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Article
A comparative study between the effects of two different antihypertensive drugs on the salivary flow rate and salivary compositions

Author: RafiL H. Rasheed رافل رشيد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study investigated the possible abnormalities and variations in salivary flow rate and compositions in two groups of patients under the effects of two different types of antihypertensive drugs (Atenolol and Captopril) one on hand compared with third group of normotensives (As control) on the other hand.Results: It was obvious that there is marked reduction in the salivary flow rate in those taken the antihypertensive drugs in comparison with control group of normotensives. Significantly elevated levels of potassium, phosphorus, and proteins had been realized as first result of this study which might be explained due to the continuous adrenergic over stimulation of salivary gland in hypertensives under taking Atenolol, magnesium in saliva appear reduced in treated hypertensives with Captopril than with Atenolol. Whereas there is dropping in the level of sodium in the two groups than in the control.


Article
Prevalence of Candida Species and Oral Candidiasis during Menstrual Cycle in a Sample of Women in Baghdad City

Authors: Aws Waleed Abbas --- Rafil H. Rasheed --- Jasim M. Karhoot
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 73-78
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Menstrual cycle define and reflect the women internal endocrine environment. Ovarian hormones, estrogens and progesterone, are not secreted in constant amounts throughout the cycle. Estrogen and progesterone have been shown to inhibit aspects of both innate and acquired immunity at the systemic or local level furthermore they have been shown to influence on maturation and keratinization of oral mucosa. So there may be possible influence of the menstrual cycle on the adherence of Candida to human oral epithelial cells, and may implicate hormonal factors in the aetiology of oral Candidiasis.OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Candida albicans and other different Candida species in the oral cavity during different periods of menstrual cycle.METHODS:One hundred and seventy six oral swabs were taken from 44 females’ patients attending dental clinic during the period from May to September2007 with age range 14-49 years old at different periods of menstrual cycle on days 5, 13, 22 and 28, which represent menstrual phase, ovulatory phase, mid-luteal phase and premenstrual phase respectively.Swabs were taken from the tongue for isolation of Candida species. The swabs were inoculated on Sabouraud’s glucose agar incubated at 37º for 72 hours; Candida species were identified by gram stain method, germ tube method and fermentation of sugar set.RESULTS:The prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity at 5th, 13th, 22nd and 28th days of menstrual cycle were 31.8%, 22.7%, 40.9% and 25% respectively. The study shows that the prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity was non-significantly higher at 22nd day of menstrual cycle.CONCLUSION:There was no significant influence of menstrual cycle on the prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity during different periods.The prevalence of Candida albicans was higher during different periods of menstrual cycle in comparison to Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis


Article
Temporomandibular disorders in association with stress among students of sixth grade preparatory and students of fifth year high schools

Authors: Toka T. Alnesary تقى الناصري --- Rafil H. Rasheed رافل رشيد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 70-74
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: A close relationship had been reported between depression, anxiety and many disease symptoms ordisorders. This is true for temporomandibular disorders which is a collective term embracing a number of clinicalproblems that involve the masticatory musculatures, temporomandibular joint and associated structures, or both. Thisstudy designed to evaluate the association of stress with temporomandibular disorders among sixth gradepreparatory students and students of fifth year of secondary school.Subjects, materials and methods: The sample's size of 404 students of sixth grade preparatory study (154males and250 females) and 360 (168males and 192females) of fifth year of secondary schools. Firstly all the students subjectedfor stress questionnaire, secondly the stressful students subjected to different combination of clinical andquestionnaire measures according to the research diagnostic criteria of temporomandibular disorders (axis I) whichhave standardized series of diagnostic tests based on clinical signs and symptoms. Data are analyzed by using Z-testand chi-square.Results: The results obtained from this study showed that no significant differences between classes in the percentageof stressful students with temporomandibular disorders according to the clinical examination but in both classes,females' students showed higher percentage of temporomandibular disorders than males of same class. Bruxism andnail biting were significantly higher among students of sixth grade.Conclusions: This study revealed that stress of studying at sixth grade has no effect on temporomandibular disordersprevalence.


Article
An Assessment of Oral Health in Hypertensive Patients Treated with HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins)

Authors: Amir A. M. Al-Joboury --- Rafil H. Rasheed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 85-89
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated, it'sclassified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension, and it increases the risk of ischemicheart disease, peripheral vascular disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Several classes of medicationscollectively referred to as antihypertensive drugs like beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, renin inhibitors and statins (HMG-CoA) reductaseinhibitor. Statin medication may have some beneficial effects when subjects have dental plaque or signs ofperiodontitis as gingival bleeding. The purpose of this study were to assess the oral health in hypertensive patients aretreated with statins in terms of salivary flow rate, pH and oral health indices.Materials and Methods: Ninety saliva specimens collected from three groups of subjects (thirty healthy patients"control" Group I), thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications without taking statins(Group II) and thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications with statins (Group III).Unstimulated saliva was collected from each patients and participants for assessment of salivary flow rate andsalivary pH.Results: Salivary flow rate is reduced in Group II and III patients compared with Group I. Significant low salivary flowrate observed in Group III patients (hypertensive treated with statins) compared with Group II (hypertensiveuntreated with statins) and Group I (healthy subjects); The median value of gingival index is significantly higher inGroup II compared with corresponding value in Group I, while it attended a significant low value in Group IIIpatients; There is no significant difference in DMF score between Group I and Group III, while a significant high scoreobserved in Group II compared with Group I ; The percent of carries restoration in patients of Group II is significantlylow compared with corresponding value of Group I . Although the percent of carries restoration in patients ofGroup III is less than corresponding value of Group I but it does not reach significant level.Conclusions: Patients using statins therapy are more likely have an improvement in gingival index, DMF score andcarries restoration. The salivary flow rate is reduced in patients treated with statins medications, statins therapy havea beneficial effect on the oral cavity


Article
Prevalence of myofascial pain in students of selected secondary schools in Baghdad city

Authors: Toka T. Alnesary --- Rafil H. Rasheed رافل رشيد --- Raja H. AL-Jubouri رجاء الجبوري --- Raya R. Al-Dafaai ريا الدفاعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 84-87
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Myofascial face pain (MFP) is painful disorder of masticatory muscles thought to be the most commontype of temporomandibular disorder (TMD).This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of MFP in students ofsecondary schools of Baghdad cityMaterials and methods: The sample comprised 242 females' students and 222 males' students of secondary schools,aged 17-18 years. The MFP evaluated according to the specific screening questionnaire of research diagnosticcriteria of temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I with clinical examination.Results: the study revealed that (50.8%) of the students had history of pain where females reported higherpercentage than males with statistical significant difference. The history of pain in muscles of mastication was higherthan joint pain in both genders. After clinical examination this study also showed that (25.4%) of students with historyof pain had MFP. The differences between both genders regarding the diagnosis of MFP were higher in females thanmales but statistically not significant.Conclusion: high percentage of students reported a history of pain which could be attributed to MFP in (25.4%) ofthe students. The prevalence of pain history and MFP was higher in females’ than males

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