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Article
Salivary constituents in relation to caries-experience among a group of cerebral palsied adolescents

Author: Nada J. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 141-147
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Cerebral palsy is a major severe childhood disability. The nature of handicap seems to have definite
effect upon the prevalence of oral disease in handicapped individuals. Controversy exists about the incidence of
dental caries and its associated salivary risk factors in cerebral palsied children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to
assess the level of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and urea in unstimulated saliva and their relations to
dental caries among cerebral palsied adolescents in comparison to normal adolescents.
Materials and Methods: Thirty institutionalized cerebral palsied adolescents and 30 normal adolescents aged 11-14
years old were included in this study. DMFS/DMFT, dmfs/dmft was assessed according to WHO (1997) and
unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected and chemically analyzed to determine the concentrations of the
following constituents: Ions of calcium, sodium, potassium by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while
salivary phosphorus and urea by using colorimetric method. The average salivary flow rate was measured from the
total volume, and salivary pH and buffer capacity was determined using pH meter. All data were analyzed using
SPSS version 13.
Results: The results showed a highly significant difference between study and controls for caries as a higher
DMFS/DMFT were recorded among cerebral palsied adolescents than the control group (P< 0.001). Significantly
lower values of pH, flow rate and buffer capacity were found among study compared to the control group (P<
0.001). The same results were recorded regarding salivary calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and urea.
Conclusion: A variation in salivary constituents of cerebral palsied adolescents was recorded in comparison to
control group; this may explain the high caries-experience among them.
Key Words: cerebral palsy, Dental caries, pH; Flow rate; Buffer capacity; salivary calcium; sodium; urea; phosphorus.
(J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):141-147).

Keywords


Article
Salivary vitamins and total proteins, in relation to cariesexperience and gingival health, according to nutritional status of a group of five-year old children

Author: Nada J. Radhi ندى راضي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 129-136
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Malnutrition influences the development of the teeth and the formation, function and secretion of thesalivary glands, which in turn influence susceptibility to dental caries and gingival disease. The aims of this study wereto assess the salivary antioxidants (vitamin A, C and E) levels as well as total protein and their relation to cariesseverity and gingival health status among mal- and well-nourished children.Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 children and they divided according to nutritional status (30malnourished and 30 well nourished). The 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts wasused for assessment of nutritional status (height for age). The age was five years old. Caries severity (d1-4s) wasassessed according to Muhlemann (1976). Dental plaque recorded following the criteria described by Sillness andLöe (1964). The gingival index (GI) was used according to Löe and Sillness criteria (1963). Stimulated whole salivasamples were collected and chemically analyzed by using colorimetric method to determine the salivaryantioxidants (vitamin A, C and E) and total protein. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.Results: Results recorded a higher mean value of dmfs among malnourished in comparison to well nourished withstatistically highly significant difference (P< 0.001). According to grades of lesion severity, d4 was significantly thehigher among malnourished children (P< 0.001). Strong highly significant correlations were noticed between ds, dmfsand PI among malnourished and well nourished children. Significantly lower values of vitamins and total protein werenoticed among malnourished children compared to well nourished (P< 0.001). Negative highly significantcorrelations were found with all vitamins among malnourished children regarding caries-experience and GI.Conclusion: Childhood chronic malnutrition (stunting) is associated with salivary hypofunction. This may act as a riskfactor for dental caries and gingival disease in the target group.

Keywords

vitamin A --- C --- E --- total protein --- dental caries --- gingival disease


Article
Caries - Severity in Relation to Salivary Constituents Among Down's Syndrome Children in Comparison to Normal Children
شدة التسوس وعلاقته بمكونات اللعاب لدى اطفال متلازمة داون مقارنة الى الاطفال الطبيعيين

Author: Nada J. Radhi ندى جعفر راضي
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 69-77
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Background: Considerable attention has been given to the degree to which children with Down's syndrome are susceptible to dental caries. These observations have been questioned by many researchers whether they are inherently resistant to caries or not. Aim of study: Was to measure the changes in the level of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and urea in stimulated saliva and their relations to severity of dental caries among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children. Materials and Methods: Fifty institutionalized children with Down's syndrome (study group) and 50 normal children (control group) aged 7-10 years old were included in this study. D1-4S and d1-4s were assessed according to Muhlemann's criteria (1976) and stimulated whole saliva samples were collected and chemically analyzed to determine the concentrations of the following constituents: Ions of calcium, sodium, potassium by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer as well as salivary phosphorus and urea by using colorimetric method. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: The D1-4S and d1-4s scores were significantly lower in Down's syndrome children than the control group (P< 0.01, P< 0.001 respectively). Salivary sodium, potassium and urea were significantly higher in Down's syndrome children (P< 0.001), while salivary phosphorus concentration was noticed to be lower among study group compared to control group (P> 0.05).Conclusion: This study suggests that children with Down's syndrome presents higher levels of salivary calcium, sodium, potassium and urea which may explain a lower caries severity compared to normal children

المقدمة: اعطيت عناية كبيرة من قبل الدراسات الى مدى تعرض اطفال متلازمة داون لتسوس الاسنان وهناك تساؤلات هل تسوس الاسنان مرض يصاحب المتلازمة او لا. لذلك الهدف من الدراسة هو قياس التغير في مستوى مكونات اللعاب المحفز(الكالسيوم ، الفوسفور، الصوديوم ، البوتاسيوم واليوريا) وعلاقتهم بشدة تسوس الاسنان لدى اطفال متلازمة داون مقارنة الى الاطفال الطبيعيين.المواد والطرق: تم فحص 50 من اطفال متلازمة داون (مجموعة الدراسة) في معاهد العوق العقلي و50 من الاطفال الاصحاء الطبيعيين (المجموعة الضابطة) الذين تتراوح اعمارهم من سبعة الى عشر سنوات. استخدم مؤشرنخر ، قلع ، حشوة (d1-4mfs/D1-4MFS)لاكتشاف شدة تسوس سطوح الاسنان اللبنية والدائمية تبعا لتصنيف (Muhlemann, 1976) بالتتابع .تم جمع عينات من اللعاب المحفز وحللت كيميائيا لتحديد تراكيز المكونات الاتية: الكالسيوم ، الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم بواسطة طيف الامتصاص الذري المتوهج، الفوسفور واليوريا بواسطة مقياس الضوء الطيفي.النتائج: انخفاض قيم (d1-4mfs/D1-4MFS) في الاسنان اللبنية والدائمية لدى اطفال متلازمة داون مقارنة الى المجموعة الضابطة مع وجود فروق معنوية عالية بين كلتا المجموعتين. كشفت الدراسة عن تراكيز عالية للصوديوم ، البوتاسيوم واليوريا في اللعاب لدى اطفال متلازمة داون مقارنة الى المجموعة الضابطة مع وجود فروق معنوية عالية احصائيا، بينما لوحظ انخفاض تركيز الفوسفور لدى اطفال متلازمة داون (مجموعة الدراسة) مقارنة الى المجموعة الضابطة مع عدم وجود فرق معنوي احصائيا.الاستنتاج: تقترح الدراسة ان الارتفاع في تراكيز مكونات اللعاب (الكالسيوم، الصوديوم، البوتاسيوم واليوريا) لدى اطفال متلازمة داون يمكن ان يفسر انخفاض شدة التسوس لديهم مقارنة الى الاطفال الطبيعيين.


Article
Dental caries and treatment needs in relation to nutritional status among children with congenital heart disease

Authors: Marwa Jamal Al-Haidary --- Nada J. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 108-114
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Congenital heart disease is one of the most common developmental anomalies in children. Thesepatients commonly have poor oral health that increase caries risk. Dental management of children with congenitalheart disease requires special attention, because of their heightened susceptibility to infectious endocarditis. Theaims of this study were to assess the severity of dental caries of primary and permanent teeth and treatment needs inrelation to nutritional indicator (Body Mass Index) among children with congenital heart disease.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, case group consisted of 399 patients aged between 6-12 years oldwith congenital heart disease were examined for dental status in Ibn Al-Bitar specialized center for cardiac surgery inBaghdad/Iraq. A case-matched group (healthy control) of 485 children was also examined from primary schools inBaghdad city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and treatment needs were recorded according to thecriteria of WHO (1997). The assessment of nutritional status (BMI) was performed following Centers for Disease Controland Prevention growth chart (2000). All data were analyzed using IBMSPSS version 23.Results: Results recorded the highest mean rank value of (DMFS)and (dmfs) were among CHD cases than controlgroup with statistically high significant difference. Results revealed the mean rank values of (ds, ms, fs and dmfs) werehigher at age group 6-7 years among CHD cases, while the mean rank values of (DS, MS, FS and DMFS) were higherat age group 12 years with statistically high significant difference among age group. The mean rank values of alltypes of treatment needs were recorded to be higher among CHD cases than control group, except for children notreatment needs, these differences were statistically highly significant. Also this study found that the mean rankvalues of caries experience (ds, ms, fs and dmfs) were higher among wasted than well nourished CHD cases withstatistically highly significant for dmfs. Moreover, the mean rank values of all types of treatment need required werehigher among wasted CHD cases than well nourished; however, the differences were statistical highly significant.Conclusion: The study revealed that these children are “at risk” from dental disease and malnourished, the primaryfocus should be on oral hygiene instructions, the awareness of infective endocarditis and they required adevelopment of preventive programs.


Article
The Impact of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of Kindergarten Teachers on Their Oral Condition in Al-Rusafa Sector/ Baghdad-Iraq.

Authors: Israa S. Al-Atiyah --- Nada J. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 40-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Teachers are considered as dynamic force who take a pivotal position in any educational system. Since they may play a significant role in passing the preventive information and health promotion, it is important that their own oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices conform to the professional recommendations. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among kindergarten teachers, and their impact on teachers’ oral health condition in Al-Rusafa Sector, Baghdad, Iraq.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 80 kindergarten teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among these teachers. This questionnaire format contains two parts that deals with oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of teachers, and this was followed by clinical oral examination for all the teachers. Simple random sampling technique was employed for the selection of the study participants. Descriptive analysis was done and data was analyzed using Bonferonni t-test and ANOVA test.Results: Teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete knowledge regarding oral health. More than 85.0% of teachers were aware of preventive measures to keep good oral health and knew the bad influence of neglecting the oral hygiene. About 65.0% of teachers had the awareness about dental plaque composition and its bad effects. Meanwhile, 45.0% of them were aware about the signs of tooth decay, also 32.5% were aware about the benefits of regular correct brushing on the gingiva. No obvious differences were noticed regarding teachers’ DMFS, plaque and gingival indices mean values in association to the level of teachers’ knowledge, however, a positive relation were found between favorite attitude and practices and mean values of DMFS, plaque and gingival indices.Conclusions: The studied kindergarten teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete oral health knowledge with many of them adopting poor attitude and practices. There is a definite and immediate need for an integral educational program for kindergarten teachers on basic oral health knowledge and favorable practices. Moreover, teachers’ healthy practices can affect their oral health condition positively.


Article
The Impact of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of Kindergarten Teachers on Their Oral Condition in Al-Rusafa Sector/ Baghdad-Iraq.

Authors: Israa S. Al-Atiyah --- Nada J. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 40-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Teachers are considered as dynamic force who take a pivotal position in any educational system. Since they may play a significant role in passing the preventive information and health promotion, it is important that their own oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices conform to the professional recommendations. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among kindergarten teachers, and their impact on teachers’ oral health condition in Al-Rusafa Sector, Baghdad, Iraq.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 80 kindergarten teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among these teachers. This questionnaire format contains two parts that deals with oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of teachers, and this was followed by clinical oral examination for all the teachers. Simple random sampling technique was employed for the selection of the study participants. Descriptive analysis was done and data was analyzed using Bonferonni t-test and ANOVA test.Results: Teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete knowledge regarding oral health. More than 85.0% of teachers were aware of preventive measures to keep good oral health and knew the bad influence of neglecting the oral hygiene. About 65.0% of teachers had the awareness about dental plaque composition and its bad effects. Meanwhile, 45.0% of them were aware about the signs of tooth decay, also 32.5% were aware about the benefits of regular correct brushing on the gingiva. No obvious differences were noticed regarding teachers’ DMFS, plaque and gingival indices mean values in association to the level of teachers’ knowledge, however, a positive relation were found between favorite attitude and practices and mean values of DMFS, plaque and gingival indices.Conclusions: The studied kindergarten teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete oral health knowledge with many of them adopting poor attitude and practices. There is a definite and immediate need for an integral educational program for kindergarten teachers on basic oral health knowledge and favorable practices. Moreover, teachers’ healthy practices can affect their oral health condition positively.


Article
Dental caries in relation to salivary parameters and immunoglobulins among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children

Authors: Jassem T. Alkhafaji --- Sulafa K. El-Samarrai --- Nada J. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 118-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Low caries – experience in Down's syndrome individuals was observed. These observations have been
questioned by many researchers whether they are inherently resistant to caries or not. Therefore, the aim of this study
was to measure the changes in the level of pH, flow rate, buffer capacity as well as IgA and IgG in stimulated saliva
and their relation to dental caries among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children.
Materials and Methods: Fifty institutionalized children with Down's syndrome and 50 normal children aged 7-10 years
old were included in this study. DMFS and dmfs indices were assessed according to Muhlemann's criteria and
stimulated whole saliva samples were collected. The average salivary flow rate was measured from the total volume,
and salivary pH and buffer capacity was determined using pH meter. Salivary IgA and IgG levels were determined
by single radial immunodiffusion technique. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.
Results: The DMFS and dmfs scores were significantly lower in Down's syndrome children than the control group (P<
0.01, P< 0.001respectively). A slightly higher value of pH was found among study compared to the control group (P>
0.05). Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in Down's syndrome children (P< 0.001), while buffer capacity was
significantly higher in those group (P< 0.01). Salivary IgA and G were significantly higher in Down's syndrome children
(P< 0.001).
Conclusion: This study suggests that Children with Down's syndrome present a better buffer capacity which may
explains a lower caries – experience compared to normal children.
Key words: Down's syndrome, dental caries, salivary secretory IgA. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):118-124)

Keywords


Article
Evaluation of the relationship between caries–experience and nutrients intake in children with Down's syndrome

Authors: Jassem T. Alkhafaji --- Sulafa K. El-Samarrai --- Nada J. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 125-130
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Lower caries – experience in Down's syndrome individuals was determined. The precise cause is still
unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the nutrients consumed in diet and their relations to caries -
experience among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children.
Materials and Methods: Fifty institutionalized children with Down's syndrome and 50 normal children aged 7-10 years
old were included in this study. DMFS and dmfs indices were assessed according to Muhlemann's criteria .The dietary
history was assessed through the use of food frequency questionnaire, it consists of food items commonly consumed
in Iraq, and this was achieved from the Nutrition Research Institution in Baghdad province. All data were analyzed
using SPSS version 13.
Results: The DMFS and dmfs scores were significantly lower in Down's syndrome children than the control group (P<
0.01, P< 0.001respectively). The mean daily intake of protein (gm) was slightly higher among the control group
compared to the study group (P> 0.05), while calcium (mg) was highly consumed by Down's syndrome children (P>
0.05). Vitamin C (mg) was significantly higher in consumption among Down's syndrome children than control group
(P< 0.01).
Conclusion: The effect of most of nutrients intake on caries – experience of primary teeth was seems to be similar
among Down's syndrome and normal children.
Key words: Down's syndrome, Dental caries, protein, calcium, vitamin C. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):125-130)

Keywords


Article
Stressful Life Events In Relation to Dental Caries and Selected Salivary Constituents Among Secondary School Students in Baghdad City

Authors: Ahmed K. Abdul-Ameer --- Nada J. Radhi --- Huda J. Abdul-Ghani
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 139-147
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: stress is the reactions of the body to forces of a deleterious nature, infections and various abnormal states that tend to disturb its normal physiological equilibrium; It is described as adverse emotions or reactions to unpleasant experiences; Thus, any real or perceived physical, social, or psychological event or stimulus that causes bodies to react or respond have deleterious effects on the general and oral health. The aims of this study were to assess the severity of dental caries among the students with different categories of stressful life events in relation to physicochemical characteristics of whole stimulated saliva.Materials and Methods: the total sample is composed of 300 students (males only) aged 17-18 years old, who are randomly selected from 10 school in the First Al-Karkh/Baghdad. The total sample classified into three categories (less stress, more stress, accumulative stress) according to stressful life events scale (SLE); the sub sample consist of 60 students who are randomly selected from the total sample each category composed of 20 students. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries was assessed according to Decay, Missed, Filled surface index (D1-4MFS) of Muhlemann (1976). Stimulated salivary samples were collected from the 60 students then measuring salivary flow rate; and chemically analyzed to determine salivary interlukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol, and total protein. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: Results recorded the highest mean rank value of (DMFS) was among the accumulative stress category of stressful life events scale followed by more stress category, the lowest mean rank value was among less stress category with statistically high significant difference (P< 0.001). For the severity of dental caries (DS) Fraction was higher among the accumulative stress category than more stress and less stress categories respectively (P< 0.001). According to the grades of lesion severity, for all fractions the higher mean rank values was among accumulative stress category with no statically differences except for (D2) was significant (P< 0.05). The data from salivary analysis showed that, the highest values of salivary total protein and (IL-6) were among the accumulative stress category, followed by more stress then the lowest value among less stress category, while the cortisol showed the opposite picture, however all these differences were not significant. DMFS correlated positively with flow rate among less stress and accumulative stress categories and negatively with more stress category, while for (DS) correlated negatively with flow rate with highly significant for more stress category and accumulative category and positively related with significant for low stress category. The salivary constituents showed negative correlation with (DMFS) for all categories of stressful life events scale except for IL-6 and cortisol were positively correlated for accumulative category with non-significant difference.Conclusion: The study revealed that, stressful life events have a significant deleterious impact on the oral and dental health including caries experience as well as the effect on the normal levels of salivary constituents

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