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Article
Synthesis of Nano Crystalline Gamma Alumina from Waste Cans

Authors: Nada Sadoon Ahmedzeki --- Sattar Jalil Hussein --- Waqar Abdulwahid Abdulnabi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study waste aluminium cans were recycled and converted to produce alumina catalyst. These cans contain more than 98% aluminum oxide in their structure and were successfully synthesized to produce nano sized gamma alumina under mild conditions. A comprehensive study was carried out in order to examine the effect of several important parameters on maximum yield of alumina that can be produced. These parameters were reactants mole ratios (1.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5), sodium hydroxide concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 55%) and weights of aluminum cans (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g). The compositions of alumina solution were determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); and maximum yield of alumina solution was 96.3% obtained at 2 mole ratios of reactants, 40% sodium hydroxide concentrations and 10g of aluminum cans respectively. Gamma alumina was acquired by hydrothermal treatment of alumina solution at pH 7 and calcination temperature of 550 ºC. The prepared catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/ desorption isotherms, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed good crystallinity of alumina as described by XRD patterns, with surface area of 311.149 m2/g, 0.36 cm3/g pore volume, 5.248 nm pore size and particle size of 68.56 nm respectively.


Article
Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrodearomatization of Kerosene over high metal loading Ni w/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst
ازالة الكبريت والمركبات العطرية بالهيدروجين من الكيروسين باستخدام عامل مساعد NiW/γ-Al2O3 ذو نسبة تحميل عالية

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Abstract

The present research investigates hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomatization (HAD) of raw kerosene with 0.364 wt. % sulfur and 16.498 wt. % aromatics supplied from Al-Dura Refinery. Hydrotreating reactions were carried out in one stage reactor over high metal Ni W/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst at different temperatures 275-350oC, pressures 32-62 bar, LHSV 1-4 hr-1, and H2/HC ratios 200-500. The prepared catalyst was pre-sulfided remarkably at low temperature and high pressure to avoid risky of sintering associated with gaining the active sulfide phase at high temperatures. Results showed an obvious differences between HDS and HAD rates due to difficulty of polyaromatics saturation compared with desulfurization. Sulfur and aromatics removal were achieved from 74.9% to 95.6% and from 1% to 12.8% respectively at different operating conditions. Advanced saturation conditions were promoted the hydrogenation reaction bath and played a significant role for achieving acceptable levels of HDS and HDA. In general, HDS and HDA increased with decreasing LHSV and increasing temperature, pressure, and H2/HC ratio. Burning quality, fire hazard, and aromatics content of kerosene were characterized by measuring of smoke point, flash point, and aniline point respectively. These properties were enhanced at different hydrotreating conditions due to the skeletal conformation change of kerosene hydrocarbons during reactions.

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