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Article
OPTIMUM MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER PUMPING BY USING SIMULATED ANNEALING TECHNIQUE
الأدارة المثلى لضخ المياه الجوفيه بواسطة استخدام تقنيه تقويه المحاكاة

Author: Sarmad A. Abbas سرمد عبدالله عباس
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 9-19
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

A two dimensional mathematical model is developed to simulate a groundwater flow regime of the upper part of Quaternary Deposites, in the Teeb area, Missan province. The optimum management of groundwater flow is developed by a linking simulation-optimization model. In this study, MODFLOW, 98 packages are used to simulate the groundwater flow system in unconfined aquifer. This model is integrated with an optimization model (Modular Groundwater optimizer) which is based on the simulated annealying (SA). Fixed well location case was undertaken by running the model with adopted calibrated parameters. The optimum value of pumping rate estimated through this study is (108320 m3/day), this value is compared with another previous work which based on genetic algorithm GA for the same area. The results of comparison showed that the optimum value obtained by SA is higher than the one obtained from GA by 18.35% for the same piezometric head draw down that indicate, the SA gives higher value than GA in this study.

تم تطوير نموذج رياضي ثنائي الابعاد لمحاكاة جريان المياه الجوفيه للجزء العلوي لمنطقه الطيب في محافظه ميسان. طورت لمحاكاة MODFLOW,98 الاداره المثلى للجريان بواسطة دمج نموذج المحاكاة مع نموذج الامثليه. استخدم برنامج simulated جريان المياه الجوفيه للحشرج غير المحصور, ثم دمج هذا النموذج مع نموذج الامثليه المستند على تقنيه متر مكعب/يوم). تمت 108320. القيمه المثلى لمعدل الضخ التي احتسبت من خلال هذا البحث هي (annealying (SA) مقارنه هذه القيمه العظمى مع القيمه العظمى المستحصله من استخدام تقنيه الخوارزميه الجينيه genetic algorithm اعلى من نظيرتها المستخرجه SA لدراسه سابقه لنفس المنطقه. اظهرت نتائج المقارنه ان القيمه المثلى باستخدام تقنيه (GA) يعطي قيمه أعلى SA % و لنفس مديات هبوط شحنه ارتفاع في ابار المراقبه. هذا يشير الى ان 18,35 بمقدار GAبتقنيه في هذه الدراسة. GAمن


Article
Prediction of Tigris River Stage in Qurna, South of Iraq, Using Artificial Neural Networks
التنبؤ بمنسوب نهر دجلة في القرنة, جنوب العراق باستعمال الشبكات العصبيةِ الاصطناعية

Authors: Ali H. Al Aboodi --- Ammar S. Dawood --- Sarmad A. Abbas
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 13 Pages: 2448-2456
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) with back-propagation algorithm areperformed for predicting the stage of Tigris River in Qurna city, Basrah, south of Iraq. This model was adopted to investigate the applicability of ANNs as an effective tool to simulate the river stage for short term. By using the neural network toolbox in Matlab R2007b, three models are constructed as the first experiment. Multilayer percpetron with one hidden layer is used in the architecture of network. The best model is selected according to the trial and errorprocedure based on three common statistic coefficients (coefficient of correlation, root mean square error, and coefficient of efficiency). The best model from first experiment is used to predict the stage river for one, two, and three days ahead as the second experiment. Results indicated the ANNs with back-propagation algorithm are a powerful technique to predict the short term stage of Tigris River

تمت تهيئة الشبكات العصبية الصناعية باستخدام طريقة انسياب الخطأ لأعداد نموذج التنبؤ بمنسوب نهر دجلة في قضاء القرنة, محافظة البصرة, جنوب العراق. استخدم النموذج المعد للتحري عن إمكانية الشبكات العصبية الصناعية كأداة فاعلة في محاكاة منسوب النهر ثلاثة .(Matlab R2007b) للمدى القصير باستعمال صندوق عدة الشبكات العصبية في برنامج نماذج أنشأت كتجربة أولية حيث استخدمت الشبكة العصبية من النوع متعدد الطبقات لبناء معمارية الشبكة. أفضل نموذج اختير طبقا لعملية التجربة والخطأ مستندا على ثلاث معاملاتإحصائية معروفة هي (معامل الارتباط, جذر معدل الخطأ ألتربيعي, ومعامل الكفاءة). أفضل نموذج انبثق كحصيلة لنتائج المرحلة الأولى, استعمل لتنبؤ بمنسوب النهر ليوم, يومين, وثلاثة أيام لاحقة. بينت النتائج, إن الشبكات العصبية الصناعية المعايرة باستعمال طريقة انسياب الخطأ تقنية كفؤءة للتنبؤ بمنسوب نهر دجلة للمدى القصير.

Keywords

Prediction --- Tigris --- Stage --- Neural --- Networks


Article
Estimation of MeanReference Evapotranspiration in Basrah City, South of Iraq Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Sarmad A. Abbas --- Ayman A. Hassan --- Wisam Sabeeh Al-Rekabi
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2017 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 98-108
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Evapotranspiration (ET) is important for hydrological practices, water planning, and it plays an influential role in the design, operation and management of irrigation systems. There are a number of methods suggested to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Detailed meteorological data required for the equation of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (P.M) method that was adopted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as a standard method in estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo) are not often available, especially in developing countries. In this research the possibility of estimating reference evapotranspiration using fuzzy logic control in BasrahCity is studied. The four models of fuzzy logic are constructed based on the available meteorological data in BasrahCity during the period (1990-2012).Various combinations of long-term average monthly climatic data ofair temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation are used as inputs to construct four models of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic models evaluated based on root mean squared error (RMSE) and coefficient of correlation (R2).Depending on the values of RMSE and R2, model No.4 with input parameters (Tmean, Tmin, Tmax, Rh, Ws, Rn)give the best values of estimated (ETo), it gives a RMSE and Rvalues of 0.094 and 0.998 ,respectively. Fuzzy logic models have high efficiency in estimating the reference evapotranspiration values

يعتبرالتبخر النتح (ET)مهم في التطبيقات الهيدرولجيه, التخطيط المائي, كذلك فإنه يلعب دورا مؤثرا قي تصميم , تشغيل و ادرارهنظم الري. هناك عدد من الطرق المقترحه لتخمين التبخر النتح المرجعي .(ETo) لكن اداء هذه الطرق يكون مقيد باختلاف الخصائص المناخيه من منطقه الى اخرى. ان المعلومات المناخية اللازمه لحساب (ETo)بطريقة بنمن- مونتينث(Penman-Monteith Method)والتي تم اقترحها من قبل منظمة الغذاء والزراعه العالمية FAO كطريقة قياسية لحساب (ETo) عادة لا تكون متوفره وخاصة في البلدان النامية. في هذا البحث تم دراسه امكانيه تخمين (ETo) باستخدام نظريه المنطق الضبابي (Fuzzy logic theory) في مدينه البصره بالاعتماد على بيانات الارصاد الجويهللفتره(1990-2012). استخدمت في البحث مزجات مختلفة للمعدلات الشهرية طويلة الامد لمتغيرات المناخية ( الرطوبة النسبية, درجة الحرارة, سرعة الرياح و الاشعاع الشمسي) في انشاء اربعة نماذج للمنطق الضبابي.تم تقييم نماذج المنطق الضبابي (Fuzzy logic) بالاعتماد على المعاملات الاحصائية جذر معدل الخطأ التربيعي (RMSE), و معامل الارتباط (R2). بالاعتماد على قيم RMSE وR2 فإن النموذج الرابع ذو المدخلات (Tmean, TminTmax, Rh, Ws, Rn) أعطى قيم ETo الاقرب الى القيم المحسوبة بطريقة بنمن- مونتينث. كانت قيم RMSE وR2للنموذج الرابعهي 0.094 و 0.998 بالترتيب. اثبتت النتائج ان هناك كفاءه عاليهقي تخمين قيم (ETo)بأستحدام نموذج المنطق الضبابي (Fuzzy logic).


Article
MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF BASRAH CITY USING INTERMITTENT CYCLE EXTENDED AERATION SYSTEM (ICEAS)
معالجت مياه فضلاث البلديت لمدينت البصرة بىاسطت نظام التهىيت الطىيلت بدوراث متقطعت ICEAS

Authors: Wisam Sabeeh Al-Rekabi --- Abdul Hussain Abdul Kareem Abbas --- Sarmad A. Abbas
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-14
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

An Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS) offers advantages for treating sewage; such as easy operation, process flexibility, and low capital cost. The laboratory bench scale experiments were carried out treating domestic wastewater of Basrah City in fabricated ICEAS reactor of 72 L working volume. The domestic wastewater has the following characteristics (average values) pH= 7.5, Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD= 200 mg/L, Chemical Oxygen Demand COD= 410 mg/L, Total Phosphorus TP= 7 mg/L, Total Suspended Solid TSS= 272. The aim of this research was to evaluate performance of the ICEAS system for treating domestic wastewater. Experimental results showed that the efficiency of ICEAS reactor to remove COD, Ammonia, TN, and TP were 91%, 83%, 60%, and 72%, while SBR efficiency were 87%, 81%, 58%, 69%, respectively. So, removal efficiency of ICEAS reactor was slightly higher than SBR. Comparison the effluent quality of ICEAS reactor with WHO, European and China discharge standards into surface waters were explained that COD concentration (37 mg/L) was meet to all standards (including Iraqi standard), while Ammonia NH3-N (7.87 mg/L), Total Nitrogen TN (17.16 mg/L) and TP (2.84 mg/L) were to European and China but not meet to WHO standard with slightly differences.

An Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS) offers advantages for treating sewage; such as easy operation, process flexibility, and low capital cost. The laboratory bench scale experiments were carried out treating domestic wastewater of Basrah City in fabricated ICEAS reactor of 72 L working volume. The domestic wastewater has the following characteristics (average values) pH= 7.5, Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD= 200 mg/L, Chemical Oxygen Demand COD= 410 mg/L, Total Phosphorus TP= 7 mg/L, Total Suspended Solid TSS= 272. The aim of this research was to evaluate performance of the ICEAS system for treating domestic wastewater. Experimental results showed that the efficiency of ICEAS reactor to remove COD, Ammonia, TN, and TP were 91%, 83%, 60%, and 72%, while SBR efficiency were 87%, 81%, 58%, 69%, respectively. So, removal efficiency of ICEAS reactor was slightly higher than SBR. Comparison the effluent quality of ICEAS reactor with WHO, European and China discharge standards into surface waters were explained that COD concentration (37 mg/L) was meet to all standards (including Iraqi standard), while Ammonia NH3-N (7.87 mg/L), Total Nitrogen TN (17.16 mg/L) and TP (2.84 mg/L) were to European and China but not meet to WHO standard with slightly differences.

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