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Article
Bacterial contamination and its Susceptibility in intensive care unit in Thi-qar province / Iraq

Authors: Saad L. Hamed --- Ali Taher Abbas --- Nazar Edward Nasser
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 18-25
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

To identify the cause and the source of bacterial infection among patients of intensive care unit this study had been conducted in Al-Imam Al-Hussein hospital in Thi-qar province for the period from 1st September to end of December 2011 .A total of 320 swabs and samples were collected from 17 different sites of Intensive Care Unit environment and inoculated on a normal cultural media ,then incubated at 37OC for 24 hour . The growth revealed different bacterial colonies which had been tested for their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Sixty eight of pure isolates were obtained including 24 (35.29%) Gram positive bacterial isolates, 44(64.71%) of Gram negative bacterial isolates, the highest rates (19.11%) of bacterial contamination had been found on the walls and the floor . Sensitivity tests for all isolates were done using 25 types of commonly used antibiotics in Iraq, the results revealed that the genus Enterobacter spp. had a high resistance as a Gram negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus spp. had a high resistance as a Gram positive bacteria to most of the tested antibiotics, MIC tests for 5 types of antibiotics were applied on the most resistant and the most sensitive isolates which reflect that all isolates have a low rate of MIC against Ciprofloxacin .

تم التحري عن التلوث البكتيري في مستشفى الأمام الحسين(ع) التعليمي في محافظة ذي قـار خلال الفترة الأول من شهر أيلول ولغاية نهاية شهر كانون الأول عام 2011 ، إذ جمع 320 مسحة وعينة من 17 موقع مختلف في بيئة وحدة العناية المركزة . زرعت العينات على أوساط زرعيه وحضنت في درجة حرارة 37 O م ولمـدة 24 ساعـة. اظهر نمو المستعمرات البكتيرية وجود اجناسا بكتيرية مختلفة وذلك بالتحري عن خواصها المظهرية والكيموحيوية لذا عزلت وشخصت 68 عزلة بكتيرية نقية منها 24 ( 35,29%) موجبة لصبغة كرام و44 ( 62,71%) منها سالبة لصبغة كرام . بلغ أعلى نسبة تلوث بكتيري (19,11%) وجدت في مسحات الجدران والأرضية , اختبرت حساسية العزلات لـ 25 من المضادات الحيوية. أظهرت النتائج أن Enterobacter spp. كانت لها أعلى نسبة مقاومة من البكتريا السالبة لصبغة كرام, بينما Staphylococcus spp. كانت لها أعلى نسبة مقاومة من البكتريا الموجبة لصبغة كرام . كذلك تم اختبار MIC لخمسة أنواع من المضادات الحيوية الأكثر مقاومة أو الأكثر حساسية لها من قبل العزلات المدروسة , وتبين أن جميع العزلات البكتيرية لها نسبة واطئة من قيمة MIC تجـاه Ciprofloxacin .استنتج البحث إن التلوث البكتيري في وحدة العناية المركزة لاتزال تشكل عقبة كبيرة وهي نتيجة طبيعية للخـلل الموجود في التطبيقات الدقيقـة لشروط التعقيم فيها .

Keywords

ICU --- bacterial contamination --- MIC.


Article
Occurrence of CTX-M-I Type β-lactamases Gene in Certain Gram Negative Bacteria

Authors: Ibtesam Ghadban Auda --- Sana´a Noori Hussein Al-Kakei --- Saad L. Hamed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 306-311
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:The CTX-M-type β-lactamases represent a group with a typical extended-spectrum β-lactamase(ESBL)-resistance phenotype. These enzymes, encoded by transferable plasmids. They have apreferential hydrolysis of Cefotaxime over Ceftazidime. The CTX-M-type β-lactamases have beendescribed in species of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. OBJECTIVE :This study was designed to investigate of the occurrence of CTX-M-I type in some Gram negativebacteria species isolated from clinical cases of in Iraq. METHODS: A group of Gram negative bacteria were isolated from different sources.Plasmid DNA extraction,and electrophoresis were performed. Using specific primers, CTX-M-I enzyme genes wereamplified by PCR. RESULTS: Plasmid profile of the tested isolates reveals the presence of relatively large plasmids, their Wight was more than 10 kb some isolates posses’ 3-4 kb plasmids. The results of PCR amplificationshowed the presence of CTX-I genes. All isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium(100%) are negative for CTX-M-I gene as well as most of P. aeruginosa isolates (86.7%). Incontrast, all of E. coli (100%) and most of Proteus Spp isolates were positive for CTX-M-I gene.CONCLUSION: CTX-M genes are predominant in E.coli followed by Proteus Spp. while Salmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium and P. aeruginosa isolates showed low incidence of blaCTX-M genesoccurrence. The alarming situation with dissemination of CTX-M producing isolates highlights theneed for their epidemiological monitoring and prudent use of antimicrobial agents


Article
Fluoroquinolones Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Chicken Meat Samples

Author: Sana M. Jaballah, Saad L. Hamed , Riadh A. Dalool , and Hussein H. Khanakah
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2008 Volume: 19 Issue: 3 Pages: 9-16
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

A 55 Samples of chicken meat were collected from slaughtrhouse in Baghdad city , these samples consisted of skin , breast , thigh and retail which were investigated for Campylobacter jejuni . The C. jejuni were recovered from 85.45% of the samples and 85.10% of these isolates were found to be resistant to nalidixic acid by the disc diffusion and agar dilution methods (MICs 64-256 μg /ml) , they were also resistant to the other fluoroquinolonese ; norfloxacin (MICs (128-256 μg/ml) , ofloxacin (MICs 64-128 μg/ml) , ciprpfloxacin (MICs 32-64 μg/ml), and all fourty chicken isolates of C. jejuni resistant to fluoroquinolonese were resistant to tetracycline (MICs ≥64 μg/ml) .

جمعت خمس وخمسون عينة من لحوم دجاج من مسالخ مدينة بغداد, تم فحص والتحري عن وجود بكترياCampylobacter jejuni في هذه العينات المؤلفة من الجلد والصدر والفخذ والأجزاء المقطعة الاخرى , إذتم الحصول على البكتريا المذكورة بنسبة ) 58.58 %( من مجموع العينات وان ) 58.58 %( من هذه العزلاتقد وجد بانها مقاومة للمضاد الجرثومي Nalidixic acid بوساطة طريقتي انتشار الاقراص وطريقةالتخفيف بالوسط الصلب [MICs:(64-256)μg/ml] , و كانت هذه العزلات ايضاً مقاومة للكوينولوناتالمفلورة الاخرى : نورفلوكساسين [MICs:(128-512) μg/ml] و الاوفلوكساسين [MICs:(32-128) μg/ml] والسبروفلوكساسين [MICs:(32-64) μg/ml] , فضلاً عن أن جميع عزلات بكتريا C. jejun58 عزلة( المعزولة من الدجاج المقاومة للكوينولونات المفلورة كانت مقاومة ايضاً للمضاد الحياتي (تتراسايكلين (MICs:≥64 μg/ml) .

Keywords


Article
Prevalence of bacteria isolated from patients with burn infection at a burn hospital in Baghdad and study of their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

Author: Saad L. Hamed, Khetam H. Rasool, Nadheema H. Hussein and Butheina Mahamed Taha
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-67
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The skin functions as a barrier to the external environment, damage to this barrier following a burn disrupts the innate immune system and increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the bacterial isolates and study their antimicrobial susceptibility in burned wound infections at one burn's hospital in Baghdad.Type of study:Cross-sectional study.Methods: The bacteria were identified at species level by using Analytic Profile Index (API) system and The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) technique.Results: Over a period of one year (from October 2014 to October 2015). Out of 848 patients with different degrees of burns, 186 (19.81%) positive bacterial isolates. Out of 186 bacterial isolates, the isolation rate of Gram positive was 14(7.53%) and Gram negative isolates was 172(92.47%). From those 172 Gram negative bacteria the most frequently isolated bacteria was Pseudomonas aeruginosa 60(32.26%) isolates followed by Acinetobacter baumannii 40(21.51) and all Gram positive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus 14(7.53). The most effective antibiotic on Staphylococcus aureus isolates was Vancomycin (sensitivity rate was 11(92.86%)), while the highest resistance was to Penicillin and the rate of resistance was 14(100%) followed by Ampicillin 12(85.71%). The most effective antibiotic on Gram-Negative isolates was Imipenem (sensitivity rate was 165(95.93%)) followed by Amikacin (sensitivity rate was 146(84.88%)). On the other hand the Gram negative bacteria in this study were mostly resistant to Ampicillin 164(95.35%) and Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid 157(91.28). Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were the mostly resistant isolates than other gram negative bacteria under this study.Conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated bacteria among gram negative bacteria and the most effective antibiotics on Gram-Negative and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were Imipenem and Vancomycin, respectively.

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