حملت مشتقات الكايتوسان الناتجة من التفاعل الرموز G t-d) , M t-d ) حيث t درجة حرارة التفاعل, وd زمن التفاعل واما الرموز G)و M) فتمثل سكر (الكلوكوز و المالتوز) على التوالي, وقد شخصت المشتقات بوساطة جهاز GC-MS , وقد بينت النتائج احتواء المشتق (كايتوسان-كلوكوز) المعامل على درجة حرارة 121ᵒم لمدة 1/4ساعة ( G121-1/4) ساعة على5 مركبات, فيمااحتوى مشتق كايتوسان– مالتوز (M121-1/4) ساعة على مركبين, وقد شخصت الصيغة الجزيئية والوزن الجزيئي والنسبة المئوية لمساحتها وزمن الاحتجاز(دقيقة) لكل مركب من هذه المركبات. واختبرت قابلية المشتقات على تثبيط اكسدة حامض اللينوليك من خلال تقدير الفعالية المضادة للاكسدة التي بينت ارتفاع فعالية المشتق G121-1/4)) ساعة وبفروقات معنوية بلغت 85.80))%, في حين بلغت فعالية المشتق(M121-1/4) ساعة 80.30))%.

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