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Article
THE APPLICATION OF RHETORICALQUESTION TO SURAT AL-ZUMAR

Author: Asst. Prof. RIYADH TARIQ KADHIM AL-AMEEDI
Journal: for humanities sciences al qadisiya القادسية للعلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19917805 Year: 2005 Volume: 8 Issue: 3-4 Pages: 11-28
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract


Languages have different means of communication, some of which are verbal and nonverbal. For the sake of expressing, stating, asking, emphasizing certain types of information , we sometimes tend to use some of these verbal or nonverbal means either directly or indirectly. Therefore, scholars and rhetoricians have studied most of these means and the properties that can affect speakers to select a highly effective discourse in order to get a successful understanding of meaning in its literal sense as well as to choose the correct lexis to unambiguously comprehend the intended meaning. They also tackle the ways of getting a persuasive discourse by using different expressions, some of which are syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, poetic, etc. One of these expressions is Rhetorical Question (henceforth RQ).

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Article
PROMISE AND THREAT IN ENGLISH AND ARABICRELIGIOUS TEXTS

Author: Asst. Prof. RIYADH TARIQ KADHIM AL-AMEEDI HASHIM ALIWEY MOHAMMED
Journal: for humanities sciences al qadisiya القادسية للعلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19917805 Year: 2005 Volume: 8 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 327-368
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The speech act of threatening may be uttered for many reasons, some of which involve intention or capacity to commit a violent act or a true threat.
Some lexicographers such as Collins (1987:123), Pearsal (1998:1930) and Hornby (2000:1408) define threat as a declaration of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage, or other hostile action on someone in retribution for something done or not done. Some legislators of civil law, Fein et al, (1995:1), suggest that a statement is a true threat when a reasonable person making the statement in context would foresee that such a statement would be interpreted by those to whom it is communicated as a serious expression of an intent to bodily harm or assault. They believe that threat of violence may arise from feelings or ideas that range from one person to another. Added to this, speech may be put in the realm of threatening when the goal of the speech is to end a legal activity through violence with attempt to injure or intimidate (ibid).

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Article
The Role of Verbless Clauses as a Stylistic Marker in Selected Works by Woolf, Joyce, Mansfield and Synge, Daviot, and Priestly

Authors: . Riyadh Tariq Kadhim Al-Ameedi --- Dunya Mohammad Miqdad Ijam
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2007 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 138-146
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Verbless clauses offer one concise formal means of writing which is especially suitable for the purpose of writing where brevity and economy are sought. The important question is how far such verbless constructions can function as a stylistic marker serving to differentiate one author's style from another i.e. Woolf's,, Joyce's, Mansfield's, and Synge's, Daviot's and Priestley's style. This is the question which this study tries to give an adequate answer in terms of statistical analysis and methods.

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Article
PROMISE AND THREAT IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC RELIGIOUS TEXTS: A PRAGMATIC TUDY

Author: RIYADH TARIQ KADHIM AL-AMEEDI رياض طارق كاظم العميدي
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2012 Volume: 1 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 9-104
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

1- The analysis shows that the SAs of promising andthreatening in both English and Arabic can be appliedto religious texts by analyzing their FCs. This meansthat religious texts can be regarded as acts of communication.2- It has been found that in most cases of English texts,the performative verbs of promising are expressed implicitlyby the modal verbs ‘will’ and ‘shall’ as well asthe conditional form; while in Arabic texts promisingis expressed explicitly as well as implicitly by differentlexical, semantic, and pragmatic forms. Thus one canconclude that the SA of promising is performed moreexplicitly in Arabic texts than in English.3- The study shows also that the SA of promising in Arabicculture does not always imply a commitment to dosomething to the H, as in English culture. Thus it canbe used for the purpose of terminating the conversationbetween the participants, and to satisfy culturalexpectations or to save face.4- As for the performative verb of threatening, the analysisshows that in both languages threat is mainly expressedimplicitly by different syntactic and semanticforms. This fact reveals that both languages have asimilar point of view as to the implicit nature of the A ofthreatening.5- The study finds out also that threat in both English andArabic cannot only be determined by the declarativeform since it can be expressed in more than one structuresuch as imperative, prohibitive, and interrogative.6- Concerning the tense of the performative verbs ofpromising and threatening, English and Arabic are differentin using the performative verbs. The study revealsthat English performative verbs of these two actscan be expressed only by using the present tense;while Arabic tends to use the present or/and the pasttense. Moreover, Arabic can use some past verbs toexpress a promise or a threat in given contexts.7- The study has arrived at a significant conclusion thatboth acts of promising and threatening have beenfound to be closely related in both languages since theA of threatening is derived from the same illocution,i.e., promising. It is also concluded that both acts canshare some FCs and some syntactic forms. The differencesbetween the two languages behind using theformula ‘I promise you’ to express a threat can be attributedto the following points:a-English tends to avoid using the formula ‘I threatenyou’ by a euphemistic formula ‘I promise you’ owing to thefact that this formula of threatening is rarely accepted asa performative and has a pragmatic restriction or an offensivemeaning in English culture.b-Arabic tends to use the performative verb ‘ وعد ’ (promise)to express a threat since it has the strongest degreeof commitment of the S, and to emphasize the degree ofpunishment in a metaphorical way.

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Article
Generalized Conversational Implicature in English and Arabic Religious Texts: A Contrastive Study

Author: Riyadh Tariq Kadhim Al-Ameedi رياض طارق كاظم العميدي
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2013 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 Pages: 17-66
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

A generalized conversational implicature (GCI) is an inferencegenerated by a violation of a maxim, a failure to perform a maxim,particularly the first maxim of Quantity on the one hand, and byindirectness conditions, especially those indicative conditionals ordisjunctives with non-truth functional grounds on the other (Grice,1989: 38, 61).As for the generalized conversational implicature, two models,Grice›s and that of الجرجاني , are to be considered for the purposeof comparison between English and Arabic religious texts in thepresent study. GCI in Arabic is mainly embodied in « المجاز المرسل »(transformational allegory) which الجرجاني propounds under « اللفظو النظم » (utterance and syntagm).This research aims at:1. Tracing similarities and differences between English andArabic as far as the notion of GCI is concerned.2. Finding a common criterion for the pragmatic analysis of GCIin English and Arabic religious texts.3. Identifying the indication of GCI in selected religious texts inEnglish and Arabic.It is hypothesized that:1. Points of accord can be observed between Grice and الجرجانيin their propounding of the generalized conversationalimplicature.2. Religious texts carrying generalized conversational implicatures are exposed to be more economic and moreeffective.3. Generalized conversational implicatures can lead to purposesof either faviourable or unfaviourable implications.The following are the steps to be followed in the study:1. Surveying the notion of GCI in English and Arabic.2. Describing English and Arabic data of generalizedconversational implicature, using the models which yielddescriptions of either language.3. Applying the notion of GCI to English and Arabic religioustexts selected from The New Testament and the GloriousQur›an.4. Investigating the aspects of similarity and difference of thisnotion in both English and Arabic.The findings of the investigation validate the above hypotheses.

ان المضامين الكلامية العامية هي استنتاجات ذهنية تستنبط من معنى الكلامتلائماً مع مقتضى الحال المؤدي الى قصد المتكلم وغرضه و يٌحدثها زيغ الاعراب،اذ تأخذ هذه الدراسة بعين الاعتبار المضمون الكلامي العامّي الذي يندرج ضمن. » نَظْمُ الكَلِم «يعد هذا البحث دراسة مقارنة عن المضمون الكلامي استنادا الى ما جاء بهفي اللغة الانكليزية والجرجاني في اللغة العربية، مطبقاً على النصوص الدينية Griceالانكليزية والعربية. ولذلك تحاول الدراسة بلوغ الاهداف الآتية. )أ( وصفوالجرجاني من اجل اقامة اساساً Grice المضمون الكلامي العامي حسب ما جاء بهللمقارنة بين اللغتين. )ب( تطبيق النتائج الحاصلة من )أ( في تحليل النصوصالدينية الانكليزية و العربية.لتحقيق هذه الاهداف، قُدمت الفرضيات الاتية: )أ( ان المضامين الكلاميةكمفهوم مستقصاة في اللغتين الانكليزية و العربية تحتمل اوجه شبه بين اللغتين.)ب( الايجاز والتأثير هو ما يدفع المتكلم الى اقامة الفاظ ذو مضامين كلامية. )ج(ينتج عن المضمون الكلامي اما غرض مستحسن او غير مستحسن. اسفرت نتائجالبحث عن اثبات جميع هذه الفرضيات من حيث تطابق النتائج مع الفرضياتالموضوعة والاهداف المرجوة من الدراسة.


Article
Iraqi EFL Learners’ Recognitionof the Past Tense Forms Used to Express Future

Authors: RIYADH TARIQ KADHIM AL-AMEEDI --- SHAHLA ABDUL-KADHIM HADI
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: 15 Pages: 391-408
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Tense in verbal phrase is connected with temporal reference; however, the latter is not always identified in terms of the tense form . For instance, though the past tense always imposes a restricted temporal reference represented by past reference. It can also be used to express(future -in the past- meaning)


Article
The Use of 'Praise' Speech ActIn Selected Texts of the Holy Bible

Author: Asst.Lecturer. Iman Khudhair Al-Abodi & Asst.Prof.Dr. Riyadh Tariq Kadhim Al-Ameedi & Lecturer. Dr.
Journal: for humanities sciences al qadisiya القادسية للعلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19917805 Year: 2007 Volume: 10 Issue: 3-4 Pages: 7-16
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Abstract
Human beings living in a community interact with each other everyday and friction becomes inevitable. In order to reduce friction and maintain peace and social harmony, each society has developed certain sets of rules. These rules, as called by Lakoff (1979); are "politeness rules". Praise is, in fact, part of the positive politeness strategies which people always need to give them support and confidence. It represents a social strategy in that the speaker attempts to create rapport with the addressee by expressing approval.
For the sake of presenting and discussing the act of praising whether explicit or implicit, this research aims at proving the linguistic devices of praise in selected texts of the Holy Bible focusing on three aspects: pragmatics, semantics and syntax.

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Article
A PRAGMATIC STUDY OF EUPHEMISM IN SHAKESPEARE'S Measure For Measure
) دراسة تداولية لاسلوب التلطف في مسرحية الصاع بالصاع لويليم شكسبير (

Authors: PROF.Dr. RIYADH TARIQ KADHIM AL-AMEEDI --- Researcher: MUHAMMAD HUSSEIN الباحث محمد حسين حمزة
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 19-61
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

Euphemism is a common language phenomenon used to replacea direct, offensive, annoying, and prohibited word or expressionwith a roundabout, inoffensive, pleasant, and acceptable oneso as to save both the speaker’s and hearer’s face or third partyfrom any loss.Euphemism serves many functions; it may be used to soften thetaboos (sex, religion, death, disease, pregnancy, and excrement), todeceive people (this is common in political situations), to show politeness,humour, solidarity and respect. In Shakespeare's Measurefor Measure, these functions and many others are taken into account.This study attempts to achieve the following aims: (i) finding amodel of pragmatic analysis of euphemism for Measure for Measure,(ii) identifying what euphemistic expressions used in this play,(iii) illustrating how context helps understand the euphemisticexpressions in the play, (iv) knowing the reason(s) behind characters'infringement of Grice’s Cooperative Principle’s conversationalmaxims and (v) showing how the subjects of Measure for Measuresuch as sex, religion, death, disease, pregnancy, and excrement aremirrored through the employment of euphemism. The followinghypotheses have been suggested:(1) the interpretation of euphemism in Measure for Measuregreatly relies on context, (2) the characters of the play use euphemismdeliberately, (3) often euphemism serves more than one functionin one utterance and (4) the subjects of sex and pregnancy aregranted great interest in Measure for Measure than others (disease,religion, death, excrement).The conclusions of the research validate the above hypotheses

التلطف ظاهرة لغوية شائعة تستعمل لغرض استبدال كلمة او عبارة مباشرة،اومهينة، او مزعجة، اومحرمة بكلمة غير مباشرة، او غير مؤذية، او لطيفة، او مقبولةلغرض حفظ ماء وجه المتكلم والمستمع، او اي طرف ثالث من اي ضرر، او احراج.ظاهرة التلطف تقوم بالعديد من الوظائف:اذ تستعمل لتلطيف الموضوعاتالمحرمة )الجنس والدين والموت والمرض والحمل والغائط(. كذلك تستعمللتضليل الناس )وهي شائعة في المواقف السياسية(. فضلا عن ذلك توظف لاظهارالادب والفكاهه وتقوية الاواصر والاحترام. هذه الوظائف وغيرها استعملت فيمسرحية شكسبير العين بالعين.تحاول الرسالة الحالية تحقيق الاهداف التالية: ) 1( ايجاد نظرية تحليلية تداوليةلظاهرة التلطف في مسرحية العين بالعين، ) 2( تحديد نوعية التعابير الملطفة التيتستعمل في مسرحية العين بالعين، ) 3( توضيح اهمية السياق في فهم التعابير الملطفةفي المسرحية المذكورة، ) 4( معرفه السبب او الاسباب التي جعلت الشخصياتتنتهك مبدا التعاون وقوانيين الحوار، ) 5( بيان كيفية انعكاس موضوعات المسرحية)الجنس والدين والموت والمرض والحمل والغائط( من خلال استعمال التلطف،وقد اقترحت الدراسة الفرضيات التالية:1. فهم التلطف في المسرحية يعتمد السياق بصورة كبيرة.2. تستعمل الشخصيات في المسرحية التلطف بصورة مقصودة.3. غالبا ما يؤدي التلطف اكثر من وظيفة في الجملة الواحدة.4. موضوعات الجنس والحمل شكلت اهتمام كبيرا في مسرحية العين بالعينعن بقية الموضوعات )المرض والدين والموت والغائط(.وان استقصاء المسرحيتين اثبت صحة الفرضيات أعلاه.

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Article
A Pragmatic Study of Curse in Al-Sayyeda Zeinab’s(PBUH) Sermon to Yezid
دراسة تداولية للعن في خطبة السيدة زينب الى يزيد

Authors: Prof. Dr. Riyadh Tariq Kadhim Al- Ameedi --- Zina Abdul- Hussein Khudhair
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 19-44
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

Curse is an appeal to Allah, Most Praised and Most Glorified, asking for His punishment against someone. The act of cursehas been studied psychologically , sociologically, linguistically andeven pragmatically, but the major concern of such studies dealswith curse from Allah, Most Praised and Most Glorified , to people.Accordingly, this study attempts to deal with the act of curseuttered by someone who suffers a lot from someone else, her sufferingleads her to express a wish that Yezid is to incur misfortuneas the sayyeda Zeinab curses him due to the harm that he causesto her.Keywords: Pragmatics, Curse, Al- Sayyeda Zeinab(PBUH), andPragma- Rhetorical Strategies.

ملخص البحثاللعن هو احتكام الى الله سبحانه وتعالى طلبا منه عقوبة شخص ما. دُرِسَفعل اللعن نفسيا واجتماعيا ولغويا وتداوليا ولكن المحور الرئيس لما تناولته هذهالدراسات هو اللعن من الله سبحانه وتعالى الى الناس. وفقا لذلك تحاول هذهالدراسة تناول فعل اللعن الذي يصدر من شخص عانى الكثير من شخص اخر اذدفعتها هذه المعاناة للتعبير عن رغبة من سوء الحظ ان تحدث لهذا الشخص. تلعنيزيد بن معاوية بسبب الضرر الذي كان يسببه لها . h السيدة زينب

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Article
A PRAGMATIC STUDY OF RHETORICAL - QUESTIONS IN SHAKESPEARE’S TWELFTH NIGHT AND HAMLET
دراسة واقعية للمسائل الخطابية في روايتي هاملت والليلة الثانية عشر لشكسبير

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This paper is an attempt to study rhetorical questions (RQs) in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night and Hamlet. The study is hoped to achieve the following aims: investigating the numbers, employments and the functions of RQs in the two plays; showing the most common pragmatic functions of RQs from both Speech Act and Argumentation points of view; examining the influence of context on the pragmatic interpretations of RQs; and displaying how one function is used for different literary purposes in these plays. To achieve these aims, it is hypothesized that: RQs are used more often in Hamlet than in Twelfth Night for different employments and functions; from Speech Acts point of view, rebuke is the most common function, whereas from the Argumentation point of view, fallacy of argument appeal to personal involvement is the most common one;pragmatic functions of RQs in the plays vary according to their contexts; one function is used for different literary purposes in the plays

هذه الورقة هي محاولة لدراسة دراسة واقعية للمسائل الخطابية في روايتي هاملت والليلة الثانية عشر لشكسبير (RQs). ومن المؤمل الدراسة إلى تحقيق الأهداف التالية: التحقيق في الأرقام، وتوظيفات وظائف RQs في المسرحيات اثنين؛ تبين وظائف براغماتية الأكثر شيوعا من RQs من كل من قانون الكلام ونقاط الجدال نظر؛ دراسة تأثير السياق على تفسيرات واقعية من RQs؛ وعرض كيفية استخدام وظيفة واحدة لأغراض أدبية مختلفة في هذه المسرحيات. لتحقيق هذه الأهداف، هو الافتراض بأن: وتستخدم في كثير من الأحيان في RQs هاملت مما كان عليه في ليلة الثاني عشر للتوظيفات وظائف مختلفة؛ من وجهة نظر القوانين الكلام، توبيخا هو الأكثر شيوعا وظيفة، في حين أن من وجهة نظر الحجج، مغالطة حجة نداء إلى المشاركة الشخصية هي الأكثر شيوعا واحد؛ تختلف وظائف براغماتية من RQs في المسرحيات وفقا لسياقاتها؛ يستخدم وظيفة واحدة لأغراض أدبية مختلفة في المسرحيات

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