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Article
Preparation of Design Charts for Estimation of the Length of an Upstream Impervious Blanket in a Homogenous Earth Dam

Author: Raghad Samir Mahmood
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 7 Pages: 859-867
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Earth dams are constructed mainly from soil. A homogenous earth dam is composed of only one material. The seepage through such dams is quite high. Upstream impervious blanket is one of the methods used to control seepage through the dam foundations. Bennet's method is one of the commonly used methods to design an impervious upstream blanket. Design charts are developed relating the length of blanket, total reservoir head, total base width of the dam (excluding downstream drainage), the coefficient of permeability of the blanket material, blanket thickness, foundation thickness, and coefficient of permeability of the foundation soil, based on the equations governing the Bennet's method for a homogenous earth dam with a blanket of uniform thickness. The length of the upstream impervious blanket can be determined by using the developed charts. The length of the blanket is inversely proportional to the coefficient of permeability of the blanket material. The length of blanket is directly proportional to the total reservoir head, total base width of the dam (excluding downstream drainage), blanket thickness, foundation thickness, and coefficient of permeability of the foundation soil.

ان السد الترابي ينشا بصورة رئيسة من التربة. السد الترابي المتجانس يتركب من مادة واحدة فقط. الرشح او التسرب خلال هذه السدود عالي جدا. ان الطبقة الصماء في مقدم السد هي واحدة من الطرق المستعملة للسيطرة على التسرب او الرشح خلال اساس السد. طريقة بينت هي واحدة من اشهر الطرق المستعملة لتصميم الطبقة الصماء في مقدم السد. تم اعداد مخطط بياني يربط العلاقة بين طول الطبقة الصماء ,شحنة الخزان الكلية ,عرض قاعدة السد(ماعدا مبزل مؤخر السد) ,معامل النفاذية لمادة الطبقة الصماء ,سمك الطبقة الصماء, سمك اساس السد, ومعامل النفاذية لتربة اساس السد بالاعتماد على المعادلات التي تحكم طريقة بينيت لسد ترابي متجانس وبسمك طبقة صماء ثابت .يمكن الحصول على طول الطبقة الصماء باستعمال المخطط البياني المعد. يتناسب طول الطبقة الصماء عكسيا مع معامل النفاذية لمادة الطبقة الصماء ويتناسب طرديا مع شحنة الخزان الكلية , عرض قاعدة السد(ماعدا مبزل مؤخر السد), سمك الطبقة الصماء, سمك اساس السد, معامل النفاذية لتربة اساس السد.


Article
Mathematical Simulation of Unsteady Flow through Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Raghad Samir Mahmood --- Riyadh Zuhair Al Zubaidy
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 2912 -2928
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Water flowing through hollow fiber membrane comprises two types of flow each having its own hydraulic characteristics. The first is the flow inside the fiber channel, and the second is the flow through the fiber porous wall. Water flow through hollow fiber membrane, HFM, is unsteady nonuniform flow due to the accumulation of rejected material on the fiber surface causing a change in the hydraulic resistance along the fiber length with time. Under these conditions, a mathematical model was developed to simulate water flow through hollow fiber membrane based upon the equations governing the flow inside the fiber channel and through the fiber wall, equations governing conditions imposed by flow boundaries, and implicit finite difference technique for solving partial differential equations. The model was verified by using published laboratory experimental data. A very good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted flowrate values under the same conditions. The mathematical model was applied to three types of commercially available fiber modules to investigate variation of flux, the transmembrane pressure, the thickness of the rejected materials along the fiber length, the flowrate, and the effect of the pot length on the fiber hydraulic performance. It was found there is considerable variation in the hydraulic performance of the three types of fiber. Therefore, the mathematical model provides a tool to work on finding the optimal design of the hollow fiber membrane.

ان جريان الماء في الاغشية الليفية المجوفة يتضمن نوعين من الجريان لكل منهما خواصة الهيدروليكية. الاول جريان الماء داخل قناة الليف والثاني جريان الماء خلال جداره النفاذ. ان جريان الماء في الاوعية الليفية هو جريان غير ثابت وغير منتظم لتتغير المقاومة الهيدروليكية على امتداد الليف مع الزمن نتيجة تراكم الترسبات على سطح الليف. تحت هذه الظروف تم اعداد نموذج رياضي لمحاكاة جريان الماء خلال الليف بالاعتماد على المعادلات التي تحكم الجريان داخل قناته وخلال الجدار النفاذ له والمعادلات التي تحكم الجريان عند حدود الجريان. تم التحقق من اداء النموذج الرياضي باستخدام قياسات مختبرية منشورة ووجد بان هنالك توافق جيد بين هذه القيم والقيم المستحصلة من النموذج. استخدم النموذج في تحري تغاير التدفق والضغط عبر غشاء الليف وسمك الترسبات على امتداد الليف والتصريف الكلي واثرالطول المحكم من الليف لثلاثة انواع من الالياف المجوفة التجارية. وجد بان هنالك تفاوت كبير في الاداء الهيدروليكي للانواع الثلاث من الالياف. لذا فان النوذج الرياضي المعد يوفر الاداة للعمل على ايجاد التصميم الامثل لللالياف المجوفة.


Article
Adsorption of some Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution on Iraqi Rice Bran and Its Relation to the Physical Properties of these Metal Ions
امتزاز ايونات بعض المعادن من محاليلها المائية على سطوح نخالة الرز العراقي وعلاقته ببعض الخواص الفيزيائية لهذه الايونات

Author: Samir Mahmood Jasim سمير محمود جاسم
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 1604-1611
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Adsorption studies were carried out to test the ability of the Iraqi rice bran (Amber type) to adsorb some metals divalent cations (Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+) as an alternative tool to remove these pollutants from water. The Concentrations of these ions in water were measured using flame and flamless atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques. The applicability of the adsorption isotherm on Langmuir or Freundlisch equation were tested and found to be dependent on the type of ions. The results showed different adsorptive behavior and different capacities of the adsorption of the ions on the surface of the bran. The correlation between the amounts adsorbed and different cation parameters including (electronegativity, ionic radius, and the second ionization potential) were tested. This study showed the applicability of bran, as a cheap and available waste materials, to remove different cations from solution.

اجريت دراسة الامتزاز هذه لمعرفة قابلية نخالة الرز العراقي (نوع العنبر ) على امتزاز ايونات بعض المعادن الملوثة للماءCd 2+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn2+))تم قياس تراكيز الايونات باستعمال مطياف الامتصاص الذري . تشير النتائج الى ان خضوع امتزاز هذه الايونات الى معادلات لانكماير او فرندلج يعتمد على نوع الايون وان الكميات الممتزة من هذه الايونات وسلوكيات امتزازها تختلف باختلاف تلك الايونات . كما تمت دراسة العلاقة بين كميات الايونات الممتزة وبعض الخواص الفيزيائية لتلك الايونات مثل السلبية الكهربائية , انصاف اقطار الايونات و جهود التاين.اظهرت الدراسة امتلاك نخالة الرز لقابلية جيدة في ازالة هذه الايونات الملوثة من الماء.

Keywords

Adsorption --- Rice Bran --- Cadmium --- Copper --- Cobalt --- Iron --- Nickel --- Lead --- Zinc.


Article
Knowledge and practice about diabetes among adult diabetic patients in Erbil, Iraq
المعرفة والممارسة حول مرض السكري بين مرضى السكري البالغين في أربيل ، العراق

Authors: Samir Mahmood Othman --- Triska Kamal Khurshid
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 659-666
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Successful management of diabetes requires high degree of patient participation; this can be achieved by providing diabetic person with the knowledge and skills to perform self care on a day-to-day basis. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of diabetic patients about diabetes in Erbil city.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period of April 2011 to April 2012 at Shahid Layla Qasm health center for diabetic care in Erbil city. The study involved a convenience sample of 400 diabetic patients aged ≥ 18 years old, both male and female. A specially designed questionnaire was used for data collection, which included socio-demographic characteristic of patients and other questions related to knowledge and practice about diabetes. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis.Results: Out of 400 study subjects, 18 (4.5%) had good knowledge score, 209 (52.3%) had acceptable knowledge score, and 137 (43.3%) had poor knowledge score about the diabetes. A statistically significant association was found between knowledge levels and age of patients (P=0.02). This study also showed that, only 51 (12.8%) of patients had good practices, while 213 (53.3%) of them had acceptable practices and 136 (33.9%) had bad practices. A statistically significant association was found between practice levels with occupation (non manual skilled or semiskilled); (P value <0.001) and educational level (institute and more); (P value <0.001).Conclusion: The rate of knowledge and practice was significantly associated with participants’ occupation and educational level. Those with low and acceptable knowledge had better practice than those who had good knowledge about diabetes.


Article
Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Hawler Medical University Students
انتشار تدخين السجائر بين طلاب جامعة هولير الطبية

Authors: Khalis Bilal M.Ali --- Abubakir M. Saleh --- Samir Mahmood
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 57-62
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing countries. This study estimates the prevalence of smoking and assesses the socio-demographic correlates of smoking among Hawler Medical University students in Erbil city.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted during March - April 2007 on 600 students in Hawler Medical University. A systematic stratified sampling method was used. A special questionnaire was used. Data on age and sex of the students, name of college, number of cigarette smoked per day, and age of starting smoking were obtained.Results: out of the 587 respondents, 72 students were smokers giving a prevalence rate of 12.3%.The prevalence of smokers were much higher in males than females (23.9% and 1.9%, respectively). The highest rate of smokers was among the age group 24-26 year in both sexes. 50% of students started smoking at the age of 18-22 years.Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking is comparatively higher taking into consideration that the study was conducted on students of medical and allied health sciences and that more than half of students started smoking during study years. The study recommends integrating health awareness programmes about smoking hazards in the medical education curriculum.

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