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Article
The effect of canal size on the penetration depth of endodontic irrigants

Author: Nawfal A Zakaria
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 84-87
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of canal size change on the penetration level of endodontic irrigant solution. Materials and Method: Five canals of different sizes (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) were tested by preparing Class I cavity in the apex. Paper point was placed in this cavity and sealed 4 mm by sticky wax. Irrigation was done by methylene blue solution 15 times for each canal size, then the paper point piece examined under stereomicroscope for discoloration and wetness. Results: The irrigant solution was penetrated up to the apical area of the all canal sizes in the all 15 irrigation trials. The volume of fluid, the degree of fairing, the use of apical patency files, and the needle depth were the other different factors improving penetration depth of irrigating solution. Conclusions: There was no effect of canalsize on the penetration level of the endodontic irrigant.


Article
An evaluation of mercury hygiene level for dentists in Mosul City

Author: Nawfal A ZAKARIA
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 69-73
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to observe the level of mercury hygiene for the dentists in Mosul city via a questionnaire given to the 98 dentists selected randomly. The data was collected and percentages were calculated. The results revealed that the dentists had some of good hygienic methods, for example, (80% of dentists were ventilate their clinic, 100% of dentists were use water cooling System during removal of old amalgam restorations), and some of unhygienic methods, for example, (33% of dentists only were uses amalgam capsules, 93% of dentists work without rubber gloves) which increase the possibility of dentists exposure to mercury toxicity. According to this results the dentists should change they manner form unhygienice type to minimize as much as possible the mercury toxicity. Seminars & lectures of continuos education are very important in this field

Keywords

Mercury hygiene --- toxicity --- amalgam


Article
Radiological accuracy in the interpretation of apical fitness in endodontics

Authors: Nazar Gh Jameel --- Nawfal A Zakaria
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 151-154
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: To compare the accuracy of right–angle paralleling and bisecting–angle radiographictechniques in the determination of apical fitness in endodontic therapy. Materials and Methods:Thirty three root canals of first upper and lower molar teeth have been used in this study. A K–filewas inserted into the canal until its tip was fit snuggly one millimeter shorter than the apex. Eachtooth then radiographed twice by the right–angle paralleling and bisecting–angle techniques. Thedistance between the file tip and the center of radiographical apex was directly measured by twoexaminers and the mean of each two measurements was recorded. Data were collected and analyzedstatistically by analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results: The mean valuerevealed that there were clear differences between the mean of measurements by the paralleltechnique (0.87mm) and that with the bisecting technique (0.39mm), when these two resultscompared with the mean of real measurements (1mm). One way analysis of variance revealed therewere significant differences in one of the three groups at p < 0.05 level. Duncan’ Multiple Range testshowed that the parallel measurements when compared with the real measurements the results showed that there was no significant difference but was significantly different from the bisecting measurements. Conclusion: It is preferable to the dentist to use the right–angle paralleling technique during root canal treatment, where it gives more accurate result for estimation of the working length.

Keywords

Parallel --- bisecting --- apical fitness


Article
The Effect of Two Endodontic Rotary Systems in Root Canal Preparation on Apical Microleakage

Authors: Sabah A Ismail --- Nawfal A Zakaria --- Manal A Sultan
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-43
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the apical sealing ability where the canals are pre-paid by two rotary NiTi systems . Materials and Methods: Thirty-six extracted human teeth with sin-gle root cut there crowns at the cemento-enamel junction CEG. The working length was determined for each tooth. The teeth were divided in to (3)groups ten of each . Group I the teeth were instrumented with ProTaper NiTi then the teeth obturated with matched-taper single cone. Group II of teeth were instrumented with RaCe NiTi rotary instrument and then obturated with matched-taper single cone. Group III were instrumented by hand instruments K-files and obturated by the lateral condensation techniques. Six teeth were divided as positive and negative control group three for each one . Tgadeseal was used as root canal sealer in this study. Adye penetration method was used to evaluate the apical seal using steromicroscope at 40X magnification. One-way analysis of variance and Duncan's test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in Microleakge between the two different rotary instrument each ProTaper and RaCe. While there was significant difference between the rotary instrument and the Hand instrument K-files. Conclusions: The use of the NiTi rotary instrument for root canal preparation showed the least apical microleakage, in compaired with hand instrument


Article
Efficiency of diode laser and sodium hypochlorite as root canal disinfectant against Enterococcus Faecalis: An In vitro study

Authors: Mahmoud Y.M. Taha --- Nawfal A. Zakaria --- Nagwan F. Shehab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 330-338
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objectives: The main objective of the current in vitro study is to compare the antimicrobial efficiency of diode laser 1064nm at different output powers and times with sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations and times against E. faecalis when used as root canal disinfectant. Materials and methods: 140 human extracted single-rooted teeth were decoronated to a length 14mm from the apical foramen to the cervical border of the root, then adjusted working length to 13mm, autoclaved and inoculated with a suspension of E. faecalis at a concentration 4×105 cfu and incubated at 37˚C for 24 hours. Samples were divided into 14 groups each group consisted of 10 prepared roots, sixty samples were irrigated with NaOCl solution at different concentrations and times. Sixty samples were irradiated at different powers at the total irradiation time 30 and 60 sec, the remainder twenty samples were control positive and negative groups. Results: All concentrations, powers and times for both diode laser 1064nm and NaOCl had significant antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis. 5.25% NaOCl at both 2 minutes and 5 minutes had the highest antimicrobial effect with no significant differences from 3W laser/10sec and 2.5W/10sec for (6 cycles) but significantly different from 3W/5sec (6 cycles). The lowest effect was 0.5% NaOCl/2min that significantly different from all other groups. Conclusion: Diode laser device seems to be highly suitable for killing E. faecalis as NaOCl irrigant in root canals if appropriate energy and irradiated time used


Article
Sealing Ability of Different Retrograde Filling Materials

Authors: Raghad A Al-Askry --- Neam N Al-Yousifany --- Nawfal A Zakaria
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2009 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 38-50
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of different concentrations of alcoholic
extract of Olive Leaves solution (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%) in an in vitro.It also to determines
the time required for the most effective concentration of Olive Leaves to start the effect in selected
microorganisms, and to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of most effective concentrations of alcoholic
extract of Olive Leaves solution in an in vivo study as a root canal irrigant. Materials and Methods:
The antimicrobial effect of Olive Leaves (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite,
and normal saline were determined in vitro by using broth microdilution method. The direct exposure
test was used to evaluate the time required for 0.8% of Olive Leaves to start their antimicrobial effect
on the selected microorganisms. In an in vivo study, 36 uniradicular teeth with necrotic pulps were
chosen. The patients were divided randomly into three groups, 12 patients for each group as in the
following: Group I: alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves at 0.8%. Group II: sodium hypochlorite solution
at 2.5% as a positive control. Group III: normal saline as a negative control. Bacteriological samples
were obtained from the canal at the beginning of the first appointment; at the beginning of the second
appointment; at the end of the second appointment; at the beginning of the third appointment using
sterile wet paper point. Results: The Results showed that Olive Leaves at (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%),
and sodium hypochlorite had a significant antimicrobial effect against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
recovered from teeth with necrotic pulps. While the normal saline and 0.1% Olive Leaves had no
significant antimicrobial effect. As for Olive Leaves exract. The best antimicrobial effect was noticed
at 0.8%, which showed a significant difference from other concentrations of Olive Leaves,but no
significant difference from that of sodium hypochlorite. The results of this test showed that 2.5%
sodium hypochlorite and 0.8% Olive Leaves had immediate effect on all selected microorganisms. The
results revealed that 0.8% alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves solution had a significant antimicrobial
effect when utilized clinically as an endodontic irrigant, which was not significantly differ from sodium
hypochlorite but significantly different from normal saline. Conclusions: Olive Leaves alcoholic
extract solution at 0.8% was an effective antimicrobial agent when used as an irrigant in endodontic
treatment of teeth with necrotic pulps.

Keywords


Article
Microleakage of Repaired Amalgam

Authors: Neam N. Al–Yousifany --- Nawfal A. Zakaria --- Raghad A. Al–Askry
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 44-49
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This invitro study designed to investigate the effect of bonding agent on amalgam repaired with either spherical or admixed alloy. Material and Methods: Cl I cavity preparations were made on theocclusal surface of hundred and twelve extracted human premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups, 56 cavities filled with spherical amalgam and the other 56 cavities filled with admixedamalgam, after aging of restorations, buccal half of the previously placed restorations were removed and each group was divided into two subgroup according to the lining material used. The final numberwere eight groups of 14 teeth in each. All specimens were thermocycled for 500 times with 15 second dwell time. The samples were stained with 2% methylene blue, sectioned and evaluated for dye penetration.The data were analyzed by Fisher Freeman Halton test.Results: There was a significant differences in microleakage of bonded and non–bonded specimens, the use of bonding agent significantly increase the microleakage of repaired amalgam. Repairing amalgam with similar alloy type significantly reduce the microleakage.Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, repairing amalgam with bonding agent is acceptable but significantly less microleakage can observed when amalgam repaired without bonding agents. malgam alloy can repaired with different types of alloy, but better marginal seal accomplished when the same types of alloy used for repair

Keywords


Article
Handpiece asepsis among dental practitioners in Mosul City

Authors: Talal H Al–Salman --- Nawfal A Zakaria --- Moataz Gh Al–Shaekh Ali
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-11
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To investigate the incidence of handpiece asepsis in general dental practice in Mosul City and toevaluate the problems associated with routine handpiece sterilization which are commonly needed bythose practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect the informationabout handpiece asepsis techniques performed by dentists. One hundred twenty dentists in Mosul Citywere randomly selected and the data were analyzed. Results: About 55.8% of the respondents knowabout the importance of handpiece sterilization, but no one do ideal sterilization between each patientdue to absence of sufficient number of handpiece and lack of autoclave system in clinics. No onedisinfect the handpiece scientifically; 59.38% smear the handpiece between each patient by one of theantiseptic solutions. Conclusion: Handpiece asepsis in Mosul dental clinics is poor. Most of dentistsdepend on disinfection by disinfectant solution to prevent cross infection by handpieces. Most dentists,because of their poor equipment in both private and national clinics, cannot sterilize handpieces aftereach patient.


Article
The oral and dental health status among people in Sharkhan village

Authors: Mu,taz GH ALI --- Talal H AL-SALMAN --- Nawfal A ZAKARIA
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 166-173
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

A survey of (213) subjects from Sharkhan village near Mosul city was involved by questioner to evaluate the methods used to maintain the oral and dental health and involved also a clinical examination for the sample to evaluate the incidence of dental carries according to G.V Black classification. The study showed that only (1.66%) of Sample were visit the dentist regularly, (53.33%) were visit the dentist on need only and (45.01%) never visit the dentist. A bout the methods used to maintain the oral hygiene, the questioner showed that (61.92%) of sample never used tooth brush, (15%) used the brush regularly, while (23.08%) brushing there teeth intermittently. The questionnaire explained that (28.43%) using mouth wash, (4.68%) using dental floss, (109) using picks and only (3.84%) using wood stick (Miswak). The examination showed that tooth (23.27%) of sample having (1-3) carious teeth, (34.06%) having (46) carious teeth and this mean that (3.16% 0 of sample were caries free. The pits and fissures caries was the type of highest percentage (67.06%) followed by proximal caries (22.8%) and other types of classification were less.

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